Publications by authors named "S K Khadheer Pasha"

417 Publications

Proximal junctional kyphosis in pediatric spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review and critical analysis.

Spine Deform 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, 11100 Euclıd Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Purpose: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a commonly encountered clinical and radiographic phenomenon after pediatric and adolescent spinal deformity surgery that may lead to post-operative deformity, pain, and dissatisfaction. Understanding the risk factors of PJK can be useful for pre-operative informed consent as well as to identify any potential preventative strategies.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and critical analysis following the PRISMA statement in July 2019 by searching the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases, including all prior published studies. We included articles with data on PJK in patients with operative pediatric and adolescent scoliosis and those that detailed risk factors and/or preventative strategies for PJK. Levels of evidence were determined based on consensus. Findings were summarized and grades of recommendation were assigned by consensus. This study was registered in the PROSPERO database; 202,457.

Results: Six hundred and thirty five studies were identified. Thirty-seven studies met criteria for inclusion into the analysis. No studies including neuromuscular scoliosis met inclusion criteria. No findings had Grade A evidence. There were 4 findings found to contribute to PJK with Grade B evidence in EOS: higher number of distractions, disruption of posterior elements, greater sagittal plane correction. There was no difference in incidence noted between etiology of the curvature. Five findings with Grade B evidence were found to contribute to PJK in AIS populations: higher pre-operative thoracic kyphosis, higher pre-operative lumbar lordosis, longer fusion constructs, greater sagittal plane correction, and posterior versus anterior fusion constructs.

Conclusion: Greater sagittal plane correction has Grade B evidence as a risk factor for PJK in both EOS and AIS populations. In EOS patients, an increased number of distractions and posterior element disruption are Grade B risk factors. In AIS patients, longer fusion constructs, higher pre-operative thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, and posterior (as opposed to anterior) constructs also contributed to PJK with Grade B evidence. These findings can guide informed consent and surgical management, and provide the foundation for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00429-wDOI Listing
October 2021

Post-operative radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: A comparison of radiation therapy techniques.

Lung Cancer 2021 11 20;161:171-179. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Objectives: Post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) has historically been associated with toxicity. Conformal techniques like intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have the potential to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiation therapy. Among patients receiving PORT for LA-NSCLC, we identified factors associated with receipt of IMRT and evaluated the association between IMRT and toxicity.

Methods: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2014 to identify patients diagnosed with Stage II or III NSCLC and who received upfront surgery and subsequent PORT. Baseline differences between patients receiving 3-dimentional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and IMRT were assessed using the chi-squared test for proportions and the t-test for means. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of IMRT and pulmonary, esophageal, and cardiac toxicity. Propensity-score matching was employed to reduce the effect of known confounders.

Results: A total of 620 patients met the inclusion criteria, among whom 441 (71.2%) received 3D-CRT and 179 (28.8%) received IMRT. The mean age of the cohort was 73.9 years and 54.7% were male. The proportion of patients receiving IMRT increased from 6.2% in 2006 to 41.4% in 2014 (P < 0.001). IMRT was not associated with decreased pulmonary (OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.62-1.29), esophageal (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 0.0.75-1.58), or cardiac toxicity (OR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.69-1.51). These findings held on propensity-score matching. Clinical risk factors including comorbidity and prior treatment history were associated with treatment toxicity.

Conclusion: In a cohort of elderly patients, the use of IMRT in the setting of PORT for LA-NSCLC was not associated with a difference in toxicity compared to 3D-CRT. This finding suggests that outcomes from PORT may be independent of radiotherapy treatment technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.09.010DOI Listing
November 2021

Index testing among HIV-positive patients is feasible and successful in identifying additional HIV infections in Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Aug;71(Suppl 4)(8):S6-S10

Bridge Consultants Foundation, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To assess the feasibility of index testing approach to test the parents and siblings of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children, and identify HIV-positive individuals.

Methods: The study was conducted at Ratodero, Pakistan. Study participants were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2020. The list of HIV-positive persons was provided by the Sindh AIDS Control Programme. Families of 706 HIV-positive persons were approached and all of them agreed to participate. The first test was performed by trained outreach workers. All those with a reactive first test were transported to the nearest health facility for further testing and confirmation. Mothers and siblings were tested at home while additional visits were carried out to reach the fathers.

Results: A total of 1766 persons were tested through HIV index testing. Biological siblings accounted for 81% of the contacts. We were able to test 413/463 (89.2%) mothers, 232/413 (56.2%) fathers and 1121/1392 (80.5%) siblings. Out of these, 7 mothers (1.7%) and 22 siblings (2.0%) were confirmed to be HIV-positive, while no one was found to be positive among the fathers. The overall HIV prevalence was 1.6% (29/1766). All HIV-positive persons were guided for treatment and care.

Conclusions: Results indicate that index-testing approach is feasible in Pakistan to expand HIV testing services through home visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.0001DOI Listing
August 2021

Demographic and Clinical Correlates of the Cost of Potentially Preventable Hospital Encounters in a Community Health Center Cohort.

Popul Health Manag 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Fair Haven Community Health Care, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

This study sought to describe the cost of hospital care for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) and to identify independent predictors of high-cost hospital encounters related to an ACSC among an urban community health center cohort. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals engaged in care in a large, multisite community health center in New Haven, Connecticut, with any Medicaid claims between June 1, 2018 and March 31, 2020. Prevention Quality Indicators of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were used to identify ACSCs. The primary outcome was a high-cost episode of care for an ACSC (in the top quartile within a 7-day period). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of high-cost episodes by ACSCs among sociodemographic and clinical variables as covariates. Among 8019 included individuals, a total of 751 episodes of hospital care involving ACSCs were identified. The median episode cost was $793, with the highest median cost of care related to heart failure ($4992), followed by diabetes ($1162), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($1141). In adjusted analyses, male gender ( < 0.01), increasing age ( = 0.02), and ACSC type ( < 0.01) were associated with higher costs of care; race/ethnicity was not. Community health centers in urban settings seeking to reduce the cost of care of potentially preventable hospitalizations may target disease-/condition-specific groups, particularly individuals of increasing age with congestive heart failure and diabetes mellitus. These findings may inform return-on-investment calculations for care coordination and other enabling services programming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pop.2021.0169DOI Listing
August 2021

Scintigraphy false-positive results for cardiac amyloidosis in a patient with Danon disease.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Aug 16;9(8):e04652. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Sechenov University Moscow Russia.

Common diagnostic approach in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis includes cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy. We report the first clinical case of false-positive results of scintigraphy in a patient with Danon disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365861PMC
August 2021
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