Publications by authors named "S H Lim"

12,207 Publications

Vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease: a vicious cycle of secondary events.

J Transl Med 2021 Sep 20;19(1):397. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, 450 Clarkson Avenue, MSC #20, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.

Painful vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) remains the most common reason for presenting to the Emergency Department and hospitalization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Although two new agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating SCD, they both target to reduce the frequency of VOC. Results from studies investigating various approaches to treat and shorten VOC have so far been generally disappointing. In this paper, we will summarize the complex pathophysiology and downstream events of VOC and discuss the likely reasons for the disappointing results using monotherapy. We will put forward the rationale for exploring some of the currently available agents to either protect erythrocytes un-involved in the hemoglobin polymerization process from sickling induced by the secondary events, or a multipronged combination approach that targets the complex downstream pathways of VOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03074-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Cost-effective screening using a two-antibody panel for detecting mismatch repair deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Aug;9(24):6999-7008

Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, South Korea.

Background: The microsatellite instability (MSI) test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are widely used to screen DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). For IHC, a two-antibody panel of MLH1 and MSH2 or four-antibody panel of MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 are used. In general, MSI is known as a more accurate screening test than IHC.

Aim: To compare two- and four-antibody panels of IHC in terms of accuracy and cost benefit on the basis of MSI testing for detecting MMR deficiency.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with CRC who underwent curative surgery between 2015 and 2017 at a tertiary referral center. Both IHC with four antibodies and MSI tests were routinely performed. The sensitivity and specificity of a four- and two types of two-antibody panels (PMS2/MSH6 and MLH1/MSH2) were compared on the basis of MSI testing for detecting MMR deficiency.

Results: High-frequency MSI was found in 5.5% ( = 193) of the patients ( = 3486). The sensitivities of the four- and two types of two-antibody panels were 97.4%, 92.2%, and 87.6%, respectively. The specificities of the three types of panels did not differ significantly (99.6% for the four-antibody and PMS2/MSH6 panels, 99.7% for the MLH1/MSH2 panel). Based on Cohen's kappa statistic (), four- and two-antibody panels were in almost perfect agreement with the MSI test ( > 0.9). The costs of the MSI test and the four- and two-antibody panels of IHC were approximately $200, $160, and $80, respectively.

Conclusion: Considering the cost of the four-antibody panel IHC compared to that of the two-antibody panel IHC, a two-antibody panel of PMS2/MSH6 might be the best choice in terms of balancing cost-effectiveness and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i24.6999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409214PMC
August 2021

Biochar-induced reduction of NO emission from East Asian soils under aerobic conditions: Review and data analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 13;291:118154. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Rural and Bio-systems Engineering (Brain Korea 21), Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea; AgriBio Institute of Climate Change Management, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Global meta-analyses showed that biochar application can reduce NO emission. However, no relevant review study is available for East Asian countries which are responsible for 70% of gaseous N losses from croplands globally. This review analyzed data of the biochar-induced NO mitigation affected by experimental conditions, including experimental types, biochar types and application rates, soil properties, and chemical forms and application rates of N fertilizer for East Asian countries. The magnitude of biochar-induced NO mitigation was evaluated by calculating NO reduction index (R, percentage reduction of NO by biochar relative to control). The R was further standardized against biochar application rate by calculating R per unit of biochar application rate (ton ha) (Unit R). The R averaged across different experimental types (n = 196) was -21.1 ± 2.4%. Incubation and pot experiments showed greater R than column and field experiments due to higher biochar application rate and shorter experiment duration. Feedstock type and pyrolysis temperature also affected R; either bamboo feedstock or pyrolysis at > 400 °C resulted in a greater R. The magnitude of R also increased with increasing biochar rate. Soil properties did not affect R when evaluated across all experimental types, but there was an indication that biochar decreased NO emission more at a lower soil moisture level in field experiments. The magnitude of R increased with increasing N fertilizer rate up to 500-600 kg N ha, but it decreased thereafter. The Unit R averaged across experimental types was -1.2 ± 0.9%, and it was rarely affected by experimental type and conditions but diminished with increasing biochar rate. Our results highlight that since NO mitigation by biochar is affected by biochar application rate, R needs to be carefully evaluated by standardizing against biochar application rate to suggest the best conditions for biochar usage in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118154DOI Listing
September 2021

EphA2 signaling within integrin adhesions regulates fibrillar adhesion elongation and fibronectin deposition.

Matrix Biol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Departments of aCellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Science Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103 U.S.A.; Pathology and Translational Pathobiology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103 U.S.A.; Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA 71103 U.S.A.. Electronic address:

The multifunctional glycoprotein fibronectin influences several crucial cellular processes and contributes to multiple pathologies. While a link exists between fibronectin-associated pathologies and the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2, the mechanism by which EphA2 promotes fibronectin matrix remodeling remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that EphA2 deletion reduces smooth muscle fibronectin deposition and blunts fibronectin deposition in atherosclerosis without influencing fibronectin expression. We now show that EphA2 expression is required for contractility-dependent elongation of tensin- and α5β1 integrin-rich fibrillar adhesions that drive fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Mechanistically, EphA2 localizes to integrin adhesions where focal adhesion kinase mediates ligand-independent Y772 phosphorylation, and mutation of this site significantly blunts fibrillar adhesion length. EphA2 deficiency decreases smooth muscle cell contractility by enhancing p190RhoGAP activation and reducing RhoA activity, whereas stimulating RhoA signaling in EphA2 deficient cells rescues fibrillar adhesion elongation. Together, these data identify EphA2 as a novel regulator of fibrillar adhesion elongation and provide the first data identifying a role for EphA2 signaling in integrin adhesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2021.09.001DOI Listing
September 2021

The role of postoperative antibiotic duration on surgical site infection after lumbar surgery.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 17:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Departments of1Neurosurgery.

Objective: Despite a general consensus regarding the administration of preoperative antibiotics, poorly defined comparison groups and underpowered studies prevent clear guidelines for postoperative antibiotics. Utilizing a data set tailored specifically to spine surgery outcomes, in this clinical study the authors aimed to determine whether there is a role for postoperative antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

Methods: The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative registry was queried for all lumbar operations performed for degenerative spinal pathologies over a 5-year period from 2014 to 2019. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered for all surgical procedures. The study population was divided into three cohorts: no postoperative antibiotics, postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, and postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours. This categorization was intended to determine 1) whether postoperative antibiotics are helpful and 2) the appropriate duration of postoperative antibiotics. First, multivariable analysis with generalized estimating equations (GEEs) was used to determine the association between antibiotic duration and all-type SSI with adjusted odds ratios; second, a three-tiered outcome-no SSI, superficial SSI, and deep SSI-was calculated with multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis.

Results: Among 37,161 patients, the postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had more men with older average age, greater body mass index, and greater comorbidity burden. The postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours cohort had a 3% rate of SSI, which was significantly higher than the 2% rate of SSI of the other two cohorts (p = 0.004). On multivariable GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours, as compared with no postoperative antibiotics, was associated with a lower rate of all-type postoperative SSIs. On multivariable multinomial logistical GEE analysis, neither postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours nor postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours was associated with rate of superficial SSI, as compared with no antibiotic use at all. The odds of deep SSI decreased by 45% with postoperative antibiotics ≤ 24 hours (p = 0.002) and by 40% with postoperative antibiotics > 24 hours (p = 0.008).

Conclusions: Although the incidence of all-type SSI was highest in the antibiotics > 24 hours cohort, which also had the highest proportions of risk factors, duration of antibiotics failed to predict all-type SSI. On multinomial subanalysis, administration of postoperative antibiotics for both ≤ 24 hours and > 24 hours was associated with decreased risk of only deep SSI but not superficial SSI. Spine surgeons can safely consider antibiotics for 24 hours, which is equally as effective as long-term administration for prophylaxis against deep SSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.4.SPINE201839DOI Listing
September 2021
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