Publications by authors named "S B S Ooi"

335 Publications

Nutraceuticals in Immune Function.

Molecules 2021 Sep 1;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

School of Dentistry and Medical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia.

Nutraceutical, a term derived from 'nutrition' and 'pharmaceutical', refers to any product isolated from herbs, nutrients, specific diets, processed foods, and beverages used not only for nutritional but also for medicinal purposes [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433708PMC
September 2021

Management and Outcomes of Paediatric Intracranial Suppurations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review.

Front Surg 2021 12;8:690895. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Research Department, Association of Future African Neurosurgeons, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Intracranial suppurations account for a significant proportion of intracranial masses in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly among children. The development of better imaging equipment, antibiotics, and surgical techniques has enabled significant progress in detecting and treating intracranial abscesses. However, it is unclear whether these advances are accessible and utilised by LMICs. In this review, we aimed to describe the landscape of paediatric intracranial suppurations in LMICs. This scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. MEDLINE, EMBASE, WHO Global Index Medicus, AJOL and Google scholar were searched for relevant articles from database inception to January 18th, 2021. Publications in English and French were included. Of the 1,011 records identified, 75 were included. The studies, on average, included 18.8 (95% CI = 8.4-29.1) children (mean age: 8.2 years). Most children were male (62.2%, 95% CI = 28.7-95.7%). Intracranial suppurations were most commonly (46.5%) located in the supratentorial brain parenchyma. The most prevalent causative mechanism was otitis (37.4%) with streptococcus species being the most common causative organism (19.4%). CT scan (71.2%) was most commonly used as a diagnostic tool and antibiotics were given to all patients. Symptoms resolved in 23.7% and improved in 15.3% of patients. The morbidity rate was 6.9%, 18.8% of patients were readmitted, and the mortality rate was 11.0%. Most intracranial suppurations were complications of preventable infections and despite MRI being the gold standard for detecting intracranial suppurations, CT scans were mostly used in LMICs. These differences are likely a consequence of inequities in healthcare and have resulted in a high mortality rate in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.690895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403063PMC
August 2021

Multiple roles for PARP1 in ALC1-dependent nucleosome remodeling.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(36)

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110;

The SNF2 family ATPase Amplified in Liver Cancer 1 (ALC1) is the only chromatin remodeling enzyme with a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) binding macrodomain. ALC1 functions together with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP1 to remodel nucleosomes. Activation of ALC1 cryptic ATPase activity and the subsequent nucleosome remodeling requires binding of its macrodomain to PAR chains synthesized by PARP1 and NAD A key question is whether PARP1 has a role(s) in ALC1-dependent nucleosome remodeling beyond simply synthesizing the PAR chains needed to activate the ALC1 ATPase. Here, we identify PARP1 separation-of-function mutants that activate ALC1 ATPase but do not support nucleosome remodeling by ALC1. Investigation of these mutants has revealed multiple functions for PARP1 in ALC1-dependent nucleosome remodeling and provides insights into its multifaceted role in chromatin remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2107277118DOI Listing
September 2021

Survey Fatigue During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of Neurosurgery Survey Response Rates.

Front Surg 2021 12;8:690680. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Research, Association of Future African Neurosurgeons, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a surge in research activity while restricting data collection methods, leading to a rise in survey-based studies. Anecdotal evidence suggests this increase in neurosurgical survey dissemination has led to a phenomenon of survey fatigue, characterized by decreased response rates and reducing the quality of data. This paper aims to analyze the effect of COVID-19 on neurosurgery surveys and their response rates, and suggest strategies for improving survey data collection. A search was conducted on March 20, 2021, on Medline and EMBASE. This included the terms "neurosurgery," "cranial surgery," "spine surgery," and "survey" and identified surveys written in English, on a neurosurgical topic, distributed to neurosurgeons, trainees, and medical students. Results were screened by two authors according to these inclusion criteria, and included articles were used for data extraction, univariable, and bivariable analysis with Fisher's exact-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Spearman's correlation. We included 255 articles in our analysis, 32.3% of which were published during the COVID-19 pandemic. Surveys had an average of 25.6 (95% CI = 22.5-28.8) questions and were mostly multiple choice (78.8%). They were disseminated primarily by email (75.3%, 95% CI = 70.0-80.6%) and there was a significant increase in dissemination social media during the pandemic (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.30-12.0). COVID-19 surveys were distributed to more geographical regions than pre-pandemic surveys (2.1 vs. 1.5, = 0.01) and had higher total responses (247.0 vs. 206.4, = 0.01), but lower response rates (34.5 vs. 51.0%, < 0.001) than pre-COVID-19 surveys. The rise in neurosurgical survey distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to survey fatigue, reduced response rates, and data collection quality. We advocate for population targeting to avoid over-researching, collaboration between research teams to minimize duplicate surveys, and communication with respondents to convey study importance, and we suggest further strategies to improve response rates in neurosurgery survey data collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.690680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388838PMC
August 2021

What Is the Mechanism Driving the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events from Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists?-A Mini Review.

Molecules 2021 Aug 10;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Dentistry and Medical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are considered the standard of care for type 2 diabetes in many countries worldwide. These molecules have profound anti-hyperglycaemic actions with a favourable safety profile. They are now being considered for their robust cardiovascular (CV) protective qualities in diabetic patients. Most recent CV outcome trials have reported that GLP-1 RAs reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Furthermore, the GLP-1 RAs seem to target the atherosclerotic CV disease processes preferentially. GLP-1 RAs also improve a wide range of routinely measured surrogate markers associated with CV risk. However, mediation analysis suggests these modest improvements may contribute indirectly to the overall anti-atherogenic profile of the molecules but fall short in accounting for the significant reduction in MACE. This review explores the body of literature to understand the possible mechanisms that contribute to the CV protective profile of GLP-1 RAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400553PMC
August 2021
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