Publications by authors named "S Abdelhalim"

10 Publications

Brain abscess burr hole aspiration in children with congenital heart disease in low facility centers: case series.

Sudan J Paediatr 2021 ;21(1):61-66

Department of Neurosurgery, Ahfad University, Omdurman, Sudan.

This is a prospective cross-sectional study on brain abscess burr hole aspiration in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) performed from January 2018 to March 2019. All patients were operated on through a burr hole, and then received intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks and orally for 2 weeks either empirically or according to the results of abscess culture, if positive. The follow-up of cranial computed tomography or brain magnetic resonance image with contrast was obtained after 2 months (post-operatively) to assess the effectiveness of the procedure and to look for any residual or recurrent abscesses. Data were collected in a designed data collection sheet and analysed using -20. Thirteen patients were found to satisfy inclusion criteria. The most common presenting symptoms were fever ( = 11/13, 84.6%), vomiting ( = 7/13, 53.8%), headache ( = 6/13, 46.2%), convulsions ( = 6/13, 46.2%), focal weakness ( = 3/13, 23.1%), and impaired level of consciousness ( = 1/13, 7.7%). No bacterial growth was detected in two-thirds of the cases (69.2%), while the culture was positive in the remaining one-third (30.8%). The follow-up images showed complete resolution of the abscesses except in one case ( = 1/13, 7.7%), which required a second session of aspiration. One patient died ( = 1/13, 7.7%) on the 19th post-operative day due to severe pneumonia. Aspiration of brain abscess in children with CHD through a burr hole is a safe and effective procedure in terms of operative time, duration of anaesthesia and postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24911/SJP.106-1589487269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026005PMC
January 2021

Spectral arc length as a method to quantify pharyngeal high-resolution manometric curve smoothness.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Apr 20:e14122. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM) has emerged over the last decade as a valuable assessment tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia. Data analysis thus far has focused primarily on measures of pressure and duration within key anatomic regions. We apply spectral arc length (SPARC), a dimensionless metric for quantifying smoothness felt to indirectly reflect neuromuscular coordination, as a new method of describing manometric curves. We then use it to distinguish swallows from healthy subjects and those with dysphagia related to stroke.

Methods: Previously collected pharyngeal HRM data from eight subjects with history of stroke and eight age- and sex-matched controls were reviewed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to optimize SPARC inputs. SPARC was then computed for the velopharynx, tongue base, hypopharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and the values were compared between the two subject groups.

Results: Optimized parameter settings yielded an ROC curve with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.953. Mean SPARC values differed between control and stroke subjects for the velopharynx (t = 3.25, p = 0.0058), tongue base (t = 4.77, p = 0.0003), and hypopharynx (t = 2.87, p = 0.0124). Values were similar for the UES (t = 0.43, p = 0.671).

Conclusions: In this preliminary study, SPARC analysis was applied to distinguish control from post-stroke subjects. Considering alternative methods of analyzing pharyngeal HRM data may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of dysphagia beyond what can be gleaned from measures of pressure and duration alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14122DOI Listing
April 2021

Formulation and Characterization of Cinnarizine Targeted Aural Transfersomal Gel for Vertigo Treatment: A Pharmacokinetic Study on Rabbits.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 19;15:6211-6223. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction And Aim: Cinnarizine is indicated orally for treating vertigo associated with Ménière's syndrome and has a local anesthetic effect as well. The present study aims to develop an aural Cinnarizine mucoadhesive transfersomal gel to overcome the first-pass metabolism.

Methods: Eighteen Cinnarizine transfersomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration technique using different types of phosphatidylcholine and edge activators in different ratios. Formulae were tested for their appearance, entrapment efficiency, and in-vitro drug release after eight hours. F1, F4, F7, F9, F10, and F12 were selected to be examined for particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. According to the previous parameters, F1 and F10 were incorporated into gels using different polymers according to factorial design 23. The eight gels were tested for appearance, pH, mucoadhesion, spreadability, drug content, in-vitro drug release after eight hours, and rheology. The transfersomal gel F1A was subjected to FTIR analysis and in-vivo pharmacokinetic study.

Results: The transfersomal dispersion colors were ranging between the white and yellow. Their EE % ranged from 64.36±1.985% to 94.09±1.74%, and their in-vitro release percentages were between 61.82±1.92% and 95.92±1.18%. Also, the vesicles PS ranged from 212.3±30.05nm to 2150±35.35nm, DI from 0.238±0.134 to 1±0.00 and zeta potential from -57.5±2.54 to +4.73±1.57 mV. The transfersomal gels showed pseudoplastic behavior, pH range of 5.5 to 8, a mucoadhesive force of 169.188±1.26 to 321.212±6.94 (dyne/cm×10), spreadability of 40 ±7.03mm to 138 ±3.77mm, and in-vitro drug release of 81.63±1.128% to 97.78±0.102%. The IR spectra of the (drug-excipients) physical mixture revealed that there were no shifts of incompatibility. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study illustrated that [AUC] of F1A was significantly higher than that of tablets at (P< 0.05), equivalent to 703.563±26.470 and 494.256±9.621ɲg.hr/mL respectively.

Conclusion: The study revealed that Cinnarizine aural mucoadhesive targeted delivery provides an improved systemic bioavailability over the conventional oral route.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S258764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450212PMC
November 2020

Radioiodination and in vivo assessment of the potential of newly synthesized pyrrolizine-5-carboxamides derivative in tumor model.

Appl Radiat Isot 2020 Dec 8;166:109369. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Labeled Compounds Dept. Hot Labs Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt; Faculty of Pharmacy, Albayan University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Recently, pyrrolizine derivatives have been reported to possess numerous anticancer activities. In a previous study, (EZ)-6-((4-chlorobenzylidene)-amino)-7-cyano-N-(p-tolyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine carboxamide (EZPCA) compound was synthesized and the cytotoxic activity of EZPCA toward COX-2 enzyme (overexpressed in cancer cells) was reported. In order to assess the suitability of this compound as a promising pilot structure for in vivo applications, EZPCA was radiolabeled with radioiodine-131 (I) and various factors affecting radiolabeling process were studied. Quality control studies of [I]iodo-EZPCA were performed using paper chromatography and HPLC was used as a co-chromatographic technique for confirming the radiochemical yield. Biodistribution studies of [I]iodo-EZPCA were undertaken in normal and tumor bearing mice. The radiochemical yield percentage of [I]iodo-EZPCA was 94.20 ± 0.12%. The biodistribution results showed evident tumor uptake of [I]iodo-EZPCA with promising target/non-target (T/NT) ratios. As a conclusion, these data suggest that [I]iodo-EZPCA had high binding efficiency, high tumor uptake and sufficient stability to be used be used in diagnostic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2020.109369DOI Listing
December 2020

Swallowing Pressure Variability as a Function of Pharyngeal Region, Bolus Volume, Age, and Sex.

Laryngoscope 2021 01 18;131(1):E52-E58. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

Objectives: Within-individual movement variability occurs in most motor domains. However, it is unknown how pharyngeal swallowing pressure varies in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that: 1) variability would differ among pharyngeal regions; 2) variability would decrease with increased bolus volume; 3) variability would increase with age; and 4) there would be no sex differences.

Study Design: Case series.

Methods: We used pharyngeal high-resolution manometry to measure swallowing pressure in the following regions: velopharynx, tongue base, hypopharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter. Data were collected from 97 healthy adults (41 male) aged 21 to 89 years during thin liquid swallows: 2 mL, 10 mL, and participant-selected comfortable volume. Pressure variability was measured using coefficient of variation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess impacts of region, bolus volume, age, and sex on pressure variability.

Results: There was a significant region × volume interaction (P < .001) and significant main effect of age (P = .005). Pressures in the hypopharynx region were more variable than all other regions (P ≤ .028), and pressures in the tongue base region were less variable than all other regions (P ≤ .002) except at 2 mL volumes (P = .065). Swallowing pressure variability was significantly different in the velopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter regions, with comfortable volume and 2 mL swallows having greater variability than 10 mL swallows (P ≤ .026). Pressure variability significantly increased with increasing age (P = .002). There were no effects of sex on pressure variability (P ≥ .15).

Conclusion: Pharyngeal swallowing pressure variability differs according pharyngeal region, volume, and age but not sex. Abnormal swallowing pressure variability may reflect deviations in motor control in persons with swallowing impairment, and results from this study can be used as normative data for future investigations evaluating swallowing pressure generation.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:E52-E58, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572669PMC
January 2021