Publications by authors named "Søren O"

7 Publications

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Discovery of Cephalosporin-3'-Diazeniumdiolates That Show Dual Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effects against Clinical Cystic Fibrosis Isolates and Efficacy in a Murine Respiratory Infection Model.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 06 5;6(6):1460-1479. Epub 2020 May 5.

Molecular Horizons and School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.

The formation of biofilms provides a formidable defense for many bacteria against antibiotics and host immune responses. As a consequence, biofilms are thought to be the root cause of most chronic infections, including those occurring on medical indwelling devices, endocarditis, urinary tract infections, diabetic and burn wounds, and bone and joint infections. In cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic () respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. Previous studies have shown that many bacteria can undergo a coordinated dispersal event in the presence of low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), suggesting that NO could be used to initiate biofilm dispersal in chronic infections, enabling clearance of the more vulnerable planktonic cells. In this study, we describe efforts to create "all-in-one" cephalosporin-based NO donor prodrugs (cephalosporin-3'-diazeniumdiolates, C3Ds) that show both direct β-lactam mediated antibacterial activity and antibiofilm effects. Twelve novel C3Ds were synthesized and screened against a panel of CF clinical isolates and other human pathogens. The most active compound, AMINOPIP2 (()-1-(4-(2-aminoethyl)piperidin-1-yl)-2-(((6,7)-7-(()-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(((2-carboxypropan-2-yl)oxy)imino)acetamido)-2-carboxy-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl)methoxy)diazene 1-oxide)-ceftazidime , showed higher antibacterial potency than its parent cephalosporin and front-line antipseudomonal antibiotic ceftazidime, good stability against β-lactamases, activity against ceftazidime-resistant biofilms, and efficacy equivalent to ceftazidime in a murine respiratory infection model. The results support further evaluation of AMINOPIP2-ceftazidime for lung infections in CF and a broader study of "all-in-one" C3Ds for other chronic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00070DOI Listing
June 2020

Cephalosporin nitric oxide-donor prodrug DEA-C3D disperses biofilms formed by clinical cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 01;75(1):117-125

National Biofilms Innovation Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.

Objectives: The cephalosporin nitric oxide (NO)-donor prodrug DEA-C3D ('DiEthylAmin-Cephalosporin-3'-Diazeniumdiolate') has been shown to initiate the dispersal of biofilms formed by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa laboratory strain PAO1. In this study, we investigated whether DEA-C3D disperses biofilms formed by clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates of P. aeruginosa and its effect in combination with two antipseudomonal antibiotics, tobramycin and colistin, in vitro.

Methods: β-Lactamase-triggered release of NO from DEA-C3D was confirmed using a gas-phase chemiluminescence detector. MICs for P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method. A crystal violet staining technique and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of DEA-C3D on P. aeruginosa biofilms alone and in combination with tobramycin and colistin.

Results: DEA-C3D was confirmed to selectively release NO in response to contact with bacterial β-lactamase. Despite lacking direct, cephalosporin/β-lactam-based antibacterial activity, DEA-C3D was able to disperse biofilms formed by three P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Confocal microscopy revealed that DEA-C3D in combination with tobramycin produces similar reductions in biofilm to DEA-C3D alone, whereas the combination with colistin causes near complete eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vitro.

Conclusions: DEA-C3D is effective in dispersing biofilms formed by multiple clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and could hold promise as a new adjunctive therapy to patients with CF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910178PMC
January 2020

Current and future therapies for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2017 08;364(14)

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LR, UK.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistically infects the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Initial infection can often be eradicated though requires prompt detection and adequate treatment. Intermittent and then chronic infection occurs in the majority of patients. Better detection of P. aeruginosa infection using biomarkers may enable more successful eradication before chronic infection is established. In chronic infection P. aeruginosa adapts to avoid immune clearance and resist antibiotics via efflux pumps, β-lactamase expression, reduced porins and switching to a biofilm lifestyle. The optimal treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infection are still being established, and new antibiotic formulations such as liposomal amikacin, fosfomycin in combination with tobramycin and inhaled levofloxacin are being explored. Novel agents such as the alginate oligosaccharide OligoG, cysteamine, bacteriophage, nitric oxide, garlic oil and gallium may be useful as anti-pseudomonal strategies, and immunotherapy to prevent infection may have a role in the future. New treatments that target the primary defect in cystic fibrosis, recently licensed for use, have been associated with a fall in P. aeruginosa infection prevalence. Understanding the mechanisms for this could add further strategies for treating P. aeruginosa in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx121DOI Listing
August 2017

Cephalosporin-NO-donor prodrug PYRRO-C3D shows β-lactam-mediated activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms.

Nitric Oxide 2017 05 21;65:43-49. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Southampton NIHR Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK; Southampton NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Bacterial biofilms show high tolerance towards antibiotics and are a significant problem in clinical settings where they are a primary cause of chronic infections. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to improve anti-biofilm efficacy and support reduction in antibiotic use. Treatment with exogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to modulate bacterial signaling and metabolic processes that render biofilms more susceptible to antibiotics. We previously reported on cephalosporin-3'-diazeniumdiolates (C3Ds) as NO-donor prodrugs designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites following reaction with β-lactamases. With structures based on cephalosporins, C3Ds could, in principal, also be triggered to release NO following β-lactam cleavage mediated by transpeptidases/penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), the antibacterial target of cephalosporin antibiotics. Transpeptidase-reactive C3Ds could potentially show both NO-mediated anti-biofilm properties and intrinsic (β-lactam-mediated) antibacterial effects. This dual-activity concept was explored using Streptococcus pneumoniae, a species that lacks β-lactamases but relies on transpeptidases for cell-wall synthesis. Treatment with PYRRO-C3D (a representative C3D containing the diazeniumdiolate NO donor PYRRO-NO) was found to significantly reduce viability of planktonic and biofilm pneumococci, demonstrating that C3Ds can elicit direct, cephalosporin-like antibacterial activity in the absence of β-lactamases. While NO release from PYRRO-C3D in the presence of pneumococci was confirmed, the anti-pneumococcal action of the compound was shown to arise exclusively from the β-lactam component and not through NO-mediated effects. The compound showed similar potency to amoxicillin against S. pneumoniae biofilms and greater efficacy than azithromycin, highlighting the potential of C3Ds as new agents for treating pneumococcal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2017.02.006DOI Listing
May 2017

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis: pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic approaches.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2016 06 13;10(6):685-97. Epub 2016 May 13.

a Department of Gene Therapy, National Heart and Lung Institute , Imperial College , London , UK.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a remarkably versatile environmental bacterium with an extraordinary capacity to infect the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. Infection with P. aeruginosa occurs early, and although eradication can be achieved following early detection, chronic infection occurs in over 60% of adults with CF. Chronic infection is associated with accelerated disease progression and increased mortality. Extensive research has revealed complex mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa adapts to and persists within the CF airway. Yet knowledge gaps remain, and prevention and treatment strategies are limited by the lack of sensitive detection methods and by a narrow armoury of antibiotics. Further developments in this field are urgently needed in order to improve morbidity and mortality in people with CF. Here, we summarize current knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying P. aeruginosa infection in CF. Established treatments are discussed, and an overview is offered of novel detection methods and therapeutic strategies in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2016.1177460DOI Listing
June 2016

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid enhances the activities of aminoglycosides against methicillin- sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in vivo.

Front Microbiol 2015 27;6:1195. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London London, UK.

Infections caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are prevalent. MRSA infections are difficult to treat and there are no new classes of antibiotics produced to the market to treat infections caused by the resistant bacteria. Therefore, using antibiotic enhancers to rescue existing classes of antibiotics is an attractive strategy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is an antioxidant compound found in extracts from plant Larrea Tridentata. It exhibits antimicrobial activity and may target bacterial cell membrane. Combination efficacies of NDGA with many classes of antibiotics were examined by chequerboard method against 200 clinical isolates of MRSA and MSSA. NDGA in combination with gentamicin, neomycin, and tobramycin was examined by time-kill assays. The synergistic combinations of NDGA and aminoglycosides were tested in vivo using a murine skin infection model. Calculations of the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) showed that NDGA when combined with gentamicin, neomycin, or tobramycin displayed synergistic activities in more than 97% of MSSA and MRSA, respectively. Time kill analysis demonstrated that NDGA significantly augmented the activities of these aminoglycosides against MRSA and MSSA in vitro and in murine skin infection model. The enhanced activity of NDGA resides on its ability to damage bacterial cell membrane leading to accumulation of the antibiotics inside bacterial cells. We demonstrated that NDGA strongly revived the therapeutic potencies of aminoglycosides in vitro and in vivo. This combinational strategy could contribute major clinical implications to treat antibiotic resistant bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621280PMC
November 2015

Antimicrobial Peptide Novicidin Synergizes with Rifampin, Ceftriaxone, and Ceftazidime against Antibiotic-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae In Vitro.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Oct 27;59(10):6233-40. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom

The spread of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a serious clinical threat, and infections with these organisms are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Traditional novel drug development inevitably leads to the emergence of new resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, reviving the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics represents an attractive novel strategy. Novicidin, a novel cationic antimicrobial peptide, is effective against Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we investigated novicidin as a possible antibiotic enhancer. The actions of novicidin in combination with rifampin, ceftriaxone, or ceftazidime were investigated against 94 antibiotic-resistant clinical Gram-negative isolates and 7 strains expressing New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1. Using the checkerboard method, novicidin combined with rifampin showed synergy with >70% of the strains, reducing the MICs significantly. The combination of novicidin with ceftriaxone or ceftazidime was synergistic against 89.7% of the ceftriaxone-resistant strains and 94.1% of the ceftazidime-resistant strains. Synergistic interactions were confirmed using time-kill studies with multiple strains. Furthermore, novicidin increased the postantibiotic effect when combined with rifampin or ceftriaxone. Membrane depolarization assays revealed that novicidin alters the cytoplasmic membrane potential of Gram-negative bacteria. In vitro toxicology tests showed novicidin to have low hemolytic activity and no detrimental effect on cell cultures. We demonstrated that novicidin strongly rejuvenates the therapeutic potencies of ceftriaxone or ceftazidime against resistant Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. In addition, novicidin boosted the activity of rifampin. This strategy can have major clinical implications in our fight against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01245-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576052PMC
October 2015
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