Publications by authors named "S P Morozov"

451 Publications

[Adrenal imaging: anatomy and pathology (literature review)].

Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 2021 Jun 7;67(3):26-36. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Research and Practical Clinical Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies of the Moscow Health Care Department.

This literature review focuses on the normal adrenal gland anatomy and typical imaging features necessary to evaluate benign and malignant lesions. In particular, adenoma, pheochromocytoma, metastases and adrenocortical carcinoma were discussed as some of the most common lesions. For this purpose, a review of relevant local and international literature sources up to January 2021 was conducted.In many cases, adrenal incidentalomas have distinctive features allowing characterization using noninvasive methods. It is possible to suspect a malignant nature and promptly refer the patient for the necessary invasive examinations in some cases. -Computed tomography, especially with intravenous contrast enhancement, is the primary imaging modality because it enables differential diagnosis. Magnetic resonance tomography remains a sensitive method in lesion detection and follow-up but is not very specific for determining the malignant potential. Positron emission computed tomography also remains an additional method and is used mainly for differential diagnosis of malignant tumors, detecting metastases and recurrences after surgical treatment. Ultrasound has a limited role but is nevertheless of great importance in the pediatric population, especially newborns. Promising techniques such as radiomics and dual-energy CT can expand imaging capabilities and improve diagnostic accuracy.Because adrenal lesions are often incidentally detected by imaging performed for other reasons, it is vital to interpret such findings correctly. This review should give the reader a broad overview of how different imaging modalities can evaluate adrenal pathology and guide radiologists and clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14341/probl12752DOI Listing
June 2021

Supercritical water oxidation of chlorinated waste from pulp and paper mill.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 18;283:131239. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1, Acad. Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk, Russia.

The article presents the research results of the oxidation of watered toxic waste from the pulp and paper industry (sludge-lignin, the empirical formula of organic matter CHNSClO) in supercritical water-oxygen (SCW/O) fluid. The experiments were carried out using a flow tube reactor at a pressure of 25 MPa, temperature gradient along its vertical axis (from top to bottom: 390-600 °C), sludge-lignin flow rate of 9.5-14.5 g/min, oxygen ratio OR = 0.73-2.52, using NaOH (1.6 wt%) as a catalyst. Employing gas chromatography - mass spectrometry, polychlorophenols were identified in the composition of sludge-lignin, in which 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was the main component. The total yield of extracted phenols and chlorophenols per sludge-lignin organic matter was 20.82 and 2.88 μg/g, respectively. It is revealed that the conversion rate of sludge-lignin in SCW/O fluid is limited by heterogeneous oxidation of the carbonized residue, and is determined by the O content in the reaction mixture. At OR ≥ 1.16, only CO, CO, N, and NO were detected in the volatile oxidation products. An increase in OR from 0.73 to 2.52 leads to a decrease in the total content of phenols (from 45540.1 to 129.3 μg/dm) and chlorophenols (from 51.4 to 2.2 μg/dm) in the water collected at the reactor outlet. It is shown that 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2-chlorophenol are the most resistant to oxidation. From the analysis of the initial sludge-lignin and mineral residues, it follows that the bulk of the chlorine contained in its organic matter is converted into NaCl in the course of oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131239DOI Listing
June 2021

Braincase anatomy of extant Crocodylia, with new insights into the development and evolution of the neurocranium in crocodylomorphs.

J Anat 2021 Jun 27. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Present-day crocodylians exhibit a remarkably akinetic skull with a highly modified braincase. We present a comprehensive description of the neurocranial osteology of extant crocodylians, with notes on the development of individual skeletal elements and a discussion of the terminology used for this project. The quadrate is rigidly fixed by multiple contacts with most braincase elements. The parabasisphenoid is sutured to the pterygoids (palate) and the quadrate (suspensorium); as a result, the basipterygoid joint is completely immobilized. The prootic is reduced and externally concealed by the quadrate. It has a verticalized buttress that participates in the canal for the temporal vasculature. The ventrolateral processes of the otoccipitals completely cover the posteroventral region of the braincase, enclose the occipital nerves and blood vessels in narrow bony canals and also provide additional sutural contacts between the braincase elements and further consolidate the posterior portion of the crocodylian skull. The otic capsule of crocodylians has a characteristic cochlear prominence that corresponds to the lateral route of the perilymphatic sac. Complex internal structures of the otoccipital (extracapsular buttress) additionally arrange the neurovascular structures of the periotic space of the cranium. Most of the braincase elements of crocodylians are excavated by the paratympanic pneumatic sinuses. The braincase in various extant crocodylians has an overall similar structure with some consistent variation between taxa. Several newly observed features of the braincase are present in Gavialis gangeticus and extant members of Crocodylidae to the exclusion of alligatorids: the reduced exposure of the prootic buttress on the floor of the temporal canal, the sagittal nuchal crest of the supraoccipital projecting posteriorly beyond the postoccipital processes and the reduced paratympanic pneumaticity. The most distinctive features of the crocodylian braincase (fixed quadrate and basipterygoid joint, consolidated occiput) evolved relatively rapidly at the base of Crocodylomorpha and accompanied the initial diversification of this clade during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. We hypothesize that profound rearrangements in the individual development of the braincases of basal crocodylomorphs underlie these rapid evolutionary modifications. These rearrangements are likely reflected in the embryonic development of extant crocodylians and include the involvement of neomorphic dermal anlagen in different portions of the developing chondrocranium, the extensive ossification of the palatoquadrate cartilage as a single expanded quadrate and the anteromedial inclination of the quadrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13490DOI Listing
June 2021

Symmetry of diffraction patterns of two-dimensional crystal structures.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Sep 18;228:113336. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575, Singapore; Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 117546, Singapore; Chongqing 2D Materials Institute, Liangjiang New Area, Chongqing, 400714, China.

Conventionally, theoretical considerations in electron microscopy employ the weak phase approximation (WPA), which is only valid for weak scattering atomic elements (C, B, N) but not for transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. This leads to many exciting phenomena being overlooked. The present theoretical study goes beyond the weak phase approximation and thus the obtained results can be applied for two-dimensional (2D) crystals made of weakly as well of strongly scattering atoms, including the TMD materials. We show that the symmetry of an electron diffraction pattern, characterized by the Friedel's pairs, is governed by the symmetry of the exit wave distribution. For an infinite periodic crystal, the exit wave is an infinite and periodic 2D distribution which can be assigned an exit wave unit cell. The latter is determined by both the chemical composition of the crystallographic unit cell and the distance between the atomic layers. For 2D crystals of identical atoms, such as graphene, the exit wave unit cell is symmetrical and, thus, a symmetrical diffraction pattern is expected. For TMD materials, the exit wave unit cell is not symmetrical and a non-symmetrical diffraction pattern is expected for both monolayer and bilayer. Conventionally asymmetry in diffraction patterns has been explained by presence of dynamical (multiple) scattering effects. Our study shows that the asymmetry of a diffraction pattern can be explained solely by the asymmetry of the exit wave unit cell. The exit wave unit cell can be asymmetrical even in kinematic (single) scattering model. Therefore, conclusions about dynamical (multiple) scattering effects in 2D materials cannot be made based solely on asymmetry of a diffraction pattern. We also show that for hexagonally arranged atoms the second-order diffraction peaks show perfectly symmetrical intensities independently on the symmetry of the exit wave unit cell distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2021.113336DOI Listing
September 2021

International survey on residency programs in radiology: similarities and differences among 17 countries.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 18;79:230-234. Epub 2021 May 18.

The Radiology Leadership Institute and Chair of the Commission on Leadership and Practice Development of the American College of Radiology, Reston, VA, United States of America.

Objective: With the initiative of the ACR International Economics Committee, a multinational survey was conducted to evaluate radiology residency programs around the world.

Methods: A 31-question survey was developed. It included: economic issues, program size and length, resident's activities during daytime and call, academic aspects including syllabus and examinations. Data was tabulated using the forementioned thematic framework and was qualitatively analyzed.

Results: Responses were received from all 17 countries that were invited to participate (France, Netherlands, Israel, UK, Russia, USA, Japan, India, Germany, Canada, Turkey, Croatia, Serbia, Italy, Ireland, Hungary, and Greece). Residency length varied between 2 and 5 years. The certificate of residency completion is provided by a local hospital [4/17 (23%)], University [6/17 (36%)], National Board [6/17 (36%)], and Ministry of Health [1/17 (6%)]. There was variability among the number of residency programs and residents per program ranging from 15 to 300 programs per nation with a 1-700 residents in each one respectively. Salaries varied significantly and ranged from 8000 to 75,000 USD equivalent. Exams are an integral part of training in all surveyed countries. Length of call varied between 5 and 26 h and the number of monthly calls ranged from 3 to 6. The future of radiology was judged as growing in [12/17 (70%)] countries and stagnant in [5/17 (30%)] countries.

Discussion: Radiology residency programs worldwide have many similarities. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs. Stagnation and uncertainties need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of the next generation of radiologists.

Summary Statement: There are many similarities in the academic aims and approach to education and training of radiology residency programs worldwide. The differences are in the structure of the residency programs and payments to individual residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021
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