Publications by authors named "S Al Hashmi"

740 Publications

Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior: A Longitudinal Study.

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2021 Jun;86(2):7-103

School of Psychology, Cardiff University.

Developmental theorists have made strong claims about the fundamental prosocial or aggressive nature of the human infant. However, only rarely have prosocial behavior and aggression been studied together in the same sample. We charted the parallel development of both behaviors from infancy to childhood in a British community sample, using a two-construct, multimethod longitudinal design. Data were drawn from the Cardiff Child Development Study (CCDS), a prospective longitudinal study of a volunteer sample of parents and their firstborn children. A sample of 332 mothers was recruited from National Health Service (NHS) prenatal clinics and general practice clinics in Wales, UK, between Fall of 2005 and Summer of 2007. Potential participants represented the full range of sociodemographic classifications of neighborhoods. Participating families were divided about equally between middle- and working-class families, were somewhat more likely to have sons than daughters, and the majority (90%) were in a stable partnership. In response to standard categories recommended for use in Wales at the time, the majority (93%) of mothers reported themselves as Welsh, Scottish, English, or Irish; most others named a European or South Asian nationality. Of the 332 families agreeing to participate, 321 mothers (M  = 28 years) and 285 partners (M  = 31 years) were interviewed during the pregnancy and 321 of the families contributed data at least once after the child's birth. After an initial home visit at 6 months, data collection occurred in four additional waves of testing when children's mean ages were approximately 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 7 years. Data collection alternated between family homes and Cardiff University. Of those families seen after the child's birth, 89% were assessed at the final wave of testing. Data collection ended in 2015. Methods included direct observation, experimental tasks, and collection of reports from mothers, fathers, other relatives or family friends, and classroom teachers. Interactions with a familiar peer were observed at 1.5 years. Interactions with unfamiliar peers took place during experimental birthday parties at 1 and 2.5 years. At 7 years, parents were interviewed, parents and teachers completed questionnaires, and the children engaged in cognitive and social decision-making tasks. Based on reports from parents and other informants who knew the children well, individual differences in both prosocial behavior and aggression were evident in children. Both types of behavior showed stability across the second and third years. The association between prosocial behavior and aggression changed over time: at 1.5 years, they were not significantly related (the association approached zero), but they became negatively correlated by 3 years. Different patterns were seen when children played with familiar versus unfamiliar peers. At 1.5 years, when children were observed at home with a familiar peer, prosocial behavior and aggression were unrelated, thus showing a pattern of results like that seen in the analysis of informants' reports. However, a different pattern emerged during the experimental birthday parties with unfamiliar peers: prosocial behavior and aggression were positively correlated at both 1 and 2.5 years, contributing to a general sociability factor at both ages. Gender differences in prosocial behavior were evident in informants' reports and were also evident at the 1-year (though not the 2.5-year) birthday parties. In contrast, gender differences in both prosocial behavior and aggression were evident by 7 years, both in children's aggressive decision-making and in their parents' and teachers' reports of children's aggressive behavior at home and school. By age 7, children's aggressive decision-making and behavior were inversely associated with their verbal skills, working memory, and emotional understanding. Some children had developed aggressive behavioral problems and callous-unemotional traits. A few (12%) met diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorders, which had been predicted by early angry aggressiveness and lack of empathy for other people. Taken together, the findings revealed a gradual disaggregation of two ways in which children interact with other people. Individual differences in both prosocial behavior and aggression revealed continuity over time, with gender differences emerging first in prosocial behavior, then in aggression. Restrictions in the participant sample and the catchment area (e.g., all were first-time parents; all were drawn from a single region in the United Kingdom) mean that it is not possible to generalize findings broadly. It will be important to expand the study of prosocial behavior and aggression in other family and environmental contexts in future work. Learning more about early appearing individual differences in children's approaches to the social world may be useful for both educational and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mono.12427DOI Listing
June 2021

Oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency and male infertility: An under-looked aspect.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jan;71(1(B)):786-787

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.736DOI Listing
January 2021

The Glenn procedure: Clinical outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease in pakistan.

Ann Card Anaesth 2021 Jan-Mar;24(1):30-35

Cardiothoracic Section, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect more than 40,000 children annually in Pakistan. Approximately 80' of patients require at least one surgical intervention to achieve a complete or palliative cardiac repair. The Glenn shunt, a palliative procedure is established between superior vena cava (SVC) and the right pulmonary artery to provide an anastomosis offering minimal risk to patients with univentricular heart disease. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of the Glenn shunt procedure in patients with complex congenital heart diseases in a developing country like Pakistan.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent a bidirectional Glenn shunt procedure from July 2006 to June 2017. Data were collected on a structured questionnaire and analyses performed on SPSS version 22. Frequencies and percentages were computed for categorical variables while mean and standard deviation for continuous variables where appropriate.

Results: A total of 79 patients underwent the Glenn shunt procedures. The median age was 1.9 years and 54.5' were male. Tricuspid atresia was the primary diagnosis in 30.4' of the patients. Common morbidities included arrhythmias (6.3'), pleural effusion (8.9'), wound infection (3.8'), pneumonia (2.5'), and seizures (3.8'); reopening was required in 2.5' of the patients and 8.8' were readmitted within 30 days of index operation. There were three (3.8') deaths in total.

Conclusions: Bidirectional Glenn shunt procedure can be performed safely in patients with ideal characteristics as the first stage palliation and has favorable results with acceptable rate of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aca.ACA_85_19DOI Listing
May 2021

Secondary Amyloidosis Presenting as Ischemic Proctitis.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2021 8;2021:6663391. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Park Ridge, IL, USA.

A 49-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding for two days associated with a 50-pound unintentional weight loss. History was notable for hypertension, chronic kidney disease, obesity, gout, and acute cholecystitis status post cholecystectomy. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis showed rectal wall thickening. Colonoscopy showed proctitis with superficial ulcerations. In the setting of renal insufficiency, malabsorption, and low-voltage QRS complexes on electrocardiogram (ECG), amyloidosis was considered in the differential diagnosis. Rectal and renal biopsies with subsequent retrospective staining of gallbladder tissue confirmed amyloid deposition. Gastrointestinal involvement of amyloidosis is relatively uncommon. Particularly, amyloid deposition in the gallbladder and rectum is very rare. The development of AA amyloidosis in our patient may have been related to gout, obesity, and the presence of a heterozygous complex variant for the MEFV (familial Mediterranean fever) gene. Awareness of this atypical presentation of amyloidosis is important, as additional staining of biopsy samples is necessary, and diagnosis allows for directed treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6663391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052136PMC
April 2021

Geographical Differences in Cardiovascular Comorbidities and Outcomes of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients in the USA.

Cardiology 2021 Apr 26:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Cardiovascular comorbidities may predispose to adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, across the USA, the burden of cardiovascular comorbidities varies significantly. Whether clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 differ between regions has not yet been studied systematically. Here, we report differences in underlying cardiovascular comorbidities and clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Texas and in New York state.

Methods: We established a multicenter retrospective registry including patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 15 and July 12, 2020. Demographic and clinical data were manually retrieved from electronic medical records. We focused on the following outcomes: mortality, need for pharmacologic circulatory support, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for hemodialysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: Patients in the Texas cohort (n = 296) were younger (57 vs. 63 years, p value <0.001), they had a higher BMI (30.3 kg/m2 vs. 28.5 kg/m2, p = 0.015), and they had higher rates of diabetes mellitus (41 vs. 30%; p = 0.014). In contrast, patients in the New York state cohort (n = 218) had higher rates of coronary artery disease (19 vs. 10%, p = 0.005) and atrial fibrillation (11 vs. 5%, p = 0.012). Pharmacologic circulatory support, mechanical ventilation, and hemodialysis were more frequent in the Texas cohort (21 vs. 13%, p = 0.020; 30 vs. 12%, p < 0.001; and 11 vs. 5%, p = 0.009, respectively). In-hospital mortality was similar between the 2 cohorts (16 vs. 18%, p = 0.469). After adjusting for differences in underlying comorbidities, only the use of mechanical ventilation remained significantly higher in the participating Texas hospitals (odds ratios [95% CI]: 3.88 [1.23, 12.24]). Median time to pharmacologic circulatory support was 8 days (interquartile range: 2, 13.8) in the Texas cohort compared to 1 day (0, 3) in the New York state cohort, while median time to in-hospital mortality was 16 days (10, 25.5) and 7 days (4, 14), respectively (both p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was higher in the late versus the early study phase in the New York state cohort (24 vs. 14%, p = 0.050), while it was similar between the 2 phases in the Texas cohort (16 vs. 15%, p = 0.741).

Conclusions: Geographical differences, including practice pattern variations and the impact of disease burden on provision of health care, are important for the evaluation of COVID-19 outcomes. Unadjusted data may cause bias affecting future regulatory policies and proper allocation of resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515064DOI Listing
April 2021