Publications by authors named "S J Esposito"

1,542 Publications

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Whole-Genome Doubling Affects Pre-miRNA Expression in Plants.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 18;10(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici, Italy.

Whole-genome doubling (polyploidy) is common in angiosperms. Several studies have indicated that it is often associated with molecular, physiological, and phenotypic changes. Mounting evidence has pointed out that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) may have an important role in whole-genome doubling. However, an integrative approach that compares miRNA expression in polyploids is still lacking. Here, a re-analysis of already published RNAseq datasets was performed to identify microRNAs' precursors (pre-miRNAs) in diploids (2x) and tetraploids (4x) of five species ( L., L., L.  Fort., and Dun). We found 3568 pre-miRNAs, three of which (pre-miR414, pre-miR5538, and pre-miR5141) were abundant in all 2x, and were absent/low in their 4x counterparts. They are predicted to target more than one mRNA transcript, many belonging to transcription factors (TFs), DNA repair mechanisms, and related to stress. Sixteen pre-miRNAs were found in common in all 2x and 4x. Among them, pre-miRNA482, pre-miRNA2916, and pre-miRNA167 changed their expression after polyploidization, being induced or repressed in 4x plants. Based on our results, a common ploidy-dependent response was triggered in all species under investigation, which involves DNA repair, ATP-synthesis, terpenoid biosynthesis, and several stress-responsive transcripts. In addition, an ad hoc pre-miRNA expression analysis carried out solely on 2x vs. 4x samples of indicated that ploidy-dependent pre-miRNAs seem to actively regulate the nucleotide metabolism, probably to cope with the increased requirement for DNA building blocks caused by the augmented DNA content. Overall, the results outline the critical role of microRNA-mediated responses following autopolyploidization in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10051004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157229PMC
May 2021

Prevention of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection with Vaccines: State of the Art.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 19;9(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

University degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection and non-genetic sensorineural hearing loss in childhood. Up to 2% of neonates, with the highest percentages found in developing countries, are congenitally infected with CMV. At birth, most of these infants are asymptomatic. However, approximately 10% have signs and symptoms of the disease, and 40-60% of symptomatic neonates will later develop permanent neurologic sequelae. To reduce congenital CMV (cCMV) infection, a vaccine able to prevent primary infection is essential. In this narrative review, actual ongoing research about the development of a CMV vaccine is discussed. The progressive increase in knowledge on the ways in which the host's immune system and CMV relate has made it possible to clarify that the development of a vaccine that is certainly capable of reducing the risk of cCMV infection, and preventing both primary and nonprimary infections is extremely difficult. Many of the ways in which the virus evades the immune system and causes cCMV infection are not yet fully understood, especially in cases of nonprimary infection. Moreover, the schedule that should be recommended and that subjects must be vaccinated to obtain the greatest effect have not been precisely defined. Further studies are needed before the problem of cCMV infection and its related challenges can be totally solved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158681PMC
May 2021

Dietary Polyphenol Intake Is Associated with Biological Aging, a Novel Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Moli-Sani Study.

Nutrients 2021 May 17;13(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, via dell'Elettronica, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy.

Biological aging, or the discrepancy between biological and chronological age of a subject (Δage), has been associated with a polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and represents a new, robust indicator of cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to disentangle the relationship of dietary polyphenols and total antioxidant capacity with Δage in a cohort of Italians. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sub-cohort of 4592 subjects (aged ≥ 35 y; 51.8% women) from the Moli-sani Study (2005-2010). Food intake was recorded by a 188-item food-frequency questionnaire. The polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC)-score was constructed to assess the total dietary content of polyphenols. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in foods by these assays: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). A deep neural network, based on 36 circulating biomarkers, was used to compute biological age and the resulting Δage, which was tested as outcome in multivariable-adjusted linear regressions. Δage was inversely associated with the PAC-score (β = -0.31; 95%CI -0.39, -0.24) but not with total antioxidant capacity of the diet. A diet rich in polyphenols, by positively contributing to deceleration of the biological aging process, may exert beneficial effects on the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and possibly of bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157169PMC
May 2021

Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children: The Role of Bedaquiline and Delamanid.

Microorganisms 2021 May 17;9(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Pietro Barille Children's Hospital, University Hospital of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been emerging at an alarming rate over the last few years. It has been estimated that about 3% of all pediatric TB is MDR, meaning about 30,000 cases each year. Although most children with MDR-TB can be successfully treated, up to five years ago effective treatment was associated with a high incidence of severe adverse effects and patients with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB had limited treatment options and no standard regimen. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss our present knowledge of the management of MDR- and XDR-TB in children, focusing on the characteristics and available evidence on the use of two promising new drugs: bedaquiline and delamanid. PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published up to November 2020 using key words such as "bedaquiline" and "delamanid" and "children" and "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis" and "extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis". The search was limited to articles published in English and providing evidence-based data. Although data on pediatric population are limited and more studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid, their use in children with MDR-TB/XDR-TB appears to have good tolerability and efficacy. However, more evidence on these new anti-TB drugs is needed to better guide their use in children in order to design effective shorter regimens and reduce adverse effects, drug interactions, and therapeutic failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156326PMC
May 2021

Vaccines in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Brief Review.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 11;9(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is increasing worldwide. Children with IBDs have a dysfunctional immune system and they are frequently treated with immunomodulating drugs and biological therapy, which significantly impair immune system functions and lead to an increased risk of infections. Vaccines are essential to prevent at least part of these infections and this explains why strict compliance to the immunization guidelines specifically prepared for IBD patients is strongly recommended. However, several factors might lead to insufficient immunization. In this paper, present knowledge on the use of vaccines in children with IBDs is discussed. Literature review showed that despite a lack of detailed quantification of the risk of infections in children with IBDs, these children might have infections more frequently than age-matched healthy subjects, and at least in some cases, these infections might be even more severe. Fortunately, most of these infections could be prevented when recommended schedules of immunization are carefully followed. Vaccines given to children with IBDs generally have adequate immunogenicity and safety. Attention must be paid to live attenuated vaccines that can be administered only to children without or with mild immune system function impairment. Vaccination of their caregivers is also recommended. Unfortunately, compliance to these recommendations is generally low and multidisciplinary educational programs to improve vaccination coverage must be planned, in order to protect children with IBD from vaccine-preventable diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151471PMC
May 2021