Publications by authors named "S Crabb"

121 Publications

'Alcohol causes cancer': a difficult message for Australians to swallow.

Health Promot Int 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Discipline of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Alcohol is a modifiable risk factor for cancer. Public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer risk is poor; thus, alcohol consumers may be unknowingly putting themselves at increased risk of cancer. One way to raise awareness of alcohol-related cancer is through placing labels warning of cancer risk on alcoholic beverage containers; however, little is known about the impact of such labels. We conducted seven focus groups, comprising participants who self-identified as low-to-moderate alcohol consumers, to gauge public attitudes towards the labels and messages relating to alcohol-related cancer risk. Transcripts of discussions were coded to identify emergent themes. Participants expressed a negative response to the alcohol warning labels, and their talk worked to challenge the legitimacy of alcohol-related cancer messages, and the entities responsible for disseminating the information. These responses functioned to counter any implied recommendation for reduction in speakers' alcohol consumption. These findings illustrate how the general population make sense of information about health risks, using this knowledge to make decisions about personal behaviour. In combination with other public health initiatives, alcohol-warning labels have the potential to increase awareness of cancer risk and help in the fight against cancer, but any messaging will need to account for probable consumer resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daab024DOI Listing
March 2021

Toxicity and Surgical Complication Rates of Neoadjuvant Atezolizumab in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Undergoing Radical Cystectomy: Updated Safety Results from the ABACUS Trial.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 18;4(3):456-463. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Barts Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: There are limited data on toxicity and surgical safety associated with neoadjuvant programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors prior to radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

Objective: To present a comprehensive safety analysis of the largest neoadjuvant series, with focus on timing and severity of toxicity and surgical complications occurring after neoadjuvant atezolizumab in patients with MIBC enrolled in the ABACUS trial.

Design, Setting, And Participants: ABACUS (NCT02662309) is an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial for patients with histologically confirmed (T2-T4aN0M0) MIBC, awaiting RC. Patients either were ineligible or refused cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Intervention: Two cycles of neoadjuvant atezolizumab (1200 mg, every 3 wk) followed by RC.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Description of atezolizumab toxicity profile in the neoadjuvant setting, impact on surgery, and delayed immune-mediated adverse events (AEs) were assessed.

Results And Limitations: Ninety-five patients received treatment. Of them, 44% (42/95) had atezolizumab-related AEs during the neoadjuvant period (fatigue [20%], decreased appetite [6%], and transaminases increased [6%]). Treatment-related grade 3-5 AEs occurred in 11% (10/95) of patients during the study. Of the patients, 21% (20/95) received only one cycle of atezolizumab due to AEs; 92% (87/95) underwent RC. No surgery was delayed due to atezolizumab-related toxicities. Surgical complications occurred in 62% (54/87) of patients. Of these patients, 43% (37/87) and 20% (17/87) had minor (grade 1-2) and major (grade 3-5) complications, respectively. Thirteen of 87 (15%) patients had post-RC atezolizumab-related AEs, including adrenal insufficiency and transaminases increased. Three deaths occurred during the period of study-related interventions (one non-treatment-related aspiration pneumonia, one immune-related myocardial infarction, and one cardiogenic shock after RC). Not all surgical safety parameters were available.

Conclusions: Two cycles of neoadjuvant atezolizumab are well tolerated and do not seem to impact surgical complication rates. Owing to the long half-life, AEs may occur in the postoperative period, including endocrine abnormalities requiring attention and intervention.

Patient Summary: Here, we report a comprehensive dataset of patients receiving neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitors before radical cystectomy. Treatment with neoadjuvant atezolizumab is safe and does not seem to complicate surgery significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2020.11.010DOI Listing
June 2021

V-ATPase Inhibition Decreases Mutant Androgen Receptor Activity in Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 04 9;20(4):739-748. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Cancer Sciences Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Prostate cancer is critically dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Despite initial responsiveness to androgen deprivation, most patients with advanced prostate cancer subsequently progress to a clinically aggressive castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) phenotype, typically associated with expression of splice-variant or mutant AR forms. Although current evidence suggests that the vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multiprotein complex that catalyzes proton transport across intracellular and plasma membranes, influences wild-type AR function, the effect of V-ATPase inhibition on variant AR function is unknown.Inhibition of V-ATPase reduced AR function in wild-type and mutant AR luciferase reporter models. In hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DuCaP) and mutant AR CRPC cell lines (22Rv1, LNCaP-F877L/T878A), V-ATPase inhibition using bafilomycin-A1 and concanamycin-A reduced AR expression, and expression of AR target genes, at mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, combining chemical V-ATPase inhibition with the AR antagonist enzalutamide resulted in a greater reduction in AR downstream target expression than enzalutamide alone in LNCaP cells. To investigate the role of individual subunit isoforms, siRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 were used to target the VC1 subunit in 22Rv1 cells. Whereas transfection with ATP6V1C1-targeted siRNA significantly reduced AR protein levels and function, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated VC1 knockout showed no substantial change in AR expression, but a compensatory increase in protein levels of the alternate VC2 isoform.Overall, these results indicate that V-ATPase dysregulation is directly linked to both hormone-responsive prostate cancer and CRPC via impact on AR function. In particular, V-ATPase inhibition can reduce AR signaling regardless of mutant AR expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611189PMC
April 2021

Synthesis of Carboxamide-Containing Tranylcypromine Analogues as LSD1 (KDM1A) Inhibitors Targeting Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 3;16(8):1316-1324. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK.

Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) oxidatively removes methyl groups from histone proteins, and its aberrant activity has been correlated with cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We report a novel series of tranylcypromine analogues with a carboxamide at the 4-position of the aryl ring. These compounds, such as 5 a and 5 b with benzyl and phenethylamide substituents, respectively, had potent sub-micromolar IC values for the inhibition of LSD1 as well as cell proliferation in a panel of AML cell lines. The dose-dependent increase in cellular expression levels of H3K4me2, CD86, CD11b and CD14 supported a mechanism involving LSD1 inhibition. The tert-butyl and ethyl carbamate derivatives of these tranylcypromines, although inactive in LSD1 inhibition, were of similar potency in cell-based assays with a more rapid onset of action. This suggests that carbamates can act as metabolically labile tranylcypromine prodrugs with superior pharmacokinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202000754DOI Listing
April 2021

Body Mass Index in Patients Treated with Cabozantinib for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: A New Prognostic Factor?

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jan 18;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Oncology Unit, Macerata Hospital, Via Santa Lucia 2, 62100 Macerata, Italy.

We analyzed the clinical and pathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients treated with cabozantinib stratified by body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers involved in the treatment of RCC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses. We collected data from 224 patients with advanced RCC receiving cabozantinib as second- (113, 5%) or third-line (111, 5%) therapy. The median PFS was significantly higher in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (9.9 vs. 7.6 months, < 0.001). The median OS was higher in the BMI ≥ 25 subgroup (30.7 vs. 11.0 months, = 0.003). As third-line therapy, both median PFS (9.2 months vs. 3.9 months, = 0.029) and OS (39.4 months vs. 11.5 months, = 0.039) were longer in patients with BMI ≥ 25. BMI was a significant predictor for both PFS and OS at multivariate analysis. We showed that a BMI ≥ 25 correlates with longer survival in patients receiving cabozantinib. BMI can be easily assessed and should be included in current prognostic criteria for advanced RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831923PMC
January 2021
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