Publications by authors named "S C Hart"

1,381 Publications

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Hydrogeochemical and isotopic evaluation of VOC commingled plumes in a weathered fractured bedrock aquifer treated with thermal and bioremediation.

J Contam Hydrol 2022 Jan 4;245:103940. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Chlorinated ethanes and ethenes isotopic analyses in groundwater and hydrogeochemical results from a former industrial area in Sao Paulo (Brazil) were used to confirm the existence and allow further characterization of source areas and their commingled plumes, both before and after thermal and bioremediation treatments. Prior to full scale remediation, a recently identified off-site source area with unknown history and limited access for further intrusive works presented lower δC values (-6.5‰ to -1.8‰ for 1,2-DCA) than the downgradient on-site source area (+8.6‰ to +20.0‰). Intermediate δC values for 1,2-DCA were identified further downgradient from the sources, within commingled plumes patterns. The isotope and concentration results show the typical degradation patterns associated with biotic reductive dechlorination for chlorinated ethenes and dihaloelimination for 1,2-DCA. Results following remediation treatments show further levels of isotopic enrichment, for chlorinated ethenes and chlorinated ethanes in the tropically weathered and deeper fractured bedrock (gneisses) groundwater. Hydrogeochemical results, isotopic mass balance and Carbon-Chlorine isotope slopes data are coherent with remediation treatment and a complex commingled plume setting. The results of this study confirmed the Temporal Conceptual Model proposed by Hart et al. (2021) and identified the need for further studies to evaluate isotopic dynamics under thermal remediation, including thermal-induced hydrolysis processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2021.103940DOI Listing
January 2022

A Text Messaging-Enhanced Intervention for African American Patients With Heart Failure, Depression, and Anxiety (TXT COPE-HF): Protocol for a Pilot Feasibility Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2022 Jan 7;11(1):e32550. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.

Background: African Americans have a higher incidence rate of heart failure (HF) and an earlier age of HF onset compared to those of other racial and ethnic groups. Scientific literature suggests that by 2030, African Americans will have a 30% increased prevalence rate of HF coupled with depression. In addition to depression, anxiety is a predictor of worsening functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased hospital readmission rates. There is no consensus on the best way to treat patients with HF, depression, and anxiety. One promising type of treatment-cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-has been shown to significantly improve patients' quality of life and treatment compliance, but CBT has not been used with SMS text messaging reminders to enhance the effect of reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety in racial and ethnic minority patients with HF.

Objective: The objectives of our study are to (1) adapt and modify the Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment (COPE) curriculum for delivery to patients with HF by using an SMS text messaging component to improve depression and anxiety symptoms, (2) administer the adapted intervention to 10 patients to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the approach and modify it as needed, and (3) examine trends in depression and anxiety symptoms postintervention. We hypothesize that patients will show an improvement in depression scores and anxiety symptoms postintervention.

Methods: The study will comprise a mixed methods approach. We will use the eight steps of the ADAPT-ITT (assessment, decision, administration, production, topical expert, integration, training, and testing) model to adapt the intervention. The first step in this feasibility study will involve assembling individuals from the target population (n=10) to discuss questions on a specific topic. In phase 2, we will examine the feasibility and acceptability of the enhanced SMS text messaging intervention (TXT COPE-HF [Texting With COPE for Patients With HF]) and its preliminary effects with 10 participants. The Beck Depression Inventory will be used to assess depression, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory will be used to assess anxiety, and the Healthy Beliefs and Lifestyle Behavior surveys will be used to assess participants' lifestyle beliefs and behavior changes. Changes will be compared from baseline to end point by using paired 2-tailed t tests. An exit focus group (n=10) will be held to examine facilitators and barriers to the SMS text messaging protocol.

Results: The pilot feasibility study was funded by the Academy for Clinical Research and Scholarship. Institutional review board approval was obtained in April 2021. Data collection and analysis are expected to conclude by November 2021 and April 2022, respectively.

Conclusions: The study results will add to the literature on the effectiveness of an SMS text messaging CBT-enhanced intervention in reducing depression and anxiety among African American patients with HF.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/32550.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32550DOI Listing
January 2022

Intelligence Can Be Used to Make a More Equitable Society but Only When Properly Defined and Applied.

J Intell 2021 Nov 25;9(4). Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

In the US, undeniable evidence shows that socioeconomic inequities explain a high proportion of individual differences in school achievement. Although not all countries show this same effect due to socioeconomic status, it is consistently found that social inequities lead to achievement gaps. These achievement gaps then manifest into trajectories that set some individuals on a path of lower incomes, poorer health and higher mortality, lower wellbeing, and other poor adult outcomes. Like James Flynn so handily reminded the scientific literature that achievement gaps are explainable by environmental factors, the inequities we see around the world are based on environments some children are exposed to. In his work, Flynn stated his belief that the suppression of scientific work on intelligence would continue to lead to social inequities. We wish to take this idea and move it forward. We believe that the scientific construct of intelligence plays a key role in helping create a more equitable society through science. We also believe that the poor perception of intelligence, rooted in historical realities, means that it will continue to be misunderstood, feared, and misused, limiting how effective it could be in helping to close gaps in achievement and in creating a more equitable society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence9040057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8706903PMC
November 2021

Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Impair FcγRIIA-Driven Platelet Responses to Bacteria in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:766272. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Centre for Atherothrombosis and Metabolic Disease, Hull York Medical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.

Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and infection risk increases in patients treated with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor, ibrutinib. Btk and related kinases (like Tec) are expressed in non-leukemic hematopoietic cells and can be targeted by ibrutinib. In platelets, ibrutinib therapy is associated with bleeding complications mostly due to off-target effects. But the ability of platelets to respond to bacteria in CLL, and the potential impact of ibrutinib on platelet innate immune functions remain unknown. FcγRIIA is a tyrosine kinase-dependent receptor critical for platelet activation in response to IgG-coated pathogens. Crosslinking of this receptor with monoclonal antibodies causes downstream activation of Btk and Tec in platelets, however, this has not been investigated in response to bacteria. We asked whether ibrutinib impacts on FcγRIIA-mediated activation of platelets derived from CLL patients and healthy donors after exposure to Newman and RS218. Platelet aggregation, α-granule secretion and integrin αIIbβ3-dependent scavenging of bacteria were detected in CLL platelets but impaired in platelets from ibrutinib-treated patients and in healthy donor-derived platelets exposed to ibrutinib . While levels of surface FcγRIIA remained unaffected, CLL platelets had reduced expression of integrin αIIbβ3 and GPVI compared to controls regardless of therapy. In respect of intracellular signaling, bacteria induced Btk and Tec phosphorylation in both CLL and control platelets that was inhibited by ibrutinib. To address if Btk is essential for platelet activation in response to bacteria, platelets derived from X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients (lacking functional Btk) were exposed to Newman and RS218, and FcγRIIA-dependent aggregation was observed. Our data suggest that ibrutinib impairment of FcγRIIA-mediated platelet activation by bacteria results from a combination of Btk and Tec inhibition, although off-target effects on additional kinases cannot be discarded. This is potentially relevant to control infection-risk in CLL patients and, thus, future studies should carefully evaluate the effects of CLL therapies, including Btk inhibitors with higher specificity for Btk, on platelet-mediated immune functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.766272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8667317PMC
November 2021

Impact of patient characteristics on clinicians' decisions to involve dietitians in eating disorder treatment.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Dec 15. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Boden Collaboration for Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background & Aims: Dietetic involvement in eating disorder (ED) treatment is often initiated by other members of a patient's treating team. This study aimed to examine the impact of patient characteristics on clinicians' decisions to involve a dietitian in a patient's ED treatment, as well as the influence of clinician characteristics on their decision-making.

Methods: ED clinicians were recruited to complete an online survey, which used case vignettes to assess their likelihood of referring patients to a dietitian or consulting with a dietitian for guidance. Questions were also included measuring clinician anxiety, beliefs about the therapy they deliver, beliefs about dietitians and views on evidence-based practice, to determine if these were related to their responses to case vignettes.

Results: Fifty-seven clinicians completed the survey, with the largest group being clinical psychologists (n=22, 39%). ED diagnosis, weight status, medical co-morbidities and progress in treatment were all shown to be influential on whether clinicians involved dietitians in ED treatment. Clinician characteristics and their beliefs about dietitians were generally not correlated with the likelihood of seeking dietetic input.

Conclusions: This study indicates that clinicians' decisions to involve dietitians in ED treatment are systematic rather than random decisions influenced by individual clinician characteristics. Clinicians require further education on the potential for malnutrition regardless of patients'ED diagnosis or weight status, and the dietitian's role in addressing this. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12980DOI Listing
December 2021
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