Publications by authors named "S J AlQahtani"

310 Publications

Anti-Arthritic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Extract Fractions: An In Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo Approach.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 173, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.

The fruits of have traditionally been used for the management of rheumatism in the northeast region of India. The present study explores the probable anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory potential of fruit extract's ethanolic fraction (EtoH-F). To support this study, we first approached the parameters in silico by means of the active constituents of the plant (beta amyrin, beta sitosterol, oleonolic acid and co-crystallised ligands, i.e., SPD-304) via molecular docking on COX-1, COX-2 and TNF-α. Thereafter, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties were also determined, and finally experimental activity was performed in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro activities of the plant extract fractions were evaluated by means of parameters like 1,1-Diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), free radical-reducing potential, albumin denaturation, and protease inhibitory activity. The in vivo activity was evaluated using parameters like COX, TNF-α and IL-6 inhibition assay and arthritis score in Freund Adjuvant (CFA) models at a dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. per day of different fractions (hexane, chloroform, alcoholic). The molecular docking assay was performed on COX-1, COX-2 and TNF-α. The results of in vitro studies showed concentration-dependent reduction in albumin denaturation, protease inhibitors and scavenging activity at 500 µg/mL. Administration of the alcoholic fraction at the abovementioned dose resulted in a significant reduction ( < 0.01) in arthritis score, paw diameters, TNF-α, IL-6 as compared to diseased animals. The docking results showed that residues show a critical binding affinity with TNF-α and act as the TNF-α antagonist. The alcoholic fraction of extract possesses beneficial effects on rheumatoid arthritis as well as anti-inflammatory potential, and can further can be used as a possible agent for novel target-based therapies for the management of arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10050825DOI Listing
April 2021

Use of social networking in the Middle East: student perspectives in higher education.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 8;7(4):e06676. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Management and Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

This study aims to determine the benefits, risks, awareness, cultural factors, and sustainability, allied to social networking (SN) use in the higher education (HE) sector in Middle Eastern countries, namely Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. Using an online survey, 1180 complete responses were collected and analyzed using the statistical confirmatory factor analysis method. The use of SN in the Middle Eastern HE sector has the capacity to promote and motivate students to acquire professional and personal skills for their studies and future workplace; however, the use of SN by tertiary students is also associated with several risks: isolation, depression, privacy, and security. Furthermore, culture is influenced by using SN use, since some countries shifted from one dimension to another based on Hofstede's cultural framework. The study new findings are based on a sample at a specific point in time within a culture. The study findings encourage academics to include SN in unit activities and assessments to reap the benefits of SN, while taking steps to mitigate any risks that SN poses to students. Although other studies in the Middle East examined the use of Learning Management System and Facebook in, HE as a means of engaging students in discussions and communications, however, this study contributes a better understanding of the benefits and risks, awareness, culture, and sustainability, associated with the use of SN in the HE sector in the Middle East. Finally, the paper concludes with an acknowledgment of the study limitations and suggestions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055565PMC
April 2021

Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Ultrasound for Raised Intracranial Pressure: A Literature Review and Meta-analysis of its Diagnostic Accuracy.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) ultrasound is becoming increasingly more popular for estimating raised intracranial pressure (ICP). We performed a systematic review and analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ONSD when compared to the standard invasive ICP measurement.

Method: We performed a systematic search of PUBMED and EMBASE for studies including adult patients with suspected elevated ICP and comparing sonographic ONSD measurement to a standard invasive method. Quality of studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool by two independent authors. We used a bivariate model of random effects to summarize pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Heterogeneity was investigated by meta-regression and sub-group analyses.

Results: We included 18 prospective studies (16 studies including 619 patients for primary outcome). Only one study was of low quality, and there was no apparent publication bias. Pooled sensitivity was 0.9 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.85-0.94], specificity was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.8-0.89), and DOR was 46.7 (95% CI: 26.2-83.2) with partial evidence of heterogeneity. The Area-Under-the-Curve of the summary Receiver-Operator-Curve was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95, P < .05). No covariates were significant in the meta-regression. Subgroup analysis of severe traumatic brain injury and parenchymal ICP found no heterogeneity. ICP and ONSD had a correlation coefficient of 0.7 (95% CI: 0.63-0.76, P < .05).

Conclusion: ONSD is a useful adjunct in ICP evaluation but is currently not a replacement for invasive methods where they are feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15732DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness of Radiographs and Computed Tomography in Evaluating Primary Elbow Osteoarthritis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Roth|McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, St. Joseph's Health Care, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Preoperative radiographic assessment of osteophyte and loose body locations is critical in planning an arthroscopic débridement for primary elbow osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of radiographs and computed tomography (CT) in localizing osteophytes and loose bodies.

Methods: A consecutive series of 36 patients with primary elbow osteoarthritis were investigated with radiographs and multiaxial two dimensional CT prior to elbow arthroscopy. The location of osteophytes and loose bodies were assessed in nine anatomic locations by two fellowship trained upper extremity surgeons. The diagnostic effectiveness of both imaging modalities was evaluated by calculating the sensitivity and specificity when compared to the gold standard of elbow arthroscopy. Inter- and intra-rater % agreement between the observations was calculated using Kappa score.

Results: The mean sensitivity for detecting osteophytes in the 9 different anatomic locations was 46% with radiographs and 98% with CT while the mean specificity was 66% and 21% for radiographs and CT, respectively. The mean sensitivity and specificity for loose body detection with radiography was 49% and 89%, respectively, while CT had a mean sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 47%. The overall inter-rater % agreement between the surgeons in detecting osteophytes and loose bodies on radiographs was 80% and 85%, respectively, while on CT was 95% for detecting osteophytes and 91% for loose bodies.

Conclusion: CT has greater sensitivity than radiographs for the detection of osteophytes and loose bodies in primary elbow osteoarthritis. The lower specificity of CT may be due to this imaging modality's ability to detect small osteophytes and loose bodies that may not be readily identified during elbow arthroscopy. Radiographs have an inferior inter-rater % agreement when compared to CT. CT is a valuable preoperative investigation to assist surgeons in identifying the location of osteophytes and loose bodies in patients undergoing surgery for primary elbow osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of the Key Regulators of Spina Bifida Through Graph-Theoretical Approach.

Front Genet 2021 6;12:597983. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Spina Bifida (SB) is a congenital spinal cord malformation. Efforts to discern the key regulators (KRs) of the SB protein-protein interaction (PPI) network are requisite for developing its successful interventions. The architecture of the SB network, constructed from 117 manually curated genes was found to self-organize into a scale-free fractal state having a weak hierarchical organization. We identified three modules/motifs consisting of ten KRs, namely, , , , , , , , , , and . These KRs serve as the backbone of the network, they propagate signals through the different hierarchical levels of the network to conserve the network's stability while maintaining low popularity in the network. We also observed that the SB network exhibits a rich-club organization, the formation of which is attributed to our key regulators also except for and . The KRs that were found to ally with each other and emerge in the same motif, open up a new dimension of research of studying these KRs together. Owing to the multiple etiology and mechanisms of SB, a combination of several biomarkers is expected to have higher diagnostic accuracy for SB as compared to using a single biomarker. So, if all the KRs present in a single module/motif are targetted together, they can serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of SB. Our study puts forward some novel SB-related genes that need further experimental validation to be considered as reliable future biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.597983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056047PMC
April 2021