Publications by authors named "S Ghufran Khalid"

811 Publications

Social determinants of health and their impact on rates of postoperative complications among patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

Surgery 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/RushSurgery.

Background: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most common bariatric procedures worldwide, but the impact of social determinants of health on postoperative outcomes for this procedure has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact that social determinants of health have on postoperative outcomes after vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

Method: This was a population-based study using the MARINER-15 database, an all-payer claims database. The primary endpoint of this study was the development of any complication, including cardiac complication, acute kidney injury, deep vein thrombosis, wound complication, hematoma, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, transfusion, or urinary tract infection within 60 days, 30- and 90-day all-cause mortality, or readmission within 30 or 90 days in patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy procedures.

Results: Individuals in the social determinants of health cohort had a significantly longer length of stay when compared with those without social determinants of health (3.07 days vs 1.582 days, P < .001). These patients were more likely to develop any complication within 60 days after surgery (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.40) but were less likely to return for readmission within 30 and 90 days (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96; hazard ratio 0.85 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.99).

Conclusion: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is an effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated comorbidities. Although patients with social determinants of health are more likely to develop any of the analyzed postoperative complications within 60 days, they are less likely to return for readmission, highlighting the importance of focused follow-up and other measures to avoid lapses in care and eliminate further barriers to care in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2021.06.023DOI Listing
July 2021

Longitudinal white matter changes associated with cognitive training.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Improvements in behavior are known to be accompanied by both structural and functional changes in the brain. However, whether those changes lead to more general improvements, beyond the behavior being trained, remains a contentious issue. We investigated whether training on one of two cognitive tasks would lead to either near transfer (that is, improvements on a quantifiably similar task) or far transfer (that is, improvements on a quantifiably different task), and furthermore, if such changes did occur, what the underlying neural mechanisms might be. Healthy adults (n = 16, 15 females) trained on either a verbal inhibitory control task or a visuospatial working memory task for 4 weeks, over the course of which they received five diffusion tensor imaging scans. Two additional tasks served as measures of near and far transfer. Behaviorally, participants improved on the task that they trained on, but did not improve on cognitively similar tests (near transfer), nor cognitively dissimilar tests (far transfer). Extensive changes to white matter microstructure were observed, with verbal inhibitory control training leading to changes in a left-lateralized network of frontotemporal and occipitofrontal tracts, and visuospatial working memory training leading to changes in right-lateralized frontoparietal tracts. Very little overlap was observed in changes between the two training groups. On the basis of these results, we suggest that near and far transfer were not observed because the changes in white matter tracts associated with training on each task are almost entirely nonoverlapping with, and therefore afford no advantages for, the untrained tasks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25580DOI Listing
July 2021

Current practices of waste management in teaching hospitals and presence of incinerators in densely populated areas.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jul 7;21(1):1340. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Background: Hospital waste management (HWM) practices are the core need to run a proper health care facility. This study encompasses the HWM practices in teaching hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan and examine the enforcement of Pak HWM (2005) rules and risks through transmission of pathogens via blood fluids, air pollution during waste incineration and injuries occurring in conjunction with open burning and dumping.

Methods: A questionnaire based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations was used to survey the selected private and public teaching hospital (n = 16). Site visits and personnel observations were also included in the data. It was spatio-statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, Krushkal-wallis and Fisher's exact tests.

Results: The findings revealed that the lack of HWM practices in all surveyed hospitals (p > 0.05), besides statistical difference (p < 0.017) in waste generation/day. No proper segregation of waste from generation point to final disposal was practiced. However, the performance of private teaching hospitals (50%) was found better in terms of HWM personnel and practices. In surveyed hospitals, only nine hospitals (56.3%) were found with the incinerator facility while rest of the hospitals (43.7%) practiced open dumping. Moreover, operational parameters of the incinerators were not found satisfactory and located in densely populated areas and emitting hazardous gases.

Conclusion: Proper HWM practices are not being followed in the light of WHO guidelines. Hospital waste impose serious menace to healthcare workers and to nearby population. WHO issued documents for improving HWM practices but triggered no change in Pakistan. To improve the situation, insights in this context is need for enforcement of rules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11389-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262056PMC
July 2021

Niclosamide Is Active In Vitro against Mycetoma Pathogens.

Molecules 2021 Jun 30;26(13). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 4051 Basel, Switzerland.

Redox-active drugs are the mainstay of parasite chemotherapy. To assess their repurposing potential for eumycetoma, we have tested a set of nitroheterocycles and peroxides in vitro against two isolates of , the main causative agent of eumycetoma in Sudan. All the tested compounds were inactive except for niclosamide, which had minimal inhibitory concentrations of around 1 µg/mL. Further tests with niclosamide and niclosamide ethanolamine demonstrated in vitro activity not only against but also against spp., causative agents of actinomycetoma, with minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1 µg/mL. The experimental compound MMV665807, a related salicylanilide without a nitro group, was as active as niclosamide, indicating that the antimycetomal action of niclosamide is independent of its redox chemistry (which is in agreement with the complete lack of activity in all other nitroheterocyclic drugs tested). Based on these results, we propose to further evaluate the salicylanilides, niclosamidein particular, as drug repurposing candidates for mycetoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271592PMC
June 2021

Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis in District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 11;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Bovine brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease that causes economic losses through abortion and infertility. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in district Gujranwala of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 220 bovine sera (112 from buffaloes, 108 from cattle) from 46 unvaccinated herds were collected. Parallel testing by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (I-ELISA) showed a 58.7% (27/46) herd-level and 22.7% (50/220) animal-level seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was higher ( < 0.001, OR = 7.62) in adult animals (37.2%) compared to younger animals (4.9%). A herd size of >10 animals ( = 0.021, OR = 7.83), less housing space ( = 0.037, OR = 6.39) and history of abortion at the farm ( = 0.023, OR = 5.6) were found as risk factors associated with the seropositivity of brucellosis. There was a substantial agreement between the RBPT and I-ELISA results (Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) = 64.16, percent agreement = 89.5%). In conclusion, a relatively higher seroprevalence was found compared to the previous reports from the country. Standardization and validation of the advanced diagnostic tests would be needed. Biosecurity, personal protection, quarantine measures and routine screening of animals at the farm level and disease awareness programs and consumption of pasteurized milk in the human population will be helpful in preventing the transmission/zoonosis of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230616PMC
June 2021
-->