Publications by authors named "S Gandini"

336 Publications

The Association between Vitamin D and Gut Microbiota: A Systematic Review of Human Studies.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 26;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Recent evidence has shown a number of extra-skeletal functions of Vitamin D (VD), primarily involving the immune system. One of these functions is mediated by the modulation of gut microbiota, whose alterations are linked to many diseases. Our purpose is to contribute to the understanding of existing evidence on the association between VD and gastrointestinal microbiota alterations. A systematic review of studies with human subjects has been conducted up to January 2021. We included publications reporting the association between gut microbiota and VD, including VD supplementation, dietary VD intake and/or level of 25(OH)D. We identified 25 studies: 14 were interventional and 11, observational. VD supplementation was found to be associated with a significant change in microbiome composition, in particular of , and phyla. Furthermore, were found to be correlated with serum VD. Concerning alpha and beta diversity, a high nutritional intake of VD seems to induce a shift in bacterial composition and/or affects the species' richness. and families, in the phylum, more frequently decreased with both increasing levels of 25(OH)D and vitamin D supplementation. We found evidence of an association, even though the studies are substantially heterogeneous and have some limitations, resulting sometimes in conflicting results. To further understand the role of VD on the modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, future research should be geared toward well-designed animal-based studies or larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13103378DOI Listing
September 2021

Particle Beam Therapy Tolerance and Outcome on Patients with Autoimmune Diseases: A Single Institution Matched Case-Control Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 15;13(20). Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Clinical Department, National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO), 27100 Pavia, Italy.

It is unclear whether autoimmune diseases (ADs) may predispose patients to higher radiation-induced toxicity, and no data are available regarding particle therapy. Our objective was to determine if cancer patients with ADs have a higher incidence of complications after protons (PT) or carbon ion (CIRT) therapy.

Methods: In our retrospective monocentric study, 38 patients with ADs over 1829 patients were treated with particle therapy between 2011 and 2020. Thirteen patients had collagen vascular disease (CVD), five an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and twenty patients an organ-specific AD. Each patient was matched with two control patients without ADs on the basis of type/site of cancer, type of particle treatment, age, sex, hypertension and/or diabetes and previous surgery.

Results: No G4-5 complications were reported. In the AD group, the frequency of acute grade 3 (G3) toxicity was higher than in the control group (15.8% vs. 2.6%, = 0.016). Compared to their matched controls, CVD-IBD patients had a higher frequency of G3 acute complications (27.7 vs. 2.6%, = 0.002). There was no difference between AD patients (7.9%) and controls (2.6%) experiencing late G3 toxicity ( = 0.33). The 2 years disease-free survival was lower in AD patients than in controls (74% vs. 91%, = 0.01), although the differences in terms of survival were not significant.

Conclusions: G3 acute toxicity was more frequently reported in AD patients after PT or CIRT. Since no severe G4-G5 events were reported and in consideration of the benefit of particle therapy for selected cancers, we conclude that particle therapy should be not discouraged for patients with ADs. Further prospective studies are warranted to gain insight into toxicity in cancer patients with ADs enrolled for particle therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13205183DOI Listing
October 2021

The Impact of Post-Operative Radiotherapy in Early Stage (pT1-pT2N0M0) Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Era of DOI.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

This study investigated the role of depth of infiltration (DOI) as an independent prognosticator in early stage (T1-T2N0M0) oral cavity tumors and to evaluate the need of postoperative radiotherapy in the case of patients upstaged to pT3 for DOI > 10 mm in the absence of other risk factors. : We performed a retrospective analysis on patients treated with surgery and re-staged according to the 8th edition of malignant tumors classification (TNM). The role of DOI as well as other clinical/pathological features was investigated at both univariable and multivariable analyses on overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), relapse free survival (RFS), and local RFS. : Among the 94 included patients, 23 would have been upstaged to pT3 based on DOI. Multivariable analysis showed that DOI was not an independent prognostic factor for any of the considered outcomes. The presence of perineural invasion was associated with a significant worse RFS ( = 0.02) and LRFS ( = 0.04). PORT was found to be significantly associated with DFS ( = 0.04) and RFS ( = 0.06). : The increasing DOI alone was not sufficient to impact the prognosis, and therefore, should not be sufficient to dictate PORT indications in early-stage patients upstaged on the sole basis of DOI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507768PMC
September 2021

Vitamin D and the Risk of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis on Behalf of the Italian Melanoma Intergroup.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 26;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO), IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the link between vitamin D and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). For this purpose, we conducted a systematic literature review (updated to 3 February 2021) and meta-analysis of the studies reporting on the association between vitamin D intake (from diet and supplements) and blood concentration, polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor () and vitamin D binding protein () genes, and the risk of NMSC. Random effects meta-analysis models were fitted to merge study-specific risk estimates into summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-four studies altogether were included. There was a suggestive association between increasing serum/plasma vitamin D concentration and NMSC risk (SRR for highest vs. lowest concentration 1.67, 95%CI 0.61-4.56), although with large heterogeneity across studies (I = 91%). NMSC risk was associated with highest vitamin D intake in observational studies but not in clinical trials. Finally, there was no significant association between any polymorphism of the and genes and NMSC risk. In conclusion, no strong relationship between vitamin D metabolism and NMSC risk appears to exist according to our systematic review and meta-analysis, although some findings are worthy of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508211PMC
September 2021

Vitamin D Supplementation and Cancer Mortality: Narrative Review of Observational Studies and Clinical Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 21;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Experimental Oncology, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Several studies have investigated the beneficial effects of vitamin D on survival of cancer patients. Overall evidence has been accumulating with contrasting results. This paper aims at narratively reviewing the existing articles examining the link between vitamin D supplementation and cancer mortality. We performed two distinct searches to identify observational (ObS) studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation (VDS) in cancer patients and cohorts of general population, which included cancer mortality as an outcome. Published reports were gathered until March 2021. We identified 25 papers published between 2003 and 2020, including n. 8 RCTs on cancer patients, n. 8 population RCTs and n. 9 ObS studies. There was some evidence that the use of VDS in cancer patients could improve cancer survival, but no significant effect was found in population RCTs. Some ObS studies reported evidence that VDS was associated with a longer survival among cancer patients, and only one study found an opposite effect. The findings do not allow conclusive answers. VDS may have the potential as treatment to improve survival in cancer patients, but further investigations are warranted. We strongly support investment in well-designed and sufficiently powered RCTs to fully evaluate this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466115PMC
September 2021
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