Publications by authors named "S Banerjee"

6,989 Publications

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Patient-centred outcomes and effect of disease progression on health status in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation receiving maintenance olaparib or placebo (SOLO1): a randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: In the phase 3 SOLO1 trial, maintenance olaparib provided a significant progression-free survival benefit versus placebo in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation in response after platinum-based chemotherapy. We analysed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and patient-centred outcomes in SOLO1, and the effect of radiological disease progression on health status.

Methods: SOLO1 is a randomised, double-blind, international trial done in 118 centres and 15 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older; had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1; had newly diagnosed, advanced, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer, primary peritoneal cancer, or fallopian tube cancer with a BRCA mutation; and were in clinical complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to either 300 mg olaparib tablets or placebo twice per day using an interactive voice and web response system and were treated for up to 2 years. Treatment assignment was masked for patients and for clinicians giving the interventions, and those collecting and analysing the data. Randomisation was stratified by response to platinum-based chemotherapy (clinical complete or partial response). HRQOL was a secondary endpoint and the prespecified primary HRQOL endpoint was the change from baseline in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian Cancer Trial Outcome Index (TOI) score for the first 24 months. TOI scores range from 0 to 100 (higher scores indicated better HRQOL), with a clinically meaningful difference defined as a difference of at least 10 points. Prespecified exploratory endpoints were quality-adjusted progression-free survival and time without significant symptoms of toxicity (TWiST). HRQOL endpoints were analysed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is ongoing but closed to new participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01844986.

Findings: Between Sept 3, 2013, and March 6, 2015, 1084 patients were enrolled. 693 patients were ineligible, leaving 391 eligible patients who were randomly assigned to olaparib (n=260) or placebo (n=131; one placebo patient withdrew before receiving any study treatment), with a median duration of follow-up of 40·7 months (IQR 34·9-42·9) for olaparib and 41·2 months (32·2-41·6) for placebo. There was no clinically meaningful change in TOI score at 24 months within or between the olaparib and placebo groups (adjusted mean change in score from baseline over 24 months was 0·30 points [95% CI -0·72 to 1·32] in the olaparib group vs 3·30 points [1·84 to 4·76] in the placebo group; between-group difference of -3·00, 95% CI -4·78 to -1·22; p=0·0010). Mean quality-adjusted progression-free survival (olaparib 29·75 months [95% CI 28·20-31·63] vs placebo 17·58 [15·05-20·18]; difference 12·17 months [95% CI 9·07-15·11], p<0·0001) and the mean duration of TWiST (olaparib 33·15 months [95% CI 30·82-35·49] vs placebo 20·24 months [17·36-23·11]; difference 12·92 months [95% CI 9·30-16·54]; p<0·0001) were significantly longer with olaparib than with placebo.

Interpretation: The substantial progression-free survival benefit provided by maintenance olaparib in the newly diagnosed setting was achieved with no detrimental effect on patients' HRQOL and was supported by clinically meaningful quality-adjusted progression-free survival and TWiST benefits with maintenance olaparib versus placebo.

Funding: AstraZeneca and Merck Sharp & Dohme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00098-XDOI Listing
April 2021

Interaction of a triantennary quinoline glycoconjugate with Asialoglycoprotein receptor.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Indian Institute of Chemical Biology CSIR, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, 4, Raja S.C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, 700032, Kolkata, INDIA.

Targeted intracellular delivery is an efficient strategy for developing therapeutics against cancer and other intracellular infections. Non-specific drug delivery show limited clinical applications owing to their high dosage, cytotoxicity, non-specific action, high cost, etc. So, targeted delivery of less cytotoxic drug candidates to hepatocytes through ASGPR mediated endocytosis could be an efficient strategy to surmount the prevailing shortcomings. In the present work, the gene encoding ASGPR-H1-CRD has been amplified from Huh7 cells, cloned into pET 11a vector and the ASGPR-H1-CRD protein was expressed and purified from E. coli . A novel triantennary galactose conjugated quinoline derivative 4 has been synthesized that demonstrates a 17 fold higher binding affinity to isolated ASGPR-H1-CRD protein receptor (K d ~ 54 µM) in comparison to D-Galactose (Kd ~ 900 µM). Moreover, micro-calorimetric studies for the interaction of glycoconjugate 4 with ASGPR protein on live hepatocytes showed notable thermal response in case of ASGPR containing Huh7 cells, in comparison to non-ASGPR Chang cells. Our research outcome might serve as an approach towards targeted delivery of small glycoconjugates to hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202100158DOI Listing
April 2021

Spatial disease mapping using directed acyclic graph auto-regressive (DAGAR) models.

Bayesian Anal 2019 Dec 3;14(4):1221-1244. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

University of California Los Angeles.

Hierarchical models for regionally aggregated disease incidence data commonly involve region specific latent random effects that are modeled jointly as having a multivariate Gaussian distribution. The covariance or precision matrix incorporates the spatial dependence between the regions. Common choices for the precision matrix include the widely used ICAR model, which is singular, and its nonsingular extension which lacks interpretability. We propose a new parametric model for the precision matrix based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representation of the spatial dependence. Our model guarantees positive definiteness and, hence, in addition to being a valid prior for regional spatially correlated random effects, can also directly model the outcome from dependent data like images and networks. Theoretical results establish a link between the parameters in our model and the variance and covariances of the random effects. Substantive simulation studies demonstrate that the improved interpretability of our model reaps benefits in terms of accurately recovering the latent spatial random effects as well as for inference on the spatial covariance parameters. Under modest spatial correlation, our model far outperforms the CAR models, while the performances are similar when the spatial correlation is strong. We also assess sensitivity to the choice of the ordering in the DAG construction using theoretical and empirical results which testify to the robustness of our model. We also present a large-scale public health application demonstrating the competitive performance of the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/19-ba1177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046356PMC
December 2019

Second and third harmonic conversion of a kilowatt average power, 100-J-level diode pumped Yb:YAG laser in large aperture LBO.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1808-1811

We report on the successful demonstration of second and third harmonic conversion of a high pulse energy, high average power 1030 nm diode pumped Yb-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) nanosecond pulsed laser in a large aperture lithium triborate (LBO) crystal. We demonstrated generation of 59.7 J at 10 Hz (597 W) at 515 nm (second harmonic) and of 65.0 J at 1 Hz (65 W) at 343 nm (third harmonic), with efficiencies of 66% and 68%, respectively. These results, to the best of our knowledge, represent the highest energy and power reported for frequency conversion to green and UV-A wavelengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.419861DOI Listing
April 2021

Abiraterone in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: principal results of the phase II Cancer of the Ovary Abiraterone (CORAL) trial (CRUK - A16037).

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 29;12:1758835920975352. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Background: Recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains difficult to treat, with an urgent need for more therapy options. Androgens bind to the androgen receptor (AR), commonly expressed in EOC. CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone irreversibly inhibits androgen biosynthesis. The Cancer of the Ovary Abiraterone (CORAL) trial was designed to evaluate the clinical activity of abiraterone in EOC.

Patients & Methods: CORAL was a multi-centre, open-label, non-randomised, 2-stage phase II clinical trial. Eligible patients had progression within 12 months of last systemic therapy and no prior hormonal anti-cancer agents. Patients received abiraterone 1000 mg daily plus 5 mg prednisone until progression. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) according to combined Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours/Gynaecological Cancer Intergroup (RECIST/GCIG) criteria at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate (CBR) at 12 weeks.

Results: A total of 42 patients were recruited; median age 65 (range 34-85) years; 37 (88.1%) had high-grade serous tumours; 20 (48%) had at least three prior lines of therapy; 29/40 (72.5%) were AR+. In stage 1, 1/26 response was observed (in an AR+, low-grade serous EOC); response lasted 47 weeks. Overall, 12 week ORR was 1/42 (2%), CBR was 11/42 (26%) (8/29 (28%) in AR+ patients). Disease control was ⩾6 months for 4/29 (14%). One patient (AR+, low-grade serous) had a RECIST response at 82 weeks. Four (10%) had grade ⩾3 hypokalaemia; 11 (26%) had dose delays.

Conclusions: CORAL represents the first trial of an AR targeted agent in ovarian cancer. While responses were rare, a subset of patients achieved sustained clinical benefit. Targeting AR in EOC including low-grade serous cancer warrants further investigation.

Trial Registration: CORAL is registered on the ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN63407050; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN63407050.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920975352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013695PMC
December 2020

A perspective essay on the use of Ga as a proxy for Fe in bioinorganic model studies and its successful use for therapeutic purposes.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Mar 20;219:111411. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Chemistry, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.

The use of Ga as a structural mimic for Fe in model bioinorganic investigations is usually based on a common assumption that Ga and Fe should form bioligand complexes of similar stabilities due to their similar charge/radius ratio (z/r). However, the literature survey presented here is contrary to this notion, showing that under laboratory conditions often Ga forms weaker bioligand complexes than Fein aqueous medium. We hypothesize that this is because Ga is more aquaphilic than Fe as suggested by their relative heats of hydration (ΔH). The successful use of Ga as a therapeutic agent is also briefly reviewed, showing this success often stems from the redox inertness as well as different pharmacokinetics of Ga than Fe, but similar metabolic pathways as Fe in human serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111411DOI Listing
March 2021

Anisotropic and Self-Healing Copolymer with Multiresponsive Capability via Recyclable Alloy-Mediated RDRP.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Apr 13:e2100096. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bhilai, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492015, India.

A novel triple stimuli sensitive block copolymer is prepared by magnetically separable and reusable (up to multiple cycles) Ni-Co alloy nanoparticles mediated reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) at 25 °C, that responds to changes in temperature, pH, and light. Design of this block copolymer constitutes a temperature-sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), an acid-sensitive lysine methacrylamide (LysMAM), and a light responsive umbelliferone (UMB) end group. The stimuli response, in response to one stimulus as well as combinations of stimuli, has been evaluated. Responsiveness to light allows the construction of self-healing materials. Density functional theory calculations rationalize the underlying mechanism of the polymerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100096DOI Listing
April 2021

Initial clinical evaluation of indigenous Y-DOTATATE in sequential duo-PRRT approach (Lu-DOTATATE and Y-DOTATATE) in neuroendocrine tumors with large bulky disease: Observation on tolerability, Y-DOTATATE post- PRRT imaging characteristics (bremsstrahlung and PETCT) and early adverse effects.

World J Nucl Med 2021 Jan-Mar;20(1):73-81. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Radiation Medicine Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe, Parel, India.

Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) alone has lesser potential in the clinical setting of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with large bulky disease and nonhomogeneous somatostatin receptors (SSTR) distribution, owing to lower energy (Eβmax 0.497 MeV) and a shorter particle penetration range (maximum 2-4 mm) of Lu. In large bulky NETs, Yttrium (Y) has the theoretical advantages because of a longer beta particle penetration range (a maximum soft tissue penetration of 11 mm). Therefore, a combination of Lu and Y is a theoretically sound concept that can result in better response in metastatic NET with large-bulky lesion and non-homogeneous SSTR distribution. The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of combining Y-DOTATATE with Lu-DOTATATE PRRT as sequential duo-PRRT in metastatic NET with (≥5 cm) including the post Y-DOTATATE-PRRT imaging and also to determine early toxicity of the duo-PRRT approach. A total of 9 patients received combination of Lu-DOTATATE with Y-DOTATATE (indigenously prepared and approved) through sequential duo-PRRT approach. These 9 NET patients were included and analyzed in this study. All 9 patients had undergone post-PRRT Y-DOTATATE imaging, including a whole-body planar bremsstrahlung imaging followed by regional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-computed tomography (CT) imaging and also a regional positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging. Grading of Y-DOTATATE and Lu-DOTATATE uptake was done on post-PRRT imaging by both modalities. The size of the lesions ranged from 5.5 cm to 16 cm with average size of 10 cm before sequential duo-PRRT was decided. Sequential duo-PRRT was administered because of stable, unresponsive disease following Lu-DOTATATE in 5 patients (55.6%), progressive disease after Lu-DOTATATE in 2 patients (22.2%), and with neoadjuvant intent in 2 patients (22.2%). The total cumulative dose of Lu-DOTATATE before duo-pRRT ranged from 11.84 GBq to 37 GBq per patient and average administered dose of 27.21 GBq per patient in this study. Out of 9 patients, 8 patients received single cycle of Y-DOTATATE (ranging from 2.66 GBq to 3.4 GBq per patient with average administered dose of 3.12 GBq per patient). One patient received two cycles of Y-DOTATATE (total dose of 6.2 GBq). Out of 9 patients, 8 patients showed excellent tracer concentration in lesions on post-PRRT Y-DOTATATE imaging and the remaining 1 patient showed fairly adequate Y-DOTATATE tracer uptake in lesion on visual analysis. There was matched Y-DOTATATE uptake with Ga-DOTATATE and also with LuDOTATATE in all 9 patients. The sequential duo-PRRT was well tolerated by all patients. Two patients (22.2%) developed mild nausea, one patient (11.1%) developed transient mild-grade hemoglobin toxicity, and one patient (11.1%) developed mild-grade gastrointestinal symptoms (loose motion and abdominal pain). No nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and other hematological toxicity was observed. The combination of the indigenous Y-DOTATATE with Lu-DOTATATE PRRT in NET as sequential duo-PRRT was well tolerated, feasible and safe in stable, unresponsive/progressive disease following single isotope Lu-DOTATATE therapy and also in neoadjuvant PRRT setting with large bulky lesion (≥≥5cm). Post-PRRT Y-DOTATATE imaging showed excellent Y-DOTATATE uptake in nearly all NET patients. Mild-grade early adverse effects were easily manageable and controllable in this sequential duo-PRRT approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_52_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034792PMC
October 2020

Paediatric nephrology in under-resourced areas.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Background: Nearly 50% of the world population and 60% of children aged 0 to 14 years live in low- or lower-middle-income countries. Paediatric nephrology (PN) in these countries is not a priority for allocation of limited health resources. This article explores advancements made and persisting limitations in providing optimal PN services to children in such under-resourced areas (URA).

Methods: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar online databases were searched for articles pertaining to PN disease epidemiology, outcome, availability of services and infrastructure in URA. The ISN and IPNA offices were contacted for data, and two online questionnaire surveys of IPNA membership performed. Regional IPNA members were contacted for further detailed information.

Results: There is a scarcity of published data from URA; where available, prevalence of PN diseases, managements and outcomes are often reported to be different from high income regions. Deficiencies in human resources, fluoroscopy, nuclear imaging, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and genetic studies were identified. Several drugs and maintenance kidney replacement therapy are inaccessible to the majority of patients. Despite these issues, regional efforts with support from international bodies have led to significant advances in PN services and infrastructure in many URA.

Conclusions: Equitable distribution and affordability of PN services remain major challenges in URA. The drive towards acquisition of regional data, advocacy to local government and non-government agencies and partnership with international support bodies needs to be continued. The aim is to optimise and achieve global parity in PN training, investigations and treatments, initially focusing on preventable and reversible conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-05059-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Dextran-based scaffolds for in-situ hydrogelation: Use for next generation of bioartificial cardiac tissues.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 17;262:117924. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute for Organic Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Schneiderberg 1B, 30167 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

In pursuit of a chemically-defined matrix for in vitro cardiac tissue generation, we present dextran (Dex)-derived hydrogels as matrices suitable for bioartificial cardiac tissues (BCT). The dextran hydrogels were generated in situ by using hydrazone formation as the crosslinking reaction. Material properties were flexibly adjusted, by varying the degrees of derivatization and the molecular weight of dextran used. Furthermore, to modulate dextran's bioactivity, cyclic pentapeptide RGD was coupled to its backbone. BCTs were generated by using a blend of modified dextran and human collagen (hColI) in combination with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) and fibroblasts. These hColI + Dex blends with or without RGD supported tissue formation and functional maturation of CMs. Contraction forces (hColI + Dex-RGD: 0.27 ± 0.02 mN; hColI + Dex: 0.26 ± 0.01 mN) and frequencies were comparable to published constructs. Thus, we could demonstrate that, independent of the presence of RGD, our covalently linked dextran hydrogels are a promising matrix for building cardiac grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117924DOI Listing
June 2021

Bacterial cell shape control by nutrient-dependent synthesis of cell division inhibitors.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

By analysing cell size and shapes of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis under nutrient perturbations, protein depletion, and antibiotic treatments we find that cell geometry is extremely robust, reflected in a well-conserved scaling relation between surface area (S) and volume (V), S̴Vγ, with γ=0.85. We develop a molecular model supported by single-cell simulations to predict that the surface-to-volume scaling exponent γ is regulated by nutrient-dependent production of metabolic enzymes that act as cell division inhibitors in bacteria. Using theory that is supported by experimental data, we predict the modes of cell shape transformations in different bacterial species and propose a mechanism of cell shape adaptation to different nutrient perturbations. For organisms with high surface-to-volume scaling exponent γ, such as B. subtilis, cell width is not sensitive to growth rate changes, whereas organisms with low γ, such as A. baumannii, cell shape adapts readily to growth rate changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Barriers and facilitators to implementing a longitudinal dementia education programme into undergraduate healthcare curricula: a qualitative study.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 9;21(1):201. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Centre for Dementia Studies, Trafford Centre for Medical Research, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RY, UK.

Background: As the numbers of people with dementia worldwide rises, there is a need for improved knowledge and awareness about the condition across the healthcare workforce. There are concerns that traditional models of healthcare education, which focus on short-term episodes of care, limit student understanding of long-term conditions. We therefore designed and delivered the Time for Dementia programme at five Universities in the UK. Through longitudinal contact with families living with dementia, healthcare students gain increased understanding about the experiences of living with dementia. However, implementing new educational models brings challenges. To enable implementation of similar programmes in other educational institutions, this study aimed to identify the common barriers and facilitators of implementing these types of longitudinal programmes at scale.

Methods: To understand the facilitators and barriers of implementing a longitudinal dementia educational programme, a qualitative study was completed. Between October and December 2018, twelve in-depth semi-structured interviews were completed with university teaching staff (n = 6), programme administrators (n = 4), and Alzheimer's Society staff (n = 2) that had key responsibilities for implementing Time for Dementia. Interview questions explored participants experiences, the facilitators, and the challenges encountered when implementing the programme. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Results: The analysis identified five key themes: "Leadership characteristics", "Organisational and student buy-in", "Perceived value and motivating factors", "Team coalition and support", and "Time and fit". Implementation of the programme was enhanced by resilient leaders managing the challenges of curricular change. Their belief in the value of the programme, stakeholder buy-in, and supportive team working enabled challenges to be overcome. Workload was reduced and student buy-in increased as time progressed and as more resources became available. A flexible approach to implementation was recommended to ensure the programme fits within the established curriculum.

Conclusion: Curricular change is a challenging task, yet necessary, if we are to improve care for people with long term conditions such as dementia. This study highlights the common barriers and facilitators experienced when implementing a longitudinal educational programme at scale. The findings presented in this study can be used by other educational institutions to manage curricular change efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02632-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034189PMC
April 2021

Search for Dark Matter Produced in Association with a Dark Higgs Boson Decaying into W^{±}W^{∓} or ZZ in Fully Hadronic Final States from sqrt[s]=13  TeV pp Collisions Recorded with the ATLAS Detector.

Authors:
G Aad B Abbott D C Abbott A Abed Abud K Abeling D K Abhayasinghe S H Abidi O S AbouZeid N L Abraham H Abramowicz H Abreu Y Abulaiti B S Acharya B Achkar L Adam C Adam Bourdarios L Adamczyk L Adamek J Adelman A Adiguzel S Adorni T Adye A A Affolder Y Afik C Agapopoulou M N Agaras A Aggarwal C Agheorghiesei J A Aguilar-Saavedra A Ahmad F Ahmadov W S Ahmed X Ai G Aielli S Akatsuka M Akbiyik T P A Åkesson E Akilli A V Akimov K Al Khoury G L Alberghi J Albert M J Alconada Verzini S Alderweireldt M Aleksa I N Aleksandrov C Alexa T Alexopoulos A Alfonsi F Alfonsi M Alhroob B Ali S Ali M Aliev G Alimonti C Allaire B M M Allbrooke B W Allen P P Allport A Aloisio F Alonso C Alpigiani E Alunno Camelia M Alvarez Estevez M G Alviggi Y Amaral Coutinho A Ambler L Ambroz C Amelung D Amidei S P Amor Dos Santos S Amoroso C S Amrouche F An C Anastopoulos N Andari T Andeen J K Anders S Y Andrean A Andreazza V Andrei C R Anelli S Angelidakis A Angerami A V Anisenkov A Annovi C Antel M T Anthony E Antipov M Antonelli D J A Antrim F Anulli M Aoki J A Aparisi Pozo M A Aparo L Aperio Bella N Aranzabal V Araujo Ferraz R Araujo Pereira C Arcangeletti A T H Arce J-F Arguin S Argyropoulos J-H Arling A J Armbruster A Armstrong O Arnaez H Arnold Z P Arrubarrena Tame G Artoni H Asada K Asai S Asai T Asawatavonvanich N Asbah E M Asimakopoulou L Asquith J Assahsah K Assamagan R Astalos R J Atkin M Atkinson N B Atlay H Atmani P A Atmasiddha K Augsten V A Austrup G Avolio M K Ayoub G Azuelos D Babal H Bachacou K Bachas F Backman P Bagnaia M Bahmani H Bahrasemani A J Bailey V R Bailey J T Baines C Bakalis O K Baker P J Bakker E Bakos D Bakshi Gupta S Balaji R Balasubramanian E M Baldin P Balek F Balli W K Balunas J Balz E Banas M Bandieramonte A Bandyopadhyay Sw Banerjee L Barak W M Barbe E L Barberio D Barberis M Barbero G Barbour T Barillari M-S Barisits J Barkeloo T Barklow R Barnea B M Barnett R M Barnett Z Barnovska-Blenessy A Baroncelli G Barone A J Barr L Barranco Navarro F Barreiro J Barreiro Guimarães da Costa U Barron S Barsov F Bartels R Bartoldus G Bartolini A E Barton P Bartos A Basalaev A Basan A Bassalat M J Basso R L Bates S Batlamous J R Batley B Batool M Battaglia M Bauce F Bauer P Bauer H S Bawa A Bayirli J B Beacham T Beau P H Beauchemin F Becherer P Bechtle H C Beck H P Beck K Becker C Becot A Beddall A J Beddall V A Bednyakov M Bedognetti C P Bee T A Beermann M Begalli M Begel A Behera J K Behr F Beisiegel M Belfkir A S Bell G Bella L Bellagamba A Bellerive P Bellos K Beloborodov K Belotskiy N L Belyaev D Benchekroun N Benekos Y Benhammou D P Benjamin M Benoit J R Bensinger S Bentvelsen L Beresford M Beretta D Berge E Bergeaas Kuutmann N Berger B Bergmann L J Bergsten J Beringer S Berlendis G Bernardi C Bernius F U Bernlochner T Berry P Berta A Berthold I A Bertram O Bessidskaia Bylund N Besson S Bethke A Betti A J Bevan J Beyer S Bhatta D S Bhattacharya P Bhattarai V S Bhopatkar R Bi R M Bianchi O Biebel D Biedermann R Bielski K Bierwagen N V Biesuz M Biglietti T R V Billoud M Bindi A Bingul C Bini S Biondi C J Birch-Sykes M Birman T Bisanz J P Biswal D Biswas A Bitadze C Bittrich K Bjørke T Blazek I Bloch C Blocker A Blue U Blumenschein G J Bobbink V S Bobrovnikov S S Bocchetta D Bogavac A G Bogdanchikov C Bohm V Boisvert P Bokan T Bold A E Bolz M Bomben M Bona J S Bonilla M Boonekamp C D Booth A G Borbély H M Borecka-Bielska L S Borgna A Borisov G Borissov D Bortoletto D Boscherini M Bosman J D Bossio Sola K Bouaouda J Boudreau E V Bouhova-Thacker D Boumediene A Boveia J Boyd D Boye I R Boyko A J Bozson J Bracinik N Brahimi G Brandt O Brandt F Braren B Brau J E Brau W D Breaden Madden K Brendlinger R Brener L Brenner R Brenner S Bressler B Brickwedde D L Briglin D Britton D Britzger I Brock R Brock G Brooijmans W K Brooks E Brost P A Bruckman de Renstrom B Brüers D Bruncko A Bruni G Bruni M Bruschi N Bruscino L Bryngemark T Buanes Q Buat P Buchholz A G Buckley I A Budagov M K Bugge O Bulekov B A Bullard T J Burch S Burdin C D Burgard A M Burger B Burghgrave J T P Burr C D Burton J C Burzynski V Büscher E Buschmann P J Bussey J M Butler C M Buttar J M Butterworth P Butti W Buttinger C J Buxo Vazquez A Buzatu A R Buzykaev G Cabras S Cabrera Urbán D Caforio H Cai V M M Cairo O Cakir N Calace P Calafiura G Calderini P Calfayan G Callea L P Caloba A Caltabiano S Calvente Lopez D Calvet S Calvet T P Calvet M Calvetti R Camacho Toro S Camarda D Camarero Munoz P Camarri M T Camerlingo D Cameron C Camincher S Campana M Campanelli A Camplani V Canale A Canesse M Cano Bret J Cantero T Cao Y Cao M Capua R Cardarelli F Cardillo G Carducci I Carli T Carli G Carlino B T Carlson E M Carlson L Carminati R M D Carney S Caron E Carquin S Carrá G Carratta J W S Carter T M Carter M P Casado A F Casha E G Castiglia F L Castillo L Castillo Garcia V Castillo Gimenez N F Castro A Catinaccio J R Catmore A Cattai V Cavaliere V Cavasinni E Celebi F Celli K Cerny A S Cerqueira A Cerri L Cerrito F Cerutti A Cervelli S A Cetin Z Chadi D 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F Giraud G Giugliarelli D Giugni F Giuli S Gkaitatzis I Gkialas E L Gkougkousis P Gkountoumis L K Gladilin C Glasman J Glatzer P C F Glaysher A Glazov G R Gledhill I Gnesi M Goblirsch-Kolb D Godin S Goldfarb T Golling D Golubkov A Gomes R Goncalves Gama R Gonçalo G Gonella L Gonella A Gongadze F Gonnella J L Gonski S González de la Hoz S Gonzalez Fernandez R Gonzalez Lopez C Gonzalez Renteria R Gonzalez Suarez S Gonzalez-Sevilla G R Gonzalvo Rodriguez L Goossens N A Gorasia P A Gorbounov H A Gordon B Gorini E Gorini A Gorišek A T Goshaw M I Gostkin C A Gottardo M Gouighri A G Goussiou N Govender C Goy I Grabowska-Bold E C Graham J Gramling E Gramstad S Grancagnolo M Grandi V Gratchev P M Gravila F G Gravili C Gray H M Gray C Grefe K Gregersen I M Gregor P Grenier K Grevtsov C Grieco N A Grieser A A Grillo K Grimm S Grinstein J-F Grivaz S Groh E Gross J Grosse-Knetter Z J Grout C Grud A Grummer J C Grundy L Guan W Guan C Gubbels J Guenther A Guerguichon J G R Guerrero Rojas F Guescini D Guest R Gugel A Guida T Guillemin S Guindon J Guo W Guo Y Guo Z Guo R Gupta S Gurbuz G Gustavino M Guth P Gutierrez C Gutschow C Guyot C Gwenlan C B Gwilliam E S Haaland A Haas C Haber H K Hadavand A Hadef M Haleem J Haley J J Hall G Halladjian G D Hallewell K Hamano H Hamdaoui M Hamer G N Hamity K Han L Han L Han S Han Y F Han K Hanagaki M Hance D M Handl M D Hank R Hankache E Hansen J B Hansen J D Hansen M C Hansen P H Hansen E C Hanson K Hara T Harenberg S Harkusha P F Harrison N M Hartman N M Hartmann Y Hasegawa A Hasib S Hassani S Haug R Hauser M Havranek C M Hawkes R J Hawkings S Hayashida D Hayden C Hayes R L Hayes C P Hays J M Hays H S Hayward S J Haywood F He Y He M P Heath V Hedberg A L Heggelund N D Hehir C Heidegger K K Heidegger W D Heidorn J Heilman S Heim T Heim B Heinemann J G Heinlein J J Heinrich L Heinrich J Hejbal L Helary A Held S Hellesund C M Helling S Hellman C Helsens R C W Henderson L Henkelmann A M Henriques Correia H Herde Y Hernández Jiménez H Herr M G Herrmann T Herrmann G Herten R Hertenberger L Hervas G G Hesketh N P Hessey H Hibi S Higashino E Higón-Rodriguez K Hildebrand J C Hill K K Hill K H Hiller S J Hillier M Hils I Hinchliffe F Hinterkeuser M Hirose S Hirose D Hirschbuehl B Hiti O Hladik J Hobbs R Hobincu N Hod M C Hodgkinson A Hoecker D Hohn D Hohov T Holm T R Holmes M Holzbock L B A H Hommels T M Hong J C Honig A Hönle B H Hooberman W H Hopkins Y Horii P Horn L A Horyn S Hou A Hoummada J Howarth J Hoya M Hrabovsky J Hrivnac A Hrynevich T Hryn'ova P J Hsu S-C Hsu Q Hu S Hu Y F Hu D P Huang X Huang Y Huang Y Huang Z Hubacek F Hubaut M Huebner F Huegging T B Huffman M Huhtinen R Hulsken R F H Hunter N Huseynov J Huston J Huth R Hyneman S Hyrych G Iacobucci G Iakovidis I Ibragimov L Iconomidou-Fayard P Iengo R Ignazzi R Iguchi T Iizawa Y Ikegami M Ikeno N Ilic F Iltzsche H Imam G Introzzi M Iodice K Iordanidou V Ippolito M F Isacson M Ishino W Islam C Issever S Istin J M Iturbe Ponce R Iuppa A Ivina J M Izen V Izzo P Jacka P 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Khalil-Zada M Khandoga A Khanov A G Kharlamov T Kharlamova E E Khoda T J Khoo G Khoriauli E Khramov J Khubua S Kido M Kiehn E Kim Y K Kim N Kimura A Kirchhoff D Kirchmeier J Kirk A E Kiryunin T Kishimoto D P Kisliuk V Kitali C Kitsaki O Kivernyk T Klapdor-Kleingrothaus M Klassen C Klein M H Klein M Klein U Klein K Kleinknecht P Klimek A Klimentov F Klimpel T Klingl T Klioutchnikova F F Klitzner P Kluit S Kluth E Kneringer E B F G Knoops A Knue D Kobayashi M Kobel M Kocian T Kodama P Kodys D M Koeck P T Koenig T Koffas N M Köhler M Kolb I Koletsou T Komarek T Kondo K Köneke A X Y Kong A C König T Kono V Konstantinides N Konstantinidis B Konya R Kopeliansky S Koperny K Korcyl K Kordas G Koren A Korn I Korolkov E V Korolkova N Korotkova O Kortner S Kortner V V Kostyukhin A Kotsokechagia A Kotwal A Koulouris A Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi C Kourkoumelis E Kourlitis V Kouskoura R Kowalewski W Kozanecki A S Kozhin V A Kramarenko G Kramberger D Krasnopevtsev M W Krasny A Krasznahorkay D Krauss J A Kremer J Kretzschmar K Kreul P Krieger F Krieter S Krishnamurthy A Krishnan M Krivos K Krizka K Kroeninger H Kroha J Kroll J Kroll K S Krowpman U Kruchonak H Krüger N Krumnack M C Kruse J A Krzysiak A Kubota O Kuchinskaia S Kuday D Kuechler J T Kuechler S Kuehn T Kuhl V Kukhtin Y Kulchitsky S Kuleshov Y P Kulinich M Kuna A Kupco T Kupfer O Kuprash H Kurashige L L Kurchaninov Y A Kurochkin A Kurova M G Kurth E S Kuwertz M Kuze A K Kvam J Kvita T Kwan C Lacasta F Lacava D P J Lack H Lacker D Lacour E Ladygin R Lafaye B Laforge T Lagouri S Lai I K Lakomiec J E Lambert S Lammers W Lampl C Lampoudis E Lançon U Landgraf M P J Landon V S Lang J C Lange R J Langenberg A J Lankford F Lanni K Lantzsch A Lanza A Lapertosa J F Laporte T Lari F Lasagni Manghi M Lassnig V Latonova T S Lau A Laudrain A Laurier M Lavorgna S D Lawlor M Lazzaroni B Le E Le Guirriec A Lebedev M LeBlanc T LeCompte F Ledroit-Guillon A C A Lee C A Lee G R Lee L Lee S C Lee S Lee B Lefebvre H P Lefebvre M Lefebvre C 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Lyons R Lysak E Lytken F Lyu V Lyubushkin T Lyubushkina H Ma L L Ma Y Ma D M Mac Donell G Maccarrone C M Macdonald J C MacDonald J Machado Miguens R Madar W F Mader M Madugoda Ralalage Don N Madysa J Maeda T Maeno M Maerker V Magerl N Magini J Magro D J Mahon C Maidantchik A Maio K Maj O Majersky S Majewski Y Makida N Makovec B Malaescu Pa Malecki V P Maleev F Malek D Malito U Mallik C Malone S Maltezos S Malyukov J Mamuzic G Mancini J P Mandalia I Mandić L Manhaes de Andrade Filho I M Maniatis J Manjarres Ramos K H Mankinen A Mann A Manousos B Mansoulie I Manthos S Manzoni A Marantis G Marceca L Marchese G Marchiori M Marcisovsky L Marcoccia C Marcon M Marjanovic Z Marshall M U F Martensson S Marti-Garcia C B Martin T A Martin V J Martin B Martin Dit Latour L Martinelli M Martinez P Martinez Agullo V I Martinez Outschoorn S Martin-Haugh V S Martoiu A C Martyniuk A Marzin S R Maschek L Masetti T Mashimo R Mashinistov J Masik A L Maslennikov L Massa P Massarotti P Mastrandrea A Mastroberardino T Masubuchi D Matakias A Matic N Matsuzawa P Mättig J Maurer B Maček D A Maximov R Mazini I Maznas S M Mazza J P Mc Gowan S P Mc Kee T G McCarthy W P McCormack E F McDonald A E McDougall J A Mcfayden G Mchedlidze M A McKay K D McLean S J McMahon P C McNamara C J McNicol R A McPherson J E Mdhluli Z A Meadows S Meehan T Megy S Mehlhase A Mehta B Meirose D Melini B R Mellado Garcia J D Mellenthin M Melo F Meloni A Melzer E D Mendes Gouveia A M Mendes Jacques Da Costa H Y Meng L Meng X T Meng S Menke E Meoni S Mergelmeyer S A M Merkt C Merlassino P Mermod L Merola C Meroni G Merz O Meshkov J K R Meshreki J Metcalfe A S Mete C Meyer J-P Meyer M Michetti R P Middleton L Mijović G Mikenberg M Mikestikova M Mikuž H Mildner A Milic C D Milke D W Miller L S Miller A Milov D A Milstead A A Minaenko I A Minashvili L Mince A I Mincer B Mindur M Mineev Y Minegishi Y Mino L M Mir M Mironova T Mitani J Mitrevski V A Mitsou M Mittal O Miu A Miucci P S Miyagawa A Mizukami J U Mjörnmark T Mkrtchyan M Mlynarikova T Moa S Mobius K Mochizuki P Moder P Mogg S Mohapatra R Moles-Valls K Mönig E Monnier A Montalbano J Montejo Berlingen M Montella F Monticelli S Monzani N Morange A L Moreira De Carvalho D Moreno M Moreno Llácer C Moreno Martinez P Morettini M Morgenstern S Morgenstern D Mori M Morii M Morinaga V Morisbak A K Morley G Mornacchi A P Morris L Morvaj P Moschovakos B Moser M Mosidze T Moskalets P Moskvitina J Moss E J W Moyse S Muanza J Mueller R S P Mueller D Muenstermann G A Mullier D P Mungo J L Munoz Martinez F J Munoz Sanchez P Murin W J Murray A Murrone J M Muse M Muškinja C Mwewa A G Myagkov A A Myers G Myers J Myers M Myska B P Nachman O Nackenhorst A Nag Nag K Nagai K Nagano Y Nagasaka J L Nagle E Nagy A M Nairz Y Nakahama K Nakamura T Nakamura H Nanjo F Napolitano R F Naranjo Garcia R Narayan I Naryshkin M Naseri T Naumann G Navarro P Y Nechaeva F Nechansky T J Neep A Negri M Negrini C Nellist C Nelson M E Nelson S Nemecek M Nessi M S Neubauer F Neuhaus M 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Pachal A Pacheco Pages C Padilla Aranda S Pagan Griso G Palacino S Palazzo S Palestini M Palka P Palni C E Pandini J G Panduro Vazquez P Pani G Panizzo L Paolozzi C Papadatos K Papageorgiou S Parajuli A Paramonov C Paraskevopoulos D Paredes Hernandez S R Paredes Saenz B Parida T H Park A J Parker M A Parker F Parodi E W Parrish J A Parsons U Parzefall L Pascual Dominguez V R Pascuzzi J M P Pasner F Pasquali E Pasqualucci S Passaggio F Pastore P Pasuwan S Pataraia J R Pater A Pathak J Patton T Pauly J Pearkes M Pedersen L Pedraza Diaz R Pedro T Peiffer S V Peleganchuk O Penc C Peng H Peng B S Peralva M M Perego A P Pereira Peixoto L Pereira Sanchez D V Perepelitsa E Perez Codina L Perini H Pernegger S Perrella A Perrevoort K Peters R F Y Peters B A Petersen T C Petersen E Petit V Petousis C Petridou F Petrucci M Pettee N E Pettersson K Petukhova A Peyaud R Pezoa L Pezzotti T Pham P W Phillips M W Phipps G Piacquadio E Pianori A Picazio R H Pickles R Piegaia D Pietreanu J E Pilcher A D Pilkington M Pinamonti J L Pinfold C Pitman Donaldson M Pitt L Pizzimento A Pizzini M-A Pleier V Plesanovs V Pleskot E Plotnikova P Podberezko R Poettgen R Poggi L Poggioli I Pogrebnyak D Pohl I Pokharel G Polesello A Poley A Policicchio R Polifka A Polini C S Pollard V Polychronakos D Ponomarenko L Pontecorvo S Popa G A Popeneciu L Portales D M Portillo Quintero S Pospisil K Potamianos I N Potrap C J Potter H Potti T Poulsen J Poveda T D Powell G Pownall M E Pozo Astigarraga A Prades Ibanez P Pralavorio M M Prapa S Prell D Price M Primavera M L Proffitt N Proklova K Prokofiev F Prokoshin S Protopopescu J Proudfoot M Przybycien D Pudzha A Puri P Puzo D Pyatiizbyantseva J Qian Y Qin A Quadt M Queitsch-Maitland G Rabanal Bolanos M Racko F Ragusa G Rahal J A Raine S Rajagopalan A Ramirez Morales K Ran D F Rassloff D M Rauch F Rauscher S Rave B Ravina I Ravinovich J H Rawling M Raymond A L Read N P Readioff M Reale D M Rebuzzi G Redlinger K Reeves D Reikher A Reiss A Rej C Rembser A 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Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):121802

CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.

Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the production of dark matter particles at the LHC. An uncharted signature of dark matter particles produced in association with VV=W^{±}W^{∓} or ZZ pairs from a decay of a dark Higgs boson s is searched for using 139  fb^{-1} of pp collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The s→V(qq[over ¯])V(qq[over ¯]) decays are reconstructed with a novel technique aimed at resolving the dense topology from boosted VV pairs using jets in the calorimeter and tracking information. Dark Higgs scenarios with m_{s}>160  GeV are excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.121802DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal Flow Decorrelations in Xe+Xe Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.44  TeV with the ATLAS Detector.

Authors:
G Aad B Abbott D C Abbott A Abed Abud K Abeling D K Abhayasinghe S H Abidi O S AbouZeid N L Abraham H Abramowicz H Abreu Y Abulaiti B S Acharya B Achkar S Adachi L Adam C Adam Bourdarios L Adamczyk L Adamek J Adelman M Adersberger A Adiguzel S Adorni T Adye A A Affolder Y Afik C Agapopoulou M N Agaras A Aggarwal C Agheorghiesei J A Aguilar-Saavedra F Ahmadov W S Ahmed X Ai G Aielli S Akatsuka T P A Åkesson E Akilli A V Akimov K Al Khoury G L Alberghi J Albert M J Alconada Verzini S Alderweireldt M Aleksa I N Aleksandrov C Alexa T Alexopoulos A Alfonsi F Alfonsi M Alhroob B Ali M Aliev G Alimonti C Allaire B M M Allbrooke B W Allen P P Allport A Aloisio F Alonso C Alpigiani A A Alshehri E Alunno Camelia M Alvarez Estevez M G Alviggi Y Amaral Coutinho A Ambler L Ambroz C Amelung D Amidei S P Amor Dos Santos S Amoroso C S Amrouche F An C Anastopoulos N Andari T Andeen C F Anders J K Anders S Y Andrean A Andreazza V Andrei C R Anelli S Angelidakis A Angerami A V Anisenkov A Annovi C Antel M T Anthony E Antipov M Antonelli D J A Antrim F Anulli M Aoki J A Aparisi Pozo M A Aparo L Aperio Bella J P Araque V Araujo Ferraz R Araujo Pereira C Arcangeletti A T H Arce F A Arduh J-F Arguin S Argyropoulos J-H Arling A J Armbruster A Armstrong O Arnaez H Arnold Z P Arrubarrena Tame G Artoni S Artz S Asai T Asawatavonvanich N Asbah E M Asimakopoulou L Asquith J Assahsah K Assamagan R Astalos R J Atkin M Atkinson N B Atlay H Atmani K Augsten G Avolio M K Ayoub G Azuelos H Bachacou K Bachas M Backes F Backman P Bagnaia M Bahmani H Bahrasemani A J Bailey V R Bailey J T Baines C Bakalis O K Baker P J Bakker D Bakshi Gupta S Balaji E M Baldin P Balek F Balli W K Balunas J Balz E Banas M Bandieramonte A Bandyopadhyay Sw Banerjee L Barak W M Barbe E L Barberio D Barberis M Barbero G Barbour T Barillari M-S Barisits J Barkeloo T Barklow R Barnea B M Barnett R M Barnett Z Barnovska-Blenessy A Baroncelli G Barone A J Barr L Barranco Navarro F Barreiro J Barreiro Guimarães da Costa S Barsov F 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Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):122301

CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.

The first measurement of longitudinal decorrelations of harmonic flow amplitudes v_{n} for n=2-4 in Xe+Xe collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.44  TeV is obtained using 3  μb^{-1} of data with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The decorrelation signal for v_{3} and v_{4} is found to be nearly independent of collision centrality and transverse momentum (p_{T}) requirements on final-state particles, but for v_{2} a strong centrality and p_{T} dependence is seen. When compared with the results from Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV, the longitudinal decorrelation signal in midcentral Xe+Xe collisions is found to be larger for v_{2}, but smaller for v_{3}. Current hydrodynamic models reproduce the ratios of the v_{n} measured in Xe+Xe collisions to those in Pb+Pb collisions but fail to describe the magnitudes and trends of the ratios of longitudinal flow decorrelations between Xe+Xe and Pb+Pb. The results on the system-size dependence provide new insights and an important lever arm to separate effects of the longitudinal structure of the initial state from other early and late time effects in heavy-ion collisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.122301DOI Listing
March 2021

Overexpression of CD47 is associated with brain overgrowth and 16p11.2 deletion syndrome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305;

Copy number variation (CNV) at the 16p11.2 locus is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. CNVs of the 16p gene can manifest in opposing head sizes. Carriers of 16p11.2 deletion tend to have macrocephaly (or brain enlargement), while those with 16p11.2 duplication frequently have microcephaly. Increases in both gray and white matter volume have been observed in brain imaging studies in 16p11.2 deletion carriers with macrocephaly. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from controls and subjects with 16p11.2 deletion and 16p11.2 duplication to understand the underlying mechanisms regulating brain overgrowth. To model both gray and white matter, we differentiated patient-derived iPSCs into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). In both NPCs and OPCs, we show that CD47 (a "don't eat me" signal) is overexpressed in the 16p11.2 deletion carriers contributing to reduced phagocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, 16p11.2 deletion NPCs and OPCs up-regulate cell surface expression of calreticulin (a prophagocytic "eat me" signal) and its binding sites, indicating that these cells should be phagocytosed but fail to be eliminated due to elevations in CD47. Treatment of 16p11.2 deletion NPCs and OPCs with an anti-CD47 antibody to block CD47 restores phagocytosis to control levels. While the CD47 pathway is commonly implicated in cancer progression, we document a role for CD47 in psychiatric disorders associated with brain overgrowth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005483118DOI Listing
April 2021

Relation between Serum Magnesium Level and Migraine.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Apr;30(2):301-306

Dr Md Rezaul Karim, Registrar (Neurology), Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Migraine is one of the most disabling types of headache. It affects 4-6% of men and 13-18% of women; more than 80% of them are under 30 years. Many theories to explain mechanism of migraine are present; role of serum magnesium is one of them. This Cross-sectional analytical study was designed to see serum magnesium level status of migraine patients in Bangladesh and to find out any relation. The study was carried out in Outpatient Department of Neurology of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2017 to September 2018. Seventy (70) patients between 18-60 years of both sexes with headache fulfilling the criteria for migraine were enrolled as migraine group. Patients with headache who did not fulfill the criteria of migraine enrolled as non migraine group. Patients were included in both groups after exclusion of structural lesions, magnesium containing drug intake, pregnancy, menstruation, alcoholism, renal or GIT problems. Serum magnesium levels were studied in both groups and compared with each other. All related factors such as age, sex, family history of migraine, occupation were assessed. Fifty one (51) of 70 patients (72.85%) was female and 19(27.15%) were male in migraine group. Thirty eight (54.28%) of cases were between 18 and 30 years old. Thirty nine (55.71%) of migraine patients had history of similar headache in their family. Severe headache in 51.43% of migraine patients and 30% had more than three attacks per month. Mean serum magnesium level was 1.70 mg/dl in migraine group and 1.85 mg/dl in non migraine group (p=0.001). Serum magnesium level was also lower in severe migraine headache in comparison to mild to moderate headache (p=0.01). No significant difference was found in serum magnesium level compared according to age, sex, frequency of attack and presence or absence of aura. The study concludes that serum magnesium in migraine patients was significantly lower than non migraine group. It was also lower in migraine patient having severe headache in comparison with mild to moderate headache, though in both conditions they were within normal range.
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April 2021

Livestock Manure Type Affects Microbial Community Composition and Assembly During Composting.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:621126. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Composting is an environmentally friendly way to turn plant and animal wastes into organic fertilizers. However, it is unclear to what extent the source of animal waste products (such as manure) affects the physicochemical and microbiological properties of compost. Here, we experimentally tested how the type of livestock manure of herbivores (sheep and cattle) and omnivores (pig and chicken) influences the bacterial and fungal communities and physicochemical properties of compost. Higher pH, NO-N, Total carbon (TC) content and C/N were found in sheep and cattle manure composts, while higher EC, NH-N, Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) content were measured in pig and chicken manure composts. Paired clustering between herbivore and omnivore manure compost metataxonomy composition was also observed at both initial and final phases of composting. Despite this clear clustering, all communities changed drastically during the composting leading to reduced bacterial and fungal diversity and large shifts in community composition and species dominance. While Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were the major phyla in sheep and cattle manure composts, Firmicutes dominated in pig and chicken manure composts. Together, our results indicate that feeding habits of livestock can determine the biochemical and biological properties of manures, having predictable effects on microbial community composition and assembly during composting. Manure metataxonomy profiles could thus potentially be used to steer and manage composting processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.621126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019744PMC
March 2021

Structure and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 proofreading exoribonuclease ExoN.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

High-fidelity replication of the large RNA genome of coronaviruses (CoVs) is mediated by a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease (ExoN) in non-structural protein 14 (nsp14), which excises nucleotides including antiviral drugs mis-incorporated by the low-fidelity viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and has also been implicated in viral RNA recombination and resistance to innate immunity. Here we determined a 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 ExoN in complex with its essential co-factor, nsp10. The structure shows a highly basic and concave surface flanking the active site, comprising several Lys residues of nsp14 and the N-terminal amino group of nsp10. Modeling suggests that this basic patch binds to the template strand of double-stranded RNA substrates to position the 3' end of the nascent strand in the ExoN active site, which is corroborated by mutational and computational analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations further show remarkable flexibility of multi-domain nsp14 and suggest that nsp10 stabilizes ExoN for substrate RNA-binding to support its exoribonuclease activity. Our high-resolution structure of the SARS-CoV-2 ExoN-nsp10 complex serves as a platform for future development of anti-coronaviral drugs or strategies to attenuate the viral virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.02.438274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020977PMC
April 2021

Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates gut dysbiosis associated cognitive decline.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 31;236:113411. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Saccharomyces boulardii, a probiotic yeast is well prescribed for various gastrointestinal disorders accompanied by gut dysbiosis such as inflammatory bowel disease, bacterial diarrhea and antibiotic associated diarrhea. Gut dysbiosis has been associated with central nervous system via gut brain axis primarily implied in the modulation of psychiatric conditions. In the current study we use Saccharomyces boulardii as a therapeutic agent against gut dysbiosis associated cognitive decline. In mice, gut dysbiosis was induced by oral Ampicillin Na (250 mg/kg twice-daily) for 14 days. While in the treatment group S. boulardii (90 mg/kg once a day) was administered orally for 21 days along with 14 days of antibiotic treatment. Gene expression studies revealed antibiotic mediated decrease in the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes and Clostridium which were restored by S. boulardii treatment. Cognitive behavioral studies showed a parallel reduction in fear conditioning, spatial as well as recognition memory which were reversed upon S. boulardii treatment in these animals. S. boulardii treatment reduced myeloperoxidase enzyme, an inflammatory marker, in colon as well as brain which was increased after antibiotic administration. Similarly, S. boulardii reduced the brain acetylcholine esterase, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines which were altered due to antibiotic treatment. S. boulardii treatment also protected hippocampal neuronal damage and restored villus length and crypt depth thus normalizing gut permeability in antibiotic treated animals. Hence, we conclude that S. boulardii prevented antibiotic associated gut dysbiosis leading to reduced intestinal and brain inflammation and oxidative stress thus preventing hippocampal neuronal damage and eventually reversing gut dysbiosis associate cognitive decline in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113411DOI Listing
March 2021

Imaging current distribution in a topological insulator BiSe in the presence of competing surface and bulk contributions to conductivity.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7445. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Two-dimensional (2D) topological surface states in a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) should produce uniform 2D surface current distribution. However, our transport current imaging studies on BiSe thin film reveal non-uniform current sheet flow at 15 K with strong edge current flow. This is consistent with other imaging studies on thin films of BiSe. In contrast to strong edge current flow in thin films, in single crystal of BiSe at 15 K our current imaging studies show the presence of 3.6 nm thick uniform 2D sheet current flow. Above 70 K, this uniform 2D sheet current sheet begins to disintegrate into a spatially non-uniform flow. The flow becomes patchy with regions having high and low current density. The area fraction of the patches with high current density rapidly decreases at temperatures above 70 K, with a temperature dependence of the form [Formula: see text]. The temperature scale of 70 K coincides with the onset of bulk conductivity in the crystal due to electron doping by selenium vacancy clusters in BiSe. Thus our results show a temperature dependent competition between surface and bulk conductivity produces a temperature dependent variation in uniformity of current flow in the topological insulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86706-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018954PMC
April 2021

Exploring Older Women's Attitudes to and Experience of Treatment for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Gynaecology Unit, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SW3 6JJ, UK.

Older women with ovarian cancer more often receive less intensive treatment and early discontinuation compared to younger women. There is little understanding of older women's treatment experience and whether this contributes to declining intensive treatment. We aimed to explore the lived experience of older patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy, their treatment preferences and treatment burden. We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study with 15 women who had completed at least three cycles of first-line chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, aged 65 years or older at the first cycle, at one tertiary cancer centre. We conducted interviews and focus groups and analysed the transcripts using inductive thematic analysis. Women reported a strong preference for active treatment despite treatment burden and toxicities. Participants undertook treatment to lengthen their lives for themselves and their families. Participants did not see age as a barrier to treatment. Patients expressed determination not to let cancer interfere with daily life. Women felt overwhelmed with information and struggled with daily tasks due to fatigue. Logistical issues, such as transportation and ineffective communication between healthcare providers, caused substantial distress. Despite these logistical burdens and toxicities, participants were positive about their care experience and desire for anticancer treatment. Older women may benefit from additional support to facilitate effective communication during the early stages of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001330PMC
March 2021

Complementary Analytical Platforms of NMR Spectroscopy and LCMS Analysis in the Metabolite Profiling of .

Mar Drugs 2021 Mar 2;19(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Natural Medicine and Products Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study was designed to profile the metabolites of , an indigenous and less explored microalgae species. H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) were used to establish the metabolite profiles of five different extracts of this microalga, which are hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), absolute ethanol (EtOH), EtOH:water 1:1 (AqE), and 100% water (Aq). Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the generated profiles revealed that EtOAc and Aq extracts contain a diverse range of metabolites as compared to the other extracts with a total of twenty-one metabolites, comprising carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids, that were putatively identified from the NMR spectra. Meanwhile, thirty-two metabolites were successfully annotated from the LCMS/MS data, ten of which (palmitic acid, oleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, cholesterol, DHA, DPA, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, and pheophytin) were similar to those present in the NMR profile. Another eleven glycerophospholipids were discovered using MS/MS-based molecular network (MN) platform. The results of this study, besides providing a better understanding of 's chemical make-up, will be of importance in exploring this species potential as a feed ingredient in the aquaculture industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19030139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998644PMC
March 2021

Isolation of a novel psychrotrophic fungus for efficient low-temperature composting.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 24;331:125049. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, PR China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to isolate psychrotrophic cellulose-degrading fungi and to investigate their application potential for composting in cold climate regions in China. One out of five psychrotrophic cellulose-degrading fungal isolates was identified as a novel fungal species, Aureobasidium paleasum sp. nov., with a strong straw degradation potential. Enzyme activity assays and FITR spectroscopy revealed high cellulolytic activities of this psychrotrophic fungus at lower temperatures, with high thermal adaptability from 5 °C to 50 °C (optimum at 10 °C). A. paleasum efficiently decomposed rice straws and cellulose at 10 °C compared to the common cellulose-degrading fungus Penicillium oxalicum. In comparison to P. oxalicum, A. paleasum shortened the thermophilic stage, enhanced compost maturity and improved compost quality. Our work suggests that the psychrotrophic fungus A. paleasum is efficient for rice straw degradation and composting at low temperatures, highlighting its application potential for composting in colder regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125049DOI Listing
March 2021

Next-generation yeast-two-hybrid analysis with Y2H-SCORES identifies novel interactors of the MLA immune receptor.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 2;17(4):e1008890. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Program in Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Protein-protein interaction networks are one of the most effective representations of cellular behavior. In order to build these models, high-throughput techniques are required. Next-generation interaction screening (NGIS) protocols that combine yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) with deep sequencing are promising approaches to generate interactome networks in any organism. However, challenges remain to mining reliable information from these screens and thus, limit its broader implementation. Here, we present a computational framework, designated Y2H-SCORES, for analyzing high-throughput Y2H screens. Y2H-SCORES considers key aspects of NGIS experimental design and important characteristics of the resulting data that distinguish it from RNA-seq expression datasets. Three quantitative ranking scores were implemented to identify interacting partners, comprising: 1) significant enrichment under selection for positive interactions, 2) degree of interaction specificity among multi-bait comparisons, and 3) selection of in-frame interactors. Using simulation and an empirical dataset, we provide a quantitative assessment to predict interacting partners under a wide range of experimental scenarios, facilitating independent confirmation by one-to-one bait-prey tests. Simulation of Y2H-NGIS enabled us to identify conditions that maximize detection of true interactors, which can be achieved with protocols such as prey library normalization, maintenance of larger culture volumes and replication of experimental treatments. Y2H-SCORES can be implemented in different yeast-based interaction screenings, with an equivalent or superior performance than existing methods. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated by discovery and validation of novel interactions between the barley nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor MLA6, and fourteen proteins, including those that function in signaling, transcriptional regulation, and intracellular trafficking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008890DOI Listing
April 2021

Microalgal bio-flocculation: present scenario and prospects for commercialization.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

P K Sinha Centre for Bioenergy and Renewables, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721302, India.

The need for sustainable production of renewable biofuel has been a global concern in the recent times. Overcoming the tailbacks of the first- and second-generation biofuels, third-generation biofuel using microalgae as feedstock has emerged as a plausible alternative. It has an added advantage of preventing any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with simultaneous carbon dioxide sequestration. Dewatering of microalgal culture is one of the many concerns regarding industrial-scale biofuel production. The small size of microalgae and dilute nature of its growth cultures creates huge operational cost during biomass separation, limiting economic feasibility of algae-based fuels. Considering the recovery efficiency, operation economics, technological feasibility and cost-effectiveness, bio-flocculation is a promising method of harvesting. Moreover, advantage of bio-flocculation over other conventional methods is that it does not incur the addition of any external chemical flocculants. This article reviews the current status of bio-flocculation technique for harvesting microalgae at industrial scale. The various microbial strains that can be prospective bioflocculants have been reviewed along with its application and advantages over chemical flocculants. Also, this article proposes that the primary focus of an appropriate harvesting technique should depend on the final utilization of the harvested biomass. This review article attempts to bring forth the beneficial aspects of microbial aided microalgal harvesting with a special attention on genetically modified self-flocculation microalgae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13437-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Metal-Free Supramolecular Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane through Cucurbituril Nanocavitands.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 1;13(14):16218-16226. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Radiation & Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India.

Ammonia borane (AB) is considered a potential "on-board" hydrogen storage material. However, its implementation as a hydrogen reservoir in fuel cells is lacking due to the extremely slow release of hydrogen at room-temperature hydrolysis. In this study, a metal-free supramolecular strategy is demonstrated at room temperature to increase the hydrolysis rate and yield of hydrogen along with significant reduction in ammonia release by using cucurbit[5/8]uril (CB5/CB8) nanocavitands as catalysts. The complex of AB with CB stabilizes the ammonium ion at the host portals, which reduces ammonia release and enhances hydrogen yield. The complexation brings down the activation energy of hydrolysis from 103.8 to ∼27.5 kJ mol (for CB5), a value close to the Pt/Pd nanoparticle-based catalysts reported so far. The high catalytic performance and reusability of CB catalysts at very low concentration make AB a promising supramolecular alternative for a sustainable "on-board" energy source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22213DOI Listing
April 2021

Estimates of Inhalation Exposures to Oil-Related Components on the Supporting Vessels During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

Ann Work Expo Health 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Stewart Exposure Assessments, 6045 N, 27th St, Arlington, LLC, Arlington, VA, USA.

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill response and clean-up (OSRC) involved over 9000 large and small vessels deployed in waters of the Gulf of Mexico across four states (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi). For the GuLF STUDY, we developed exposure estimates of oil-related components for many work groups to capture a wide range of OSRC operations on these vessels, such as supporting the four rig vessels charged with stopping the spill at the wellhead; skimming oil; in situ burning of oil; absorbing and containing oil by boom; and environmental monitoring. Work groups were developed by: (i) vessel activity; (ii) location (area of the Gulf or state); and (iii) time period. Using Bayesian methods, we computed exposure estimates for these groups for: total hydrocarbons measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and n-hexane (BTEX-H). Estimates of the arithmetic means for THC ranged from 0.10 ppm [95% credible interval (CI) 0.04, 0.38 ppm] in time periods 2 and 3 (16 July-30 September 2010) to 15.06 ppm (95% CI 10.74, 22.41 ppm) in time period 1a (22 April-15 May 2010). BTEX-H estimates were substantially lower (in the parts per billion range). Exposure levels generally fell over time and differed statistically by activity, location, and time for some groups. These exposure estimates have been used to develop job-exposure matrices for the GuLF STUDY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxaa113DOI Listing
April 2021

Quality improvement report: setting up a hospital at night service, limitations of bleep filtering and using an electronic task management system.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 Mar;10(1)

Specialist Medicine Directorate, Medway Maritime Hospital, Gillingham, UK.

The 'hospital at night' concept was developed at a joint conference of the London Deanery and Clinical Staff in 2002, as an issue for education and service provision. At the start of the project, our trust had issues with both the structure of the hospital at night handover and the working practices overnight. The vision was to improve team working out of hours, expedite review of sick patients and reorganise care to seek a reduction in bleeps to medical junior doctors overnight in a way that all patients had access to the right person with the right skills for their needs at the right time. The hospital at night project at our hospital was started in 2019 by a multidisciplinary working group. We tried bleep filtering for 4 months and this was later followed on by the development of an electronic out of hour's task list as part of our hospital at night set-up. The bleep analysis data showed an improved distribution of workload but the process was dependent on individuals. The electronic task management system was built in pre-existing online software. The system helped prioritise and review tasks requested by nurses on medical wards. But it was not without its limitations. We worked with the local information technology (IT) team to improve speed and proposed developing an IT solution that is fast and not desktop based to ensure tasks can be assigned and viewed while on the go. The project was overall a success as it demonstrated positive feedback from junior doctors, improved perception of teamwork and ability to take rest breaks. It also demonstrated a drop in ward-based cardiac arrest rates. The hospital at night project at our trust remains a work in progress, but a lot of positive changes have been delivered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2020-001007DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients Living With Vasculitis.

ACR Open Rheumatol 2021 Jan 8;3(1):17-24. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the concerns and health-related behaviors in patients with vasculitis during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in North America.

Methods: Patients with vasculitis in North America were invited to complete an online survey through the Vasculitis Patient-Powered Research Network in collaboration with the Vasculitis Foundation and the Relapsing Polychondritis Foundation. Questions focused on concerns and behaviors related to doctors' visits, tests, medication, and telehealth use. Factors affecting their concern and health-related behaviors were determined.

Results: Data from 662 patients were included: 90% of patients were White, 78% were women, 83% expressed moderate or high levels of concern about COVID-19, and 87% reported that their vasculitis moderately or extremely affected their level of concern. Older age, female sex, lung disease, and immunosuppression were associated with greater concern. Doctors' visits, laboratory tests, and other tests were avoided by 66%, 46%, and 40% of patients, respectively. Younger age, urban location, higher income, higher concern levels, and prednisone use (>10 mg/day) were associated with greater likelihood of avoiding visits or tests. Ten percent of patients on immunosuppressive therapy stopped their medication. Twenty-nine percent patients on rituximab avoided an infusion. Forty-four percent of patients had telehealth visits; more visits were reported for younger patients, for patients on glucocorticoids, and in Canada versus the United States.

Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with vasculitis have high levels of concern and exhibit potentially harmful health-related behaviors. Health care use varies across different demographic groups and geographic regions. Specific strategies are warranted to facilitate engagement of these patients with the health care system during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr2.11204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811691PMC
January 2021

Halide Replacement with Complete Preservation of Crystal Lattice in Mixed-Anion Lanthanide Oxyhalides.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Texas A&M University, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 30012, 77842-3012, College Station, UNITED STATES.

Mixed anion compounds afford considerable compositional diversity and tunability of function. A challenging aspect of anion control of properties of periodic solids is to preserve the crystal lattice while substituting for different anions of widely varying size and hardness. Post-synthetic modification routes that place cations or anions in non-equilibrium configurations represent a promising means of decoupling composition and crystal structure and for accessing metastable solids; however, such methods remain relatively unexplored for anion placement. Here, we report the synthesis of LaOI nanocrystals by a non-hydrolytic sol-gel condensation reaction and their transformation into LaOBr, LaOCl, and LaOF nanocrystals along hard-soft-acid-base principles using post-synthetic metathesis reactions with ammonium halides. Anion displacement proceeds along halide planes preserving the tetragonal matlockite structure. Energy-variant X-ray excited optical luminesce signatures of alloyed Tb3+-ions serves as a sensitive quantum reporter of the preservation of the cation sublattice and hardening of the crystal structure upon anion replacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104231DOI Listing
March 2021