Publications by authors named "S Matthew Drenner"

7 Publications

Infected juvenile salmon can experience increased predation during freshwater migration.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 24;8(3):201522. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Pacific Salmon Ecology and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Predation risk for animal migrants can be impacted by physical condition. Although size- or condition-based selection is often observed, observing infection-based predation is rare due to the difficulties in assessing infectious agents in predated samples. We examined predation of outmigrating sockeye salmon () smolts by bull trout () in south-central British Columbia, Canada. We used a high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform to screen for the presence of 17 infectious agents found in salmon and assess 14 host genes associated with viral responses. In one (2014) of the two years assessed (2014 and 2015), the presence of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNv) resulted in 15-26 times greater chance of predation; in 2015 IHNv was absent among all samples, predated or not. Thus, we provide further evidence that infection can impact predation risk in migrants. Some smolts with high IHNv loads also exhibited gene expression profiles consistent with a virus-induced disease state. Nine other infectious agents were observed between the two years, none of which were associated with increased selection by bull trout. In 2014, richness of infectious agents was also associated with greater predation risk. This is a rare demonstration of predator consumption resulting in selection for prey that carry infectious agents. The mechanism by which this selection occurs is not yet determined. By culling infectious agents from migrant populations, fish predators could provide an ecological benefit to prey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074935PMC
March 2021

Dermal injuries caused by purse seine capture result in lasting physiological disturbances in coho salmon.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2019 01 5;227:75-83. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Biology and Institute of Environmental Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

Fish vitality can be measured by classifying reflex impairments (i.e., a visual impression of the ability to respond to induced stimuli) and visible injuries. These metrics can predict survival probability following release from fisheries, and monitoring physiological disturbances following capture can help understand mechanisms of mortality. To test the hypothesis that severity of injury and reflex impairment influences the time course of physiological recovery, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were held for up to 84-h following capture by purse seine. We classified reflex impairments and visible dermal injuries, and through repeated blood sampling, assessed metrics indicative of stress, exhaustion, and osmoregulatory disturbances. Reflex-impairments and blood lactate levels suggested fish were exhausted upon capture but recovered after 48 h. Conversely, fish with dermal injuries showed disruptions to ion homeostasis that were greater in more severely injured fish and increased over time. While reflex impairments may predict short term post-release mortality, the prolonged physiological disturbances caused by dermal injuries are likely to be responsible for delayed mortality; our results suggest that disruptions to ion homeostasis is a possible mechanism of post-release mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2018.09.026DOI Listing
January 2019

Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

PLoS One 2012 13;7(6):e39079. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure) in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1)) was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'). Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1) kg(-1). Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non-lethal fisheries interactions have the potential to select for small individuals within fish populations over time.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039079PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374769PMC
December 2012

A synthesis of tagging studies examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in marine environments.

PLoS One 2012 14;7(3):e31311. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Pacific Salmon Ecology and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival), passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT]), and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites). Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus]) are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0031311PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303779PMC
July 2012

The efficacy of field techniques for obtaining and storing blood samples from fishes.

J Fish Biol 2011 Nov;79(5):1322-33

Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada.

Prompted by the dramatic increase in the use of blood analyses in fisheries research and monitoring, this study investigated the efficacy of common field techniques for sampling and storing blood from fishes. Three questions were addressed: (1) Do blood samples taken via rapid caudal puncture (the 'grab-and-stab' technique) yield similar results for live v. sacrificed groups of fishes? (2) Do rapidly obtained caudal blood samples accurately represent blood properties of fishes prior to capture? (3) Does storage of whole blood in an ice slurry for a working day (8·5 h) modify the properties of the plasma? It was shown that haematocrit, plasma ions, metabolites, stress hormones and sex hormones of caudal blood samples were statistically similar when taken from live v. recently sacrificed groups of adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Moreover, this study confirmed by using paired blood samples from cannulated O. kisutch that blood acquired through the caudal puncture technique (mean ±s.e. 142 ± 26 s after capture) was representative of fish prior to capture. Long-term (8·5 h) cold storage of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka whole blood caused significant decreases in plasma potassium and chloride, and a significant increase in plasma glucose. Previous research has suggested that these changes largely result from net movements of ions and molecules between the plasma and erythrocytes, movements that can occur within minutes of storage. Thus, blood samples from fishes should be centrifuged as quickly as practicable in the field for separation of plasma and erythrocytes to prevent potentially misleading data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03118.xDOI Listing
November 2011