Publications by authors named "S Darius"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Assessment of Psychological Stress in Kindergarten Teachers with Varying Degrees of Overcommitment].

Psychiatr Prax 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg.

Objective: Nursery school teachers are exposed to psycho-emotional stress in their profession, which can lead to health problems. The aim of the study was to examine whether and to what extent increased work commitment (overcommitment, OC) affects the health of educators.

Methods: 163 nursery school teachers (age 44.5 ± 12.4 years) were recruited for the study. OC, mental health and the risk of burnout were assessed using standardized questionnaires. ECG recordings over 24 h served as a basis for the calculation of heart rate variability (HRV).

Results: 121 teachers showed normal OC and 42 teachers increased OC. In nursery school teachers with elevated OC, self-reported mental health is impaired and vagal mediated HRV (RMSSD and HF) is reduced.

Conclusion: Since the subjectively assessed mental health of nursery school teachers with elevated OC deteriorates and HRV is reduced, preventive measures must be taken to maintain the health of nursery school teachers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1403-5421DOI Listing
March 2021

[Relationship between Burnout Risk and Individual Stress Processing Strategies in Kindergarten Teachers].

Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Medizinische Fakultät, Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Deutschland.

Kindergarten teachers are exposed to a variety of stresses that can lead to psychological impairments and illnesses. A balance between stress and resources is necessary for performance and well-being. The aim of the study was to examine correlations between the risk of burnout and human resources in order to derive approaches for preventive measures. A total of 200 teachers from Magdeburg and the surrounding area took part in the study (age: 43.6±12.6 years). The MBI-GS inventory was used to determine the burnout risk. Stress processing strategies as personal resources were recorded using the stress processing form (SVF). A risk of burnout was found in nine (4.5%) teachers, 68 (34%) suffered from at least some burnout symptoms. There were significantly more negative stress processing strategies among educators at risk of burnout. As a preventive measure, a resource-oriented approach should be strengthened in order to maintain the health of the teachers and to prevent development of burnout syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1376-6962DOI Listing
March 2021

[Associations of Work-Related Strain with Subjective Sleep Quality and Individual Daytime Sleepiness].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2019 09 8;144(19):e121-e129. Epub 2019 May 8.

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Magdeburg.

Introduction: Mental strain at the work place involves high potential hazard for health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between strain consequences of psychological strain and subjective sleep quality as well as daytime sleepiness.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with 84 included participants was conducted. Work-related strain consequences were evaluated by means of the 3 scales Cognitive Irritation (CI), Emotional Irritation (EI) and Global Irritation (GI) of the Irritation Scale for Assessing Work-Related Strain Consequences (IS), sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and daytime sleepiness was measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).

Results: Regarding the assessed socio-demographical and medical data subjects with good sleep quality did not differ from subjects with poor sleep quality. In all 3 scales of the IS and in the ESS poor sleepers reached unfavourable higher scores, but the difference with respect to the ESS was not significant. Higher scores in all 3 scales of the IS correlated with higher PSQI scores but only higher scores in the EI of the IS correlated with higher ESS scores as well.

Discussion, Conclusions: Work-related strain consequences and subjective sleep quality have an interrelationship with great importance in today's world of work. Considerable aspects here are job insecurity and constant availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0873-7196DOI Listing
September 2019

[Influence of Sex and Age on Contrast Sensitivity Subject to the Applied Method].

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2018 Feb 9;235(2):212-218. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Magdeburg.

Aim: The aim of the study was to detect gender and age differences in both photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity with different methods in relation to German driver's license regulations (Fahrerlaubnisverordnung; FeV).

Methods: We examined 134 healthy volunteers (53 men, 81 women) with an age between 18 and 76 years, that had been divided into two groups (AG I < 45 years old, AG II ≥ 45 years old). Mesopic contrast sensitivity was determined with the Mesotest II. Optovist EU and Rodatest 302 as test devices and VISTECH and Mars charts under standardized illumination were applied for photopic contrast sensitivity.

Results: We could not find any gender differences. When evaluating age, there were no differences between the two groups for the Mars charts nor in the Rodatest. In all other tests, the younger volunteers achieved significantly better results.

Conclusion: For contrast vision, there exists age-adapted cut-off-values. Concerning the driving safety of traffic participants, sufficient photopic and mesopic contrast vision should be focused on, independent of age. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the age-adapted cut-off-values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-109691DOI Listing
February 2018

Comparing the effectiveness of karate and fitness training on cognitive functioning in older adults-A randomized controlled trial.

J Sport Health Sci 2016 Dec 21;5(4):484-490. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Department Occupational Medicine, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg 39120, Germany.

Background: Recent studies demonstrate a slowdown in deterioration of cognitive functioning in old age through aerobic training. There is evidence that the combination of aerobic, balance, and coordination exercises leads to an improvement or maintenance of cognitive functions. Such age-related exercises can especially be found in East Asian martial arts. The purpose of the current study is to verify whether karate training for older adults improves cognitive functioning and, if an improvement can be found, which cognitive fields are influenced.

Methods: Eighty-nine older women and men (mean age: 70 years) participated in this study. The participants were randomized into 2 intervention groups (karate group and fitness group, duration of intervention: 5 months) and a control group. All participants had to accomplish a cognitive test battery before and after the intervention. In a secondary study the karate group had an additional intervention for another 5 months.

Results: The results show that there is a significant improvement in motor reactivity, stress tolerance, and divided attention only after the 5-month karate training period. Additionally, the results of the secondary study indicate further improvements after 10 months.

Conclusion: The 5-month karate training can help to enhance attention, resilience, and motor reaction time, but a training period of 10 months is even more efficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2015.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6188869PMC
December 2016

[Hazard assessment and occupational safety measures in surgery : Relevant knowledge on occupational medicine].

Chirurg 2016 Nov;87(11):948-955

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland.

Surgeons routinely work in an environment with occupational risks and hazards about which they are often uninformed. Based on the currently available scientific literature this review article describes the various hazards in the operating theater and their effects on personnel, particularly from the surgical perspective. A further aim of this article is to describe the occupational safety measures to reduce the burdens and to maintain the long-term health of personnel. Ultimately, surgeons should be equipped with the necessary knowledge for implementing hazard assessments according to the German Occupational Health and Safety Act. Surgeons are exposed to increased risks and hazards by working in awkward positions with a high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injuries. They are also commonly exposed to inhalational anesthetics, surgical smoke, radiation, noise and infectious agents. Furthermore, the mental and emotional stress associated with these activities is also high. Meaningful occupational safety measures for reduction of burdens are from a technical aspect the installation of effective air extraction systems, measures to reduce exposure to radiation and noise and the use of safer instruments to prevent needle stick injuries. Furthermore, individual occupational safety measures, such as the use of personal protective equipment (e.g. radiation protective clothing and double gloves) must be observed. The consistent implementation and also adherence to these described occupational safety measures and regulations can reduce the burden on operating theater personnel and contribute to maintaining health. Furthermore, periodic preventive healthcare controls and health checks by the company medical officer and individually initiated additional prevention measures can be a sensible augmentation to these safety measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00104-016-0205-2DOI Listing
November 2016

[Measurement of contrast vision: mesopic or photopic vision? : Comparison of different methods for measuring contrast sensitivity within the framework of driving licence regulations].

Ophthalmologe 2016 Oct;113(10):844-851

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland.

Background: Since 2011 the regulations for occupational driving licences make the examination of contrast vision sensitivity obligatory; however, apart from mesopic procedures no uniform regulations are available for methods and minimum requirements.

Objective: By comparing different mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity tests this study analyzed whether these could be equivalently used and lead to the same results.

Material And Methods: Contrast vision sensitivity was determined in 150 subjects with emmetropia using five different methods, i.e. the mesopic test device Mesotest II as the reference method, Rodatest 302 and Optovist as photopic test devices and two photopic test charts (Vistech chart and Mars charts). The results of passing the tests were compared and Cohens κ was determined to quantify the conformity between the tests.

Results: Poor agreement was found between Mesotest II and Optovist as well as between Mesotest II and the Vistech chart. There was no agreement between Rodatest 302 or Mars charts and Mesotest II; nevertheless, the contrast vision sensitivity measured with Optovist, Rodatest 302 and the Vistech chart showed good correlation (0.46 ≤ r ≤ 0.69).

Conclusion: Apart from a few limitations, the reference method Mesotest II as well as Optovist and the Vistech chart are suitable for testing contrast vision sensitivity, whereas Rodatest 302 and Mars charts cannot be recommended based on the current criteria for minimum requirements. The minimum requirements must be urgently adapted and strict regulations for measurement must be formulated. In addition, due to the poor agreement between the methods an amendment of the driving licence regulations should be considered, which requires examination of both mesopic and photopic contrast vision or alternatively mesopic contrast vision alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-016-0261-5DOI Listing
October 2016

[Prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disease in police officers in relation to job-specific requirements].

Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2014 Sep 26;64(9-10):393-6. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg.

The professional activity of policemen is connected to psychological and physical stress. The aim of this study was to identify the work specific requirements and stress as well as to deter-mine the exact circumstances of the experience of traumatic events and their coping. Additionally the occurrence of potentially traumatising situations during operations and the prevalence of PTSD symptoms were investigated in detail using questionnaires. As traumatising events severe traffic accidents, use of firearms, but also non-specific operations resulting in death, e. g. the killing of a child, were listed by the policemen. The knowledge of the psychological stress and its sources as well as the analysis of the exact circumstances of traumatic events are helpful in preventing PTSDs more efficiently, e. g. by special trainings for coping with stress and conflicts, in faster identification and treatment using professional support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1387729DOI Listing
September 2014

[Occupational medicine aspects in general and abdominal surgery -- risk of infection attributable to needlestick injuries (what the surgeon should know)].

Zentralbl Chir 2013 Feb 28;138(1):88-93. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Bereich Arbeitsmedizin, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg A. ö. R, Deutschland.

Needlestick, stab, scratch, and cut injuries are a common problem and a significant health hazard among healthcare workers. The aim of this review is to give an overview on the risk of infection in general, abdominal and vascular surgery and to suggest occupational safety measures. Furthermore, we want to discuss insurance-related aspects. If medical devices are contaminated with blood or other body fluids, there is a relevant risk of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The risk of transmission depends on the infection status of the patient, and on the immune status of the healthcare worker. In addition, the risk of infection is affected by the type and severity of injuries, by the quantity (volume) of blood, the time between injury and cleaning, and the administration of post-exposure prophylaxis. Prevention measures are an important focus in occupational medicine. Comprehensive programmes to prevent injuries (usage of safety devices, surgical gloves, and of disposal containers) have to be continuously considered to minimize risk of infection of healthcare workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1315202DOI Listing
February 2013

Early effects of long-term neurotoxic lead exposure in copper works employees.

J Toxicol 2011 29;2011:832519. Epub 2011 May 29.

Institute of Occupational Medicine, Otto-von-Guericke University, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

The situation of exposure in a copper works facility in Germany enabled early lead-induced neurotoxic effects to be investigated in the workers. The aim of the investigation was to study the long-term effects of small doses of lead on psychometric/psychophysiological performance of workers. The study involved 70 male lead exposed workers and 27 male controls with no neurotoxic exposure. All test persons were subjected to the method of investigation involving performance data, physiological strain data, and the subjective state. It was found that of the psychometric performance parameters, only the mainly motor performance parameters had a potential for being neurotoxic early indicators. Preferably centrally influenced performance parameters were found to be less suitable early indicators. The lead-exposed subjects exhibited a slowed poststrain resetting behaviour of the vegetative nervous system, which correlated with the individual blood lead level. This was attributed to vagus depression, which had already started in the prevailing situation of exposure and was reflected by diminished cardiac phase duration variability. Our results indicate that it is necessary to more critically choose the lead level standards in the air on the working area. Heart rate variability may be affected even at small lead concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/832519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3135313PMC
November 2011

In vitro inhibitory effect of hen egg white lysozyme on Clostridium perfringens type A associated with broiler necrotic enteritis and its alpha-toxin production.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2006 Feb;42(2):138-43

Inovatech Bioproducts, Abbotsford, BC V2T 6K8, Canada.

Aims: Clostridium perfringens type A causes both clinical and subclinical forms of necrotic enteritis in domestic avian species. In this study the inhibitory effect of hen egg white lysozyme on the vegetative form of Cl. perfringens type A and the production of alpha-toxin in vitro was investigated.

Methods And Results: A micro-broth dilution assay was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of lysozyme against three clinical isolates of Cl. perfringens type A in 96-well microtitre plates. The MIC of lysozyme against Cl. perfringens isolates was found to be 156 microg ml(-1). Scanning electron micrographs of the cells treated with 100 microg ml(-1) of lysozyme revealed extensive cell wall damage. A quantitative sandwich ELISA for alpha-toxin produced by Cl. perfringens was developed based on a commercial ELISA kit allowing only qualitative detection. Addition of 50 microg ml(-1) of lysozyme did not inhibit the growth of Cl. perfringens but significantly inhibited the toxin production.

Conclusions: Lysozyme inhibited the growth of Cl. perfringens type A at 156 microg ml(-1). At sublethal levels, lysozyme was able to inhibit the alpha-toxin production.

Significance And Impact Of Study: Inhibition of Cl. perfringens type A and its alpha-toxin production by hen egg white lysozyme had never previously been reported. By inhibiting this avian pathogen and its toxin production, lysozyme showed potential for use in the treatment and prevention of necrotic enteritis and other Cl. perfringens type A related animal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01812.xDOI Listing
February 2006

The psychological effects of exposure to mixed organic solvents on car painters.

Disabil Rehabil 2002 Jun;24(9):455-61

Institute of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: Interest in diseases of the nervous system resulting from occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents has greatly increased. The aim of our study was to identify preclinical effects of low-level chronic solvent exposure on the central nervous system in car painters by assessing their cognitive performance.

Methods: This psychological study involved 169 clinically healthy male volunteers (84 car painters and 85 controls) and is part of a comprehensive study investigating effects of solvent exposure. The test battery included paper-pencil tests (vocabulary test, block design test, c.i., d2 test), computer-based tests (digit span test, simple-choice reaction time test), and a questionnaire to assess the participants' mental state.

Results: Car painters with long-term exposure to solvents showed psychological deviations such as deficits in concentration, memory and reaction time compared to unexposed subjects. The significant differences between the two groups were confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis.

Conclusions: Our study displayed psychological effects associated with long-term solvent exposure in concentrations below German threshold limit values. These findings emphasize the necessity to promote the resolute compliance with occupational safety and health regulations in affected companies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638280110102126DOI Listing
June 2002

[Inclusion of psychopathologic methods for diagnosis of early neurotoxic effects from lead and organic solvent mixtures].

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1999 Oct;67(10):435-40

Institut für Arbeitsmedizin und Hygiene, Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg.

To verify occupational neurotoxic effects it will be necessary to enlist the help of clinical psychologists and psychiatrists. However, no unified professional test battery exists to date. 119 healthy workers (26 lead-exposed, 45 exposed to mixed organic solvents, and 48 controls) were tested using uniformly standardised psychological and psychiatric methods. Long-term lead-exposed employees showed an increased number of psychoneurovegetative symptoms and deficits in attention performance according to the results of the Seeber-PNF and the Brickenkamp-d2-tests. There was no difference between the control group and persons exposed to the organic solvents test. Many parameters correlated to the dose of the toxic agent in the lead-exposed group. SCL-90-R, AMDP, and HAMD merely hinted at differences between the exposed subjects and the controls. Psychological and pathopsychological methods are necessary but will not suffice to detect early effects after long-term exposure to lead or organic solvents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-994993DOI Listing
October 1999

Localization of NADPH-diaphorase/nitric oxide synthase in the rat retina: an electron microscopic study.

Brain Res 1995 Sep;690(2):231-5

Institute of Medical Neurobiology, University of Magdeburg, Germany.

The activity of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), was examined histochemically in the rat and mice retina. Mice in which the neuronal NOS gene has been disrupted (nNOS- mice) were used for specificity controls. Light microscopically a few amacrine cells were heavily stained. Other cells were stained weakly or not at all. Under the electron microscope, formazan precipitates were detectable on membranes of endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope, mitochondria, and, in a few cases, the Golgi complex. Bipolar, horizontal, and Müller cells, were if at all, sparsely labeled with formazan. Labeled mitochondria were observed in rod endings and in inner segments of photoreceptors. Outer segments of photoreceptors and ganglion cells were completely free of reaction product. The NADPH-d reaction in wild-type mice displayed a similar distribution pattern to that in rats. Retinae of nNOS- mice showed a complete lack of prominent NADPH-d stained (amacrine) cells. None or a very few labeled membranes were seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(95)00559-9DOI Listing
September 1995