Publications by authors named "S R Emam"

81 Publications

Adjunctive Green Thermal Laser Photocoagulation for Treatment of Resistant Infectious Keratitis.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 14;15:2447-2453. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of green thermal laser as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of resistant infectious keratitis (IK) in the Delta region of Egypt.

Methods: A retrospective case series of 150 patients, within a 4 year duration, with resistant IK, who failed to respond to specific medical treatment alone for 7 days, were included. They all received green thermal laser photocoagulation treatment to the cornea as an adjunctive to medical treatment.

Results: Forty-eight women and 102 men were included in this study with a mean age of 46.2 ± 7.7 years. Common risk factors associated with IK included trauma by material of plant origin and contact lens wear. The mean duration of healing was 2.87 ± 0.7 weeks. A single session of green thermal laser application was adequate in 138 IK cases (92%), while 12 cases (8%) required an additional session a week later. Supplementary amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) was required in 26 cases (17.3%). Two patients (1.3%) required tectonic keratoplasty for corneal perforation. The final corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was counting fingers (CF) or better in 78 patients (52%). No decrease of CDVA was reported throughout the study.

Conclusion: Green thermal laser is a safe and effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of resistant infectious keratitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S312674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215689PMC
June 2021

Novel promising reproductive and metabolic effects of Cicer arietinum L. extract on letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome in rat model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 7;278:114318. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, 12211, Egypt. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Chickpea was used in both greek and indian traditional medicine for hormonal related conditions as menstrual induction, acceleration of parturation, treatment of retained placenta and stimulation of lactation. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) sprout isoflavone isolates exhibited reasonable estrogenic activities. Isoflavones, a subtype of phytoestrogens, are plant derivatives with moderate estrogenic activity that tend to have protective effects on hormonal and metabolic abnormalities of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Aim Of The Study: In this study, we investigated the effect of UPLC/ESI-MS characterized Cicer arietinum L. seeds ethanol extract (CSE) on ovarian hormones, oxidative response and ovarian histological changes on induced PCOS rat model.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups including negative control, PCOS, and treatment groups. PCOS was induced using letrozole (1 mg/kg) daily orally for 21 days. Each treatment group was treated with one of the following for 28 days after induction of PCOS: clomiphene citrate (1 mg/kg), and CSE at 250 and 500 mg/kg. Ovaries and uteri were excised, weighed and their sections were used for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, antioxidant assays and histomorphometric study of the ovaries. The antioxidant assays, histopathological examination, hormonal and metabolic profiles, and Cyp11a1(steroidogenic enzyme) mRNA expression were measured.

Results: In all treatment groups, ovarian weight was significantly decreased despite having no significant effect on uterine weight. Histomorphometric study in the treatment groups revealed a significant decrease in the number and diameter of cystic follicles, a significant increase in granulosa cell thickness while, thickness of theca cells was significantly decreased when compared to PCOS. Hormone levels, metabolic profile and antioxidant status were improved in the treatment groups. Moreover, Cyp11a1 mRNA expression was significantly downregulated in the treatment groups compared to PCOS.

Conclusions: In the current study, CSE enhanced the reproductive and metabolic disorders which were associated with PCOS induction. For the first time, we have highlighted the effect of CSE in treating PCOS and its associated manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114318DOI Listing
October 2021

Linum usitatissimum seeds oil down-regulates mRNA expression for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and Cyp11A1 genes, ameliorating letrezole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in a rat model.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 3;72(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The safety and effectiveness of nutricetics suggest that they may offer an alternative to pharmaceutical and surgical therapy for hormone-dependent disorders, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We investigated the effects of Linum usitatissimum seed oil (LSO) on ovarian functionality, its molecular targets, and the oxidative response in hyperandrogenism-induced polycystic ovary. The composition of LSO has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS). A well-established PCOS rat model orally administered with letrozole daily for 21 days was used to investigate the effect of LSO at doses of 1 and 2 mL/kg body weight for 28 days. The effect on hormonal profile and antioxidant status, histopathology (cell proliferation), and the expression ratio of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and Cyp11A1 gene were evaluated. LSO exerted beneficial effects on PCOS rat models via restoring glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), beta subunit subunit luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone levels, and histopathological scoring. Furthermore, LSO reversed the elevated StAR and Cyp11A1 genes in the PCOS rat model. This study demonstrated the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of LSO against the reproductive and metabolic disorders of PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26402/jpp.2021.1.06DOI Listing
February 2021

Increasing Tumor Extracellular pH by an Oral Alkalinizing Agent Improves Antitumor Responses of Anti-PD-1 Antibody: Implication of Relationships between Serum Bicarbonate Concentrations, Urinary pH, and Therapeutic Outcomes.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(6):844-852

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University.

Acidic extracellular pH (pHe) is characteristic of the tumor microenvironment. Several reports suggest that increasing pHe improves the response of immune checkpoint inhibitors in murine models. To increase pHe, either sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO) or citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate (KNa-cit) was chronically administered to mice. It is hypothesized that bicarbonate ions (HCO), produced from these alkalinizing agents in vivo, increased pHe in the tumor, and excess HCO eliminated into urine increased urinary pH values. However, there is little published information on the effect of changing serum HCO concentrations, urinary HCO concentrations and urinary pH values on the therapeutic outcomes of immunotherapy. In this study, we report that oral administration of either NaHCO or KNa-cit increased responses to anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibody, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, in a murine B16 melanoma model. In addition, we report that daily oral administration of an alkalinizing agent increased blood HCO concentrations, corresponding to increasing the tumor pHe. Serum HCO concentrations also correlated with urinary HCO concentrations and urinary pH values. There was a clear relationship between urinary pH values and the antitumor effects of immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibody. Our results imply that blood HCO concentrations, corresponding to tumor pHe and urinary pH values, may be important factors that predict the clinical outcomes of an immunotherapeutic agent, when combined with alkalinizing agents such as NaHCO and KNa-cit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b21-00076DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-PEG IgM production and accelerated blood clearance phenomenon after the administration of PEGylated exosomes in mice.

J Control Release 2021 06 3;334:327-334. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, 1-78-1 Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Recently, there is an increasing interest in exosomes or extracellular vesicles as potential candidates for delivering RNAs, proteins, genes, and anticancer agents. Engineering of exosome properties is rapidly evolving as a means of expanding exosome applications. PEGylation of exosomes is a technique used to improve their in vivo stability, circulation half-lives, and sometimes to allow the binding targeting ligands to the exosome exterior. According to FDA guidelines for the development of PEGylated proteins, immunological responses to PEGylated molecules and particles should be examined. In this study, we prepared PEGylated exosomes and investigated the production of anti-PEG IgM antibodies after single i.v. injections in mice. In addition, we monitored blood concentrations and tumor accumulation of a second dose of PEGylated exosomes administered after the initial dose. Single injections of PEGylated exosomes in mice induced anti-PEG IgM production in a T cell-dependent manner. The anti-PEG IgM production decreased when the injection dose of PEGylated exosomes was further increased. Anti-PEG IgM induced by injection of PEGylated exosomes decreased blood concentrations of a second dose of PEGylated exosomes and suppressed their tumor accumulation in a C26 murine colorectal cancer model. Initial injection doses of either PEGylated liposomes or PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA), both of them induced anti-PEG IgM production, also decreased the blood concentration of PEGylated exosomes. Interestingly, anti-PEG IgM induced by injection of PEGylated exosomes did not affect the blood concentration of PEG-OVA. These results imply the importance of monitoring anti-PEG IgM when repeat PEGylated exosome doses are required and/or when PEGylated exosomes are used together with other PEGylated therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.001DOI Listing
June 2021
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