Publications by authors named "S Kumar"

22,231 Publications

Genome-wide association mapping reveals key genomic regions for physiological and yield-related traits under salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Genomics 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012, India.

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using six different multi-locus GWAS models and 35K SNP array to demarcate genomic regions underlying reproductive stage salinity tolerance. Marker-trait association analysis was performed for salt tolerance indices (STI) of 11 morpho-physiological traits, and the actual concentrations of Na and K, and the Na/K ratio in flag leaf. A total of 293 significantly associated quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for 14 morpho-physiological traits were identified. Of these 293 QTNs, 12 major QTNs with R ≥ 10.0% were detected in three or more GWAS models. Novel major QTNs were identified for plant height, number of effective tillers, biomass, grain yield, thousand grain weight, Na and K content, and the Na/K ratio in flag leaf. Moreover, 48 candidate genes were identified from the associated genomic regions. The QTNs identified in this study could potentially be targeted for improving salinity tolerance in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.07.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Stable Rates of Low Vitamin D Status Among Children Despite Increase in Testing: A Population-Based Study.

J Pediatr 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Allergic Disease, Department of Medicine, Rochester, MN;; Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Mayo Clinic Children's Center, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the trends in testing and incidence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in Olmsted County, Minnesota over a 16 year period.

Study Design: The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) was used to identify Olmsted County, Minnesota residents <19 years of age who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels measured between January 2, 2002 and December 31, 2017. Using each patient's first 25(OH)D measurement during this period, patients were categorized into 3 groups: <20ng/ml, 20-50ng/ml, or >50 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was defined as a total 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/mL.

Results: There was a 42-fold increase in the proportion of the county's pediatric population tested each year, starting at 3.7 per 10,000 persons in 2002 and increasing to 156.1 per 10,000 persons in 2017. The largest increase in testing occurred in children 10 years and older, specifically females in this age group for which we observed a 90-fold increase from 2002 to 2017. During the 16-year period, the incidence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency (per 10,000 persons) increased from 1.7 in 2002-2003 to 19.9 in 2016-2017, but the proportion that were tested and had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency remained stable with rates of 21.9% (95% CI 16.1-29.1%) in 2006-2007 and 18.5% (95% CI 16.0-21.2%) in 2016-2017.

Conclusion: The proportion of the county's pediatric population with vitamin D testing increased from 2002 to 2017, which paralleled increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, but the proportion tested that had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency remained stable over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.037DOI Listing
July 2021

Solvent Relaxation NMR: A Tool for Real-Time Monitoring Water Dynamics in Protein Aggregation Landscape.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biophysics, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700054, India.

Solvent dynamics strongly induce the fibrillation of an amyloidogenic system. Probing the solvation mechanism is crucial as it enables us to predict different proteins' functionalities, such as the aggregation propensity, structural flexibility, and toxicity. This work shows that a straightforward NMR method in conjunction with phenomenological models gives a global and qualitative picture of water dynamics at different concentrations and temperatures. Here, we study amyloid system Aβ40 and its fragment AV20 (A21-V40) and G37L (mutation at Gly37 → Leu of AV20), having different aggregation and toxic properties. The independent validation of this method is elucidated using all-atom classical MD simulation. These two state-of-the-art techniques are pivotal in linking the effect of solvent environment in the near hydration-shell to their aggregation nature. The time-dependent modulation in solvent dynamics probed with the NMR solvent relaxation method can be further adopted to gain insight into amyloidogenesis and link with their toxicity profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00262DOI Listing
July 2021

Survival benefit of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for malignant biliary tract obstruction-a prospective study comparing external and internal drainage techniques.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna, Phulwarisharif, Patna, Bihar, 801507, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with non-operable malignant biliary tract obstruction (MBTO) and the survival benefit of internal drainage.

Methods: Prospective data of consecutive patients of PTBD from May 2014 to August 2017 was analyzed for 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality, and mean survival of patients undergoing external drainage (ED) and internal drainage (ID) using internal-external ring biliary catheterization or biliary stent were compared. Other important variables evaluated were drop in the total bilirubin (TBil) levels, improvement in pain and pruritus, procedure-related complications, and patient satisfaction.

Results: In 87 cases (54 male, 33 female) with mean age 37.3 y (22-70 y; 95% CI: 31.1 y-43.5 y), 10, 45 and 32 patients underwent stenting, external and internal-external catheterization, respectively (total 152 procedures [> 1 in 35.63%, n = 31]). PTBD resulted in decrease in mean TBil by 8.2738 ± 0.912 mg/dL at 30 days (P < 0.001), 55.14% (n = 48) cases reaching 3 mg/dL at mean 45 days, and 35/48 cases received chemotherapy. Overall mortality was 6.89%, 37.93% and 90.80% at 30 days, 90 days and 1 year, respectively. Mean survival with ID (236.40 ± 33.37 days) was better than with ED (110.35 ± 26.16 days) (P < 0.001). Pain (62.06%; n = 54; mean Visual Analog Scale [VAS] score = 6.7) improved significantly (mean VAS score 3.4; P < 0.001). Pruritus (n = 29) was relieved in 100% of the cases. Complication rate of 18.39% (n = 16) and no procedure-related death were seen.

Conclusion: PTBD offers a safe and significant improvement in TBil, pain, and pruritus in non-operable MBTO, with ID offering additional survival benefit over ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03215-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Cyclic siloxane biosurfactant-producing Bacillus cereus BS14 biocontrols charcoal rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina and induces growth promotion in Vigna mungo L.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Gurukula Kangri (Deemed to be University), Haridwar, 249 404, Uttarakhand, India.

Rhizobacteria are vital component of soil-plant interfaces which helps in plant growth responses and disease management. Precisely, the role of biosurfactant production by rhizobacteria in biocontrol mechanisms is underscored. The current study explores the destructive effect of a biosurfactant-producing bacterium Bacillus cereus BS14 on fungal growth under in vitro experiments and showed in vivo reduction of disease severity in pulse crop Vigna mungo. In this study, B. cereus BS14 was observed as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) based on abilities of production of phytohormone and HCN, phosphate solubilization and biocontrol of Macrophomina phaseolina. The purified biosurfactant from BS14 inhibited the fungal growth by arresting radially growing mycelia. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed deformities at cellular level in the mycelia of M. phaseolina. The biosurfactant of Bacillus BS14 was identified as cyclic siloxane in GC-MS spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy analyses. In the pot trial studies, B. cereus BS14 proved its efficiency for the growth promotion of Vigna mungo and significantly reduced disease severity index. The present study concludes that biosurfactant of rhizobacterial origin and rhizobacteria can serve for biological control, improvement in crop production and agricultural sustainability. In future, it can be developed as biological control and biofertilizer formulations for legume crops, and commercialized for routine farming practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02492-3DOI Listing
July 2021