Publications by authors named "Sónia Costa"

84 Publications

Phenotypic Features and Genetic Findings in a Cohort of Italian Patients and Update of the Ophthalmologic Evaluation Score.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 19;10(12). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Life Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Background: (PXE) is a rare ectopic calcification genetic disease mainly caused by rare sequence variants. The clinical phenotype is characterized by typical dermatological, ophthalmological and cardiovascular manifestations, whose frequency and severity are differently reported in the literature.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 377 PXE patients of Italian origin, clinically evaluated according to the Phenodex Index, who underwent biomolecular analyses. Moreover, 53 PXE patients were further characterized by in-depth ophthalmological examinations.

Results: A total of 117 different rare sequence variants were detected as being spread through the whole gene. The severity of the clinical phenotype was dependent on age, but it was not influenced by gender or by the type of sequence variants. In-depth ophthalmological examinations focused on the incidences of , comet lesions, pattern dystrophy-like lesions, optic disk drusen and posterior-pole atrophy. : Given the large number of patients analyzed, we were able to better evaluate the occurrence of less frequent alterations (e.g., stroke, myocardial infarction, nephrolithiasis). A more detailed description of ophthalmological abnormalities allowed us to stratify patients and better evaluate disease progression, thus suggesting a further update of the PXE score system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10122710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235548PMC
June 2021

Sarcocystis neurona, seroprevalence of antibodies in equines and research of oocystis in opossum in Ilhéus - Itabuna microregion, Bahia, Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 21;30(2):e027720. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil.

The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in equines in the Ilhéus-Itabuna microregion (BA), and identify possible factors associated with infection. The presence of sporocysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. was also verified in Didelphis spp. A total of 669 serum samples were collected from equines in 56 properties located in 12 municipalities in the region. Indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed with slides containing merozoites of the S. neurona, using a cut-off titer of 1:80. Occurrence of 7.92% of anti-S. neurona antibodies was observed in the sampled equines. The purposes trade and work were significantly associated with the presence of antibodies (p<0.05), and being used for the purpose of work (21.6%) was considered a risk factor, while being used for the purpose of trade (3.6%) was a protective factor. A total of 25 Didelphis spp. was captured for research on sporocysts/oocysts in stool samples and intestinal scrapings, being all negative. Didelphis spp. were all negative for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. and this circumstance does not change the fact that seroprevalence of S. neurona has been observed in horses raised in the southern Bahia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612021054DOI Listing
June 2021

Frequency and factors associated of potential zoonotic pathogens (Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) in equids in the state of Bahia, Brazil.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 22;14(1):275. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, State University of Santa Cruz - UESC, Soane Nazaré de Andrade Campus, Ilhéus, BA, Brazil.

Background: Currently, various zoonotic diseases are classified as emerging or reemerging. Because equids have a direct relationship with various vectors, they are possibly more frequently exposed to zoonotic agents than are humans. The undeniable importance of diseases such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis, spotted fever, and leishmaniasis for both public and animal health, as well as the possibility of equids acting as sources, reservoirs, or even sentinels for these pathogens, justifies the detection of their frequency and factors associated with infection in equids from northeastern Brazil.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 569 equids (528 horses, 33 donkeys, and 8 mules), 516 from a rural area and 53 from an urban area. Pathogen detection was carried out as follows: Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp., serological analysis; Leishmania spp., serological analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Anaplasma phagocytophilum, PCR. Determination of associated factors was carried out through generalized linear models.

Results: The frequencies of positivity for the pathogens observed in equids were as follows: Borrelia spp., 13.9% (79/569); Leishmania spp., 3.5% (20/569); Rickettsia spp. 33.4% (190/569). Regarding factors associated with infection, male sex was associated with protection against Borrelia spp.; donkeys and mules were associated with protection against Rickettsia spp., while a younger age was a risk factor. The infection of A. phagocytophilum was not detected in the sampled population. Co-infection was detected in 5.1% (29/569) of the animals.

Conclusions: Most of the studied pathogenic agents are present in the prospected area, indicating a possible risk for both human and animal health. This demonstrates that equids can be considered important sentinels in the assessment of pathogens with zoonotic potential in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04777-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140576PMC
May 2021

Oral treatment with a chemically characterized parsley ( var Danert) aqueous extract reduces thrombi formation in rats.

J Tradit Complement Med 2021 May 17;11(3):287-291. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Programa de Biologia Estrutural, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

var Danert (Apiaceae) (PC), popularly known as parsley, is an herb native to the Mediterranean region widely cultivated around the world for culinary and ethnomedicinal purposes. The herb is traditionally used in various parts of the world to treat arterial hypertension, hemorrhoid, nose bleeding, hyperlipidemia, and pain, among other indications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antithrombotic activity of an aqueous extract PC in rats. Aerial parts of a flat-leaf variety of parsley were extracted by decoction. thrombosis in rat models as well as assays were used in the evaluation of PC antithrombotic effects. Intravenous administration of PC (25 mg/kg.b.w), 5 min before thrombosis induction, reduced the venous thrombus formation by 98.2%, while oral administration (125 mg/kg.b.w) impaired it by 76.2%. In the arterial thrombosis model, the oral administration of PC at 15 or 25 mg/kg.b.w, 60 min before thrombosis induction, increased the carotid artery occlusion time by 150% (37.0 ± 6.44 min) and 240% (more than 60 min), respectively. A HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profile of PC extract used in this study was provided. Apiin showed to be the most abundant phenolic compound in the extract. It also revealed the presence of many coumaric acid derivatives. Our results indicate that PC is a potential candidate for the development of a phytotherapeutic drug in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases and provide a detailed chemical profile useful for controlling PC extract production in view of phytotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116669PMC
May 2021

Marine litter: A review of educative interventions.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 12;168:112446. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Science and Technology, Portuguese Distance Learning University, Lisbon, Portugal; CENSE - Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, School of Science and Technology, NOVA University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Marine litter is claimed to be one of the most meaningful environmental crises of the century. Education that supports behavior change is a tool to tackle this problem. However, there is a lack of research linking educational initiatives and marine litter issues. A literature review was conducted through a bibliometric and content analysis to explore the state of knowledge regarding educational actions. The results revealed that 2019 was the year with the highest number of publications and that 83.4% of the documents were collaborative efforts. Concerning educational approaches, hands-on and technological activities are being explored to raise awareness and stimulate behavior change. Students and questionnaires represent, respectively, the most common audience and evaluating method. More integrative actions and respective long-term methodological triangulation evaluation were identified as necessary in future studies. This paper is expected to contribute to innovative knowledge in the area by identifying the main gaps in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112446DOI Listing
July 2021

Wound healing cream formulated with major flavonoid is as effective as the aqueous leaf extract cream in a rat model of excisional wound.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Sep 14:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Leaves of are used worldwide for healing skin wounds. This study aimed to develop and compare two creams containing a leaf aqueous extract of (KP; 6%) and its major flavonoid [quercetin 3--α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside] (0.15%). Both creams were topically evaluated in a rat excision model for 15 days. On the 12 day, groups treated with KP leaf-extract and KP major flavonoid creams exhibited 95.3 ± 1.2% and 97.5 ± 0.8% of healing, respectively (positive control = 96.7 ± 0.8%; negative control = 76.1 ± 3.8%). Both resulted in better re-epithelialization and denser collagen fibres. Flavonol glycosides are the main phenolics in KP leaf-extract according to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. KP major flavonoid plays a fundamental role in the wound healing. The similar results found for both creams indicate that the use of KP crude extract should be more profitable than the isolated compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1817012DOI Listing
September 2020

Differential Distribution of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Leaves of Ecklon & Zeyher (Crassulaceae).

Microsc Microanal 2020 10;26(5):1061-1068

Plant Anatomy Laboratory, Department of Botany, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro21941-902, Brazil.

Kalanchoe delagoensis is adapted to intense solar irradiation, drought, and heat, partially due to the presence of phenols, important photo-protective compounds and antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives throughout the erect-tubular leaves of K. delagoensis. Specimens grown under sunny conditions were used for histochemical and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (liquid HPLC-DAD) analysis. The NP (2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate) test suggested the presence of phenolic acids throughout the leaf blade below the epidermis and in chloroplasts, mainly in the leaf base. Flavonoids were detected specifically in chloroplasts, on the adaxial side of the middle third and at the leaf apex, near the meristematic cells. There was a tendency of flavonoid accumulation from the middle third to the apex, especially surrounding the gem, while phenolic acids were observed mainly in the base. This can be explained by the more exposed leaf apex and to the presence of apical buds (high production and regulation sites of ROS). The HPLC-DAD analysis showed different classes of flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives in the leaf extracts, agreeing with the NP test results. This is the first time that the substitution of phenolic acids by flavonoids from the leaf base to the apex has been described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927620024344DOI Listing
October 2020

Oral treatments with a flavonoid-enriched fraction from Cecropia hololeuca and with rutin reduce articular pain and inflammation in murine zymosan-induced arthritis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Oct 5;260:112841. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Products Chemistry, Natural Products Research Institute (IPPN), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Cecropia Loefl. species (Urticaceae) are widely spread across the rainforest in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. Inhabitants of different regions of Brazil employ leaves, fruits and sprouts of Cecropia hololeuca Miq. mainly as anti-inflammatory, anti-asthmatic, expectorant, fever suppressant, and against cough.

Aim Of The Study: To evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous leaf extract of C. hololeuca in a murine model of zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA) and characterize compounds contributing to these effects.

Materials And Methods: The crude aqueous extract of C. hololeuca (CAE) was obtained by infusion, screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, and fractionated (solvent partition; RP-2 and Sephadex G-25 column chromatography), yielding fractions that were chemically and pharmacologically investigated. TLC, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and NMR analyses were peformed. The antinociceptive activity was assessed by means of acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate and rota-rod tests. ZIA was used to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of oral treatment with CAE, butanolic (BF) and aqueous fraction (AF), as well as the fractions obtained from BF (F2, F2-A and F2-B). Rutin, a flavonoid found in C. hololeuca, was also tested. Mechanical hypernociception, joint edema, local neutrophil recruitment and articular TNF-α quantification were performed to measure the severity of arthritis and identify the anti-inflammatory potential of C. hololeuca.

Results: CAE (0.03-1 g/kg, p.o.) showed a dose-related inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing test, but did not change the pain latency in the hotplate test, nor the first fall time on the rota-rod test. In addition, CAE (1 g/kg, p.o.) inhibited by 65% the mechanical hypernociception, 46% the joint edema, 54% the neutrophil recruitment and 53% the articular TNF-α concentration levels in ZIA. BF (0.4 g/kg, p.o.), AF (0.6 g/kg), F2 (0.1 g/kg) and F2-A (0.045 g/kg), but not F2-B (0.055 g/kg), inhibited the mechanical hypernociception, joint edema and neutrophil recruitment in ZIA. Rutin (0.001-0.03 g/kg, p.o.) produced dose-related inhibitory effects in the mechanical hypernociception, joint edema and neutrophil recruitment, and at 0.03 g/kg also inhibited articular TNF-α synthesis after intra-articular zymosan injection. Isoorientin, isovitexin, rutin and isoquercitrin were identified in the most active fraction (F2-A), along with luteolin and apigenin derivatives, tentatively identified as isoorientin-2″-O-glucoside and isovitexin-2″-O-glucoside.

Conclusion: This study corroborates the popular use by oral route of aqueous preparations of C. hololeuca against joint inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Our results demonstrated for the first time that oral administration of rutin shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in ZIA, indicating that this flavonoid is one of the immunomodulatory compounds involved in the anti-arthritic activity of C. hololeuca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112841DOI Listing
October 2020

Cerebral schistosomiasis in a patient travelling from São Tomé and Príncipe.

BJR Case Rep 2020 Mar 12;6(1):20190055. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Neurology Unit, Hospital Vila Franca Xira, Vila Franca de Xira, Portugal.

Aiming to raise awareness for the possibility of schistosomal involvement of the central nervous system in travellers returning from endemic areas and/or immigrants to nonendemic areas, the authors report a case of neuroschistosomiasis in a Portuguese patient coming from the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe with good clinical outcome following praziquantel therapy. This is the first case of neuroschistosomiasis associated with São Tomé and Príncipe reported in literature and further studies are needed to confirm which species of this parasite are endemic of that region. We conclude that early diagnosis is key to reduce clinical severity and therefore validation of new diagnostic techniques and establishment of consensual treatment guidelines would be important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjrcr.20190055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068093PMC
March 2020

Before and after a disease outbreak: Tracking a keystone species recovery from a mass mortality event.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Apr 8;156:104905. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação, Tecnologia e Inovação (ARDITI), Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. Electronic address:

Mass mortality events involving marine taxa are increasing worldwide. The long-spined sea urchin Diadema africanum is considered a keystone herbivore species in the northeastern Atlantic due to its control over the abundance and distribution of algae. After a first registered mass mortality in 2009, another event off the coasts of Madeira archipelago affected this ecologically important species in summer 2018. This study documented the 2018 D. africanum mass mortality event, and the progress of its populations on the southern coast of Madeira island. A citizen science survey was designed targeting marine stakeholders to understand the extent and intensity of the event around the archipelago. Underwater surveys on population density prior, during and after the mass mortality, permitted an evaluation of the severity and magnitude of the event as well as urchin population recovery. A preliminary assessment of causative agents of the mortality was performed. The event was reported in the principal islands of the archipelago reducing the populations up to 90%. However, a fast recovery was registered during the following months, suggesting that the reproductive success was not compromised. Microbiological analyses in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, during and after the event, was not conclusive. Nevertheless, the bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida, or the gram-negative bacteria, or the interaction of different types of bacteria may be responsible for the disease outbreak. Further studies are needed to assess the role of pathogens in sea urchin mass mortalities and the compound effects that sea urchins have in local habitats and ecological functioning of coastal marine ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104905DOI Listing
April 2020

Rare Co-occurrence of Beta-Thalassemia and : Novel Biomolecular Findings.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2019 23;6:322. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

A number of beta-thalassemia patients, independently from the type of beta-thalassemia (β or β) and blood transfusion requirements, may develop, after puberty, dermal, cardiovascular, and ocular complications associated with an ectopic mineralization phenotype similar to that observed in another rare genetic disorder, namely, (PXE). To date, the causes of these alterations in beta-thalassemia patients are not known, but it has been suggested that they could be the consequence of oxidative stress-driven epigenetic regulatory mechanisms producing an down-regulation. Since, in the last years, several genes have been associated to the ectopic mineralization phenotype, this study, for the first time, applied, on beta-thalassemia patients with ectopic mineralization phenotype, a multigene testing strategy. Selection of genes to be analyzed was done on the basis of (i) their genetic involvement in calcification diseases or (ii) their role in calcium-phosphate equilibrium. Although, due to the rarity of these conditions, a limited number of patients was analyzed, the detection of pathogenic variants represents the proof of concept that PXE and beta-thalassemia traits co-occur on a genetic basis and that, in addition to causative mutations, functional polymorphisms may further influence connective tissue manifestations. The use of a multigene-based next-generation sequencing represents a useful time- and cost-effective approach, allowing to identify sequence variants that might improve prognostic assessment and better management of these patients, especially in the current era of precision medicine aiming to identify individual optimal care based on a unique personal profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2019.00322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989569PMC
January 2020

Polysaccharide composition of an anticoagulant fraction from the aqueous extract of Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Lamiaceae).

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Feb 26;145:668-681. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais Bioativos (LPN-Bio), Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil. Electronic address:

Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly used against envenomation by snakebite. Pharmacological studies have shown that extracts of M. chamaedrys have antiophidic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties, supporting the ethnopharmacological use. In this study, an aqueous extract of aerial parts of M. chamaedrys showed anticoagulant activity in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay (0.54 IU/mg). The bioassay-guided fractionation using ethanol precipitation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 and Sephadex G-25 resulted in a water-soluble fraction with increased anticoagulant activity (Fraction F2-A; 2.94 IU/mg). A positive correlation was found between the amount of uronic acids and the anticoagulant potential of the active samples. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses indicated that F2-A contained homogalacturonan, type I rhamnogalacturonan, type II arabinogalactan and α-glucan. UV and FT-IR spectra indicated the possible presence of ferulic acid. Pectic polysaccharides and type II arabinogalactans may be contributing to the anticoagulant activity of the aqueous extract of M. chamaedrys in the APTT assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.12.176DOI Listing
February 2020

Perspectives of remedial teaching for students with language disorders in Portugal.

Codas 2019 31;31(5):e20180074. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Centro de Investigação em Educação - CIEd, Instituto de Educação, Universidade do Minho - UMinho - Braga, Portugal.

Purpose: To analyze how students with Language Disorders receive remedial teaching in inclusive settings in Portugal.

Methods: We developed a questionnaire based on the literature review, and applied it to 123 elementary teachers in Portugal. We performed a descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the dependent variables using parametric tests.

Results: Descriptive analysis revealed that most teachers know the concept of language disorders and consider it important to the development of language when supporting students with this problem. However, over half of the respondents answered that they have no training and enough information about the acquisition and development of language, and don´t consider having sufficient knowledge to contribute to the identification of students with language disorders. Results for inferential statistics showed statistically significant differences regarding gender; length of service and district, as well as a good internal consistency in relation to the questionnaire.

Conclusion: Results highlight the need for training and information about acquisition and development of language, and more specifically in relation to language disorders. It also showed that elementary teachers may find difficulties in intervention with students with language disorders, and particularly, to adequate strategies to their needs, particularly when developing Individualized Educational Programs for their students in a team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/20192018074DOI Listing
December 2019

Factors associated with the distribution of natural Toxoplasma gondii infection among equids in Northeastern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jun 13;28(2):283-290. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro - UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected equids in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 569 equids (528 horses, 8 mules and 33 donkeys) were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate associated factors. Among the 569 animals sampled, 118 (30.6%) living in rural areas and 14 (26.42%) in urban areas were seropositive (p>0.05). Seropositive animals were observed on 95% of the farms and in all the municipalities. Donkeys/mules as the host, presence of domestic cats and rats on the farm, ingestion of lagoon water and goat rearing remained in the final model as factors associated with infection. Preventive measures such as avoiding the presence of domestic cats close to rearing areas, pastures and sources of water for the animals should be adopted. The wide-ranging distribution of positive animals also indicated that infection in other domestic animals and in humans, through the contaminated environment, was possible. It should be highlighted that there was the possibility that donkeys and mules would continue to have detectable titers for longer, thus explaining the prevalence found. Further studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019035DOI Listing
June 2019

Frequency and factors associated with Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Trypanosoma evansi in equids from Bahia (Northeast Brazil).

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jan-Mar;28(1):47-58. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Ilhéus, BA, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated to Babesia caballi, Theileria equi and Trypanosoma evansi in naturally infected equids from the northeast Brazil. Blood samples from 569 equids (528 horses, 8 mules, and 33 donkeys) were collected and tested for the presence of DNA of each of these protozoan parasites by PCR. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate risk factors associated with the infection. The frequency of T. equi infection was 83.5% (475/569) - 84.3% in horses, and 73.2% in donkeys and mules. The results of the final model indicated that age (senior group) and animal species (mule and donkey group) were protective factors against this pathogen. The frequency of B. caballi infection was 24.3% (138/569) - 23.5% in horses and 34.1% in donkeys and mules. Age (adult and senior group) was considered a protective factor against B. caballi infection whereas animal species (donkey and mule group) were considered a risk factor for the infection. Trypanosoma evansi infection was not detected in any of animals. Our results suggest that equids from the area studied may be infected earlier in life with the etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis and become asymptomatic carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-296120180090DOI Listing
July 2019

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Underground Parts of on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 2;2019:6340757. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects mainly older men. It is estimated to affect 50% of 51-60-year-old men and 70% of 61-70-year-old men. BPH is a nonmalignant proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate gland regions. Despite the use of conventional pharmacological therapy, herbal medicines are used in BPH therapy, and several mechanisms of action have been suggested based on their complex chemical composition. Considering the ethnomedicinal uses of (KGB), we evaluated the inhibitory effects on the proliferation of stromal cells from primary benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) of four different aqueous extracts from this plant: underground parts from specimens in flower (T1 treatment), leaves from specimens in flower (T2 treatment), and flowers (T3 treatment) and leaves from specimens not in flower (T4 treatment). T1, T2, T3, and T4 treatments at 250 g/ml for 72 hours inhibited BPH cells by 56.7%, 29.2%, 39.4%, and 13.5%, respectively, showing that the KGB underground parts extract (T1 treatment) was the most active. Our findings show that the extract of the KGB underground parts (150 and 250 g/ml) stimulates important changes in the BPH cells, modulating crucial processes such as proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis provided a tentative identification of glycosylated syringic acid derivatives, glycosylated forms of volatile compounds, and lignans in this extract. Finally, these results suggest that there is a potential therapeutic use for KGB in BPH, which could improve the clinical management of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6340757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334319PMC
January 2019

Unveiling the Ambrotype: Characterization of Two 19th Century Photographs.

Microsc Microanal 2019 02 2;25(1):203-213. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

1HERCULES Laboratory,University of Évora,Largo Marquês de Marialva,8,7000-809 Évora,Portugal.

This work used a multi-analytical approach to characterize two 19th century ambrotypes and was motivated by the lack of insight on these historical objects. Photographic imaging and optical microscopy (OM) were used to identify abrasions, cracks related to reticulation, tarnishing, and other aspects associated to production and degradation processes. With variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) these processes were seen with great detail and further characterized. Elemental point analysis and elemental mapping showed that the photosensitive material used was silver iodide. Degradation compounds were found as silver and chlorine-containing compounds. In one of the items, the tarnishing area also contained redeposited silver in a ring-shape surrounding a nucleus rich in silver, copper, and sulfur, in addition to copper-based salts. EDS analyses also identified that the supports were common soda-lime-silica glasses, refined with arsenic; and showed that a pigment rich in iron was used in both items to hand color the cheeks, extended with aluminum silicates alone or mixed with barium sulfate. The μ-Raman study pointed out that a synthetic Mars pigment was employed. μ-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses identified collodion as the binder. Shellac was used as a protective varnish in one of the items and a gum was possibly employed on the other. Bitumen was used for the background in one ambrotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927618000429DOI Listing
February 2019

Ocimum basilicum but not Ocimum gratissimum present cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, inducing apoptosis and triggering mTOR/Akt/p70S6K pathway.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2018 04 28;50(2):93-105. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Laboratório de Oncobiologia Molecular (LabOMol), Departamento de Biotecnologia Farmacêutica, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Breast cancer is the major cause of death by cancer in women worldwide and in spite of the many drugs for its treatment, there is still the need for novel therapies for its control. Ocimum species have been used by traditional medicine to control several diseases, including cancer. We have previously characterized the antidiabetic properties of the unfractionated aqueous leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and Ocimum gratissimum (OG), modulating glucose metabolism in diabetic mice. Since glucose metabolism is primordial for cancer cells survival, we hypothesized that these extracts are effective against cancer cells. The unfractionated aqueous leaf extracts of OB and OG were chemically characterized and tested for their cytotoxic, cytostatic and anti-proliferative properties against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Both extracts presented cytostatic effects with an 80% decrease in MCF-7 cell growth at 1 mg/mL. However, only OB promoted cytotoxic effects, interfering with the cell viability even after interruption of the treatment. Moreover, OB but not OG affected the cell proliferation and metabolism, evaluated in terms of lactate production and intracellular ATP content. After 24 h of treatment, OB treated cells presented an apoptotic profile, while OG treated cells were more necrotic. The treatment with both extracts also activated AMPK, but OB was much more efficient than OG in promoting this. The activation of mTOR signaling, another survival pathway was promoted by OB, whereas OG failed to activate it. In the end, we conclude that OB extract is efficient against the human breast cancer cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10863-018-9750-3DOI Listing
April 2018

Optimization of Aqueous Extraction from Kalanchoe pinnata Leaves to Obtain the Highest Content of an Anti-inflammatory Flavonoid using a Response Surface Model.

Phytochem Anal 2018 May 19;29(3):308-315. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Laboratory of Chemistry for Bioactive Natural Products, Natural Products Research Institute (IPPN), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Introduction: The medicinal plant Kalanchoe pinnata is a phenolic-rich species used worldwide. The reports on its pharmacological uses have increased by 70% in the last 10 years. The leaves of this plant are the main source of an unusual quercetin-diglycosyl flavonoid (QAR, quercetin arabinopyranosyl rhamnopyranoside), which can be easily extracted using water. QAR possess a strong in vivo anti-inflammatory activity.

Objective: To optimize the aqueous extraction of QAR from K. pinnata leaves using a three-level full factorial design.

Material And Methods: After a previous screening design, time (x ) and temperature (x ) were chosen as the two independent variables for optimization. Freeze-dried leaves were extracted with water (20% w/v), at 30°C, 40°C or 50°C for 5, 18 or 30 min. QAR content (determined by HPLC-DAD) and yield of extracts were analyzed. The optimized extracts were also evaluated for cytotoxicity.

Results: The optimal heating times for extract yield and QAR content were similar in two-dimensional (2D) surface responses (between 12.8 and 30 min), but their optimal extraction temperatures were ranged between 40°C and 50°C for QAR content and 30°C and 38°C for extract yield. A compromise region for both parameters was at the mean points that were 40°C for the extraction temperature and 18 min for the total time.

Conclusion: The optimized process is faster and spends less energy than the previous one (water; 30 min at 55°C); therefore is greener and more attractive for industrial purposes. This is the first report of extraction optimization of this bioactive flavonoid. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pca.2744DOI Listing
May 2018

Phenolic Substances from Ocimum Species Enhance Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Modulate the Expression of Key Insulin Regulatory Genes in Mice Pancreatic Islets.

J Nat Prod 2017 12 1;80(12):3267-3275. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University , Tage-Hansens Gade 2, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are plants ethnopharmacologically used to treat diabetes mellitus, a life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. In order to further understand their antidiabetic potential, which has been previously demonstrated in animal models, we aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of major phenolic substances from both plants on insulin secretion and gene expression in pancreatic islets isolated from NMRI mice. Insulin secretion was measured after acute (1 h) and long-term (72 h) incubation of islets with one of four cinnamic acid derivatives (caftaric, caffeic, chicoric, and rosmarinic acids) or a C-glucosylated flavonoid (vicenin-2). All substances acutely enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from islets at concentrations from 10 to 10 M. They also increased GSIS after chronic incubation (10 M). None of them increased insulin secretion in the presence of low glucose concentration. Furthermore, these substances markedly changed the gene expression profile of key insulin regulatory genes INS1, INS2, PDX1, INSR, IRS1, and proliferative genes as well as glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), in treated islets. Thus, they may play an important role in diabetes treatment. This is the first report on the insulin-secretory activity of caftaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and vicenin-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00699DOI Listing
December 2017

Type III Secreted Virulence Factors Manipulating Signaling to Actin Dynamics.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 ;399:175-199

Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstr. 7, 38124, Baunschweig, Germany.

A key aspect of bacterial pathogenesis is the colonization and persistence within the host and, later on, its dissemination to new niches. During evolution, bacteria developed a myriad of virulence mechanisms to usurp the host's sophisticated defense mechanisms in order to establish their colonization niche. Elucidation of the highly dynamic and complex interactions between host and pathogens remains an important field of study. Here, we highlight the conserved manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton by some Gram-negative gastrointestinal pathogens, addressing the role of type III secreted bacterial GEFs at the different steps of pathogenesis. As a final topic, we review cytoskeleton dynamics induced by EPEC/EHEC strains for pedestal formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/82_2016_35DOI Listing
June 2017

Caffeoylquinic acids from antiplasmodial active extract of Xanthium cavanillesii fruits and their molecular modelling studies.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Mar 13;31(6):729-733. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

b Laboratórios de Fitoquímica e Modelagem Molecular , Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana , Feira de Santana , Brazil.

The antiplasmodial active extract of Xanthium cavanillesii contains 3,4-dicaffeoyl quinic acid (3,4-DCQA), 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid (3,5-DCQA) and 1,3,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (1,3,5-TCQA). These results inspired us to investigate the interaction of these molecules with a promising validated target of Plasmodium, PfATP6 orthologue of mammalian Ca-ATPase. Models of this receptor were obtained through comparative modelling. Afterwards, molecular docking studies were used to identify possible interaction modes of these caffeoyl quinic derivatives on the binding site. The 1,3,5-TCQA had the best energy, but all of these had better energy than thapsigargin, a non-competitive inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmatic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1219856DOI Listing
March 2017

Innovative Flow Cytometry Allows Accurate Identification of Rare Circulating Cells Involved in Endothelial Dysfunction.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(8):e0160153. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, Modena, Italy.

Introduction: Although rare, circulating endothelial and progenitor cells could be considered as markers of endothelial damage and repair potential, possibly predicting the severity of cardiovascular manifestations. A number of studies highlighted the role of these cells in age-related diseases, including those characterized by ectopic calcification. Nevertheless, their use in clinical practice is still controversial, mainly due to difficulties in finding reproducible and accurate methods for their determination.

Methods: Circulating mature cells (CMC, CD45-, CD34+, CD133-) and circulating progenitor cells (CPC, CD45dim, CD34bright, CD133+) were investigated by polychromatic high-speed flow cytometry to detect the expression of endothelial (CD309+) or osteogenic (BAP+) differentiation markers in healthy subjects and in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations associated with ectopic calcification.

Results: This study shows that: 1) polychromatic flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to accurately identify rare cells; 2) the balance of CD309+ on CMC/CD309+ on CPC is altered in patients affected by peripheral vascular manifestations, suggesting the occurrence of vascular damage and low repair potential; 3) the increase of circulating cells exhibiting a shift towards an osteoblast-like phenotype (BAP+) is observed in the presence of ectopic calcification.

Conclusion: Differences between healthy subjects and patients with ectopic calcification indicate that this approach may be useful to better evaluate endothelial dysfunction in a clinical context.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160153PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004589PMC
August 2017

Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Flavonoids and a New Kaempferol Triglycoside from the Medicinal Plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

Chem Biodivers 2016 Dec 16;13(12):1707-1714. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais Bioativos - LPN-Bio, Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373 - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil.

Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the AcOEt fraction (Kd-AC). The BuOH-soluble fraction afforded quercetin 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd-AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir-sensitive strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Kd-AC was highly active against HSV-1 (EC  = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV-2 (EC  = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti-HSV-1 (EC  = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27 and EC  = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti-HSV-2 (EC  = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC  = 36.2 μg/ml; SI > 5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201600127DOI Listing
December 2016

The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

Chem Biodivers 2016 Jun 24;13(6):686-94. Epub 2016 May 24.

Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais Bioativos - LPN-Bio, Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, RJ, Brazil.

Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P < 0.05). OB was a little more effective than OG, despite the lower content of chicoric acid in OB. This result strongly suggests that components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201500180DOI Listing
June 2016

Statins and oxidative stress in chronic heart failure.

Rev Port Cardiol 2016 Jan 4;35(1):41-57. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapêutica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; MedInUP - Centro de Investigação Farmacológica e Inovação Medicamentosa, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia. They are also recommended in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to decreasing cholesterol synthesis, statins interfere with the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates, which may explain many of their pleiotropic properties, including their antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the synthesis of reactive oxygen species and their elimination by antioxidant defense systems, with a prevailing pro-oxidant status that results in macromolecular damage and disruption of cellular redox signaling. Reactive oxygen species interfere with various processes that affect cardiac structure and function, contributing to the contractile dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis observed in the pathophysiology of heart failure. By regulating several molecular pathways that control nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, statins help restore redox homeostasis. These drugs also contribute to the control of inflammation and appear to have a protective role in various diseases. The results of observational studies and clinical trials with statins in heart failure have not been consensual. This review aims to analyze the role of oxidative stress in heart failure and the molecular mechanisms underlying statins' antioxidant properties. It also examines current scientific evidence on the use of these drugs as a specific treatment for heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2015.09.006DOI Listing
January 2016

Transplacental transmission of bovine tick-borne pathogens: Frequency, co-infections and fatal neonatal anaplasmosis in a region of enzootic stability in the northeast of Brazil.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2016 Mar 10;7(2):270-5. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Rod. Jorge Amado, Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, Bahia 45662-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Bovine tick-borne disease (TBD) constitutes a worldwide group of diseases that result in great losses for dairy and beef cattle. With regard to the epidemiological profile of the diseases, the importance of transplacental transmission is still not very well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the transplacental transmission of TBD agents (Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina) in a herd of dairy cattle that had been naturally infected in an area of enzootic stability in northeastern Brazil. Blood for serology of the three agents was collected from cows within 120 days of gestation and serology, haemogram and nPCR assays were performed after birth. Blood was collected from the calves within 3h of birth, and haemogram and nPCR assays were performed in all animals. Pre-colostrum serology was achieved in 34 animals. The Student's t-test was used to compare the haemogram results between animals that were positive and negative for the haemoparasites. The cows were seropositive for all agents in at least one of the examinations. We detected 15 cases of vertical transmission of A. marginale, 4 of B. bovis and 2 of B. bigemina in the 60 cows. In infected animals, co-infection was detected for A. marginale and B. bovis in 1 of 60 calves, and a triple infection was detected in one other calf. Fatal neonatal anaplasmosis was observed in 1 of 15 calves, in which death occurred within 24h of birth. From the results, we concluded that transplacental transmission of TBD agents occurs, including in cases of co- and triple-infection. Such transplacental transmission can cause neonatal death, increasing the importance of this form of epidemiological transmission and suggesting its role as a cause of undiagnosed neonatal death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.11.001DOI Listing
March 2016

Induction of wound-periderm-like tissue in Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) leaves as a defence response to high UV-B radiation levels.

Ann Bot 2015 Oct 7;116(5):763-9. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Plant Anatomy Laboratory, Botanical Department, Biology Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

Background And Aims: UV-B radiation can be stressful for plants and cause morphological and biochemical changes. Kalanchoe pinnata is a CAM leaf-succulent species distributed in hot and dry regions, and is rich in flavonoids, which are considered to be protective against UV-B radiation. This study aims to verify if K. pinnata has morphological or anatomical responses as a strategy in response to high UV-B levels.

Methods: Kalanchoe pinnata plants of the same age were grown under white light (control) or white light plus supplemental UV-B radiation (5 h d(-1)). The plants were treated with the same photoperiod, photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and daily watering system. Fragments of the middle third of the leaf blade and petiole were dehydrated and then embedded in historesin and sectioned in a rotary microtome. Sections were stained with toluidine blue O and mounted in Entellan®. Microchemical analyses by optical microscopy were performed on fresh material with Sudan III, Sudan IV and phloroglucinol, and analysed using fluorescence microscopy.

Key Results: Supplemental UV-B radiation caused leaf curling and the formation of brown areas on the leaves. These brown areas developed into a protective tissue on the adaxial side of the leaf, but only in directly exposed regions. Anatomically, this protective tissue was similar to a wound-periderm, with outer layer cell walls impregnated with suberin and lignin.

Conclusions: This is the first report of wound-periderm formation in leaves in response to UV-B radiation. This protective tissue could be important for the survival of the species in desert regions under high UV-B stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcv129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4590332PMC
October 2015

Decrease in APP and CP mRNA expression supports impairment of iron export in Alzheimer's disease patients.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Oct 22;1852(10 Pt A):2116-22. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Health Promotion and Prevention of Noncommunicable Diseases Department, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa, Portugal; University of Lisboa, Faculty of Sciences, BioISI-Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of still unknown etiology and the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Besides its main neuropathological hallmarks, a dysfunctional homeostasis of transition metals has been reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Dysregulation of iron (Fe) metabolism in AD has been suggested, particularly at the level of cellular iron efflux. Herein, we intended to further clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying Fe homeostasis in AD. In order to achieve this goal, the expression of specific Fe metabolism-related genes directly involved in Fe regulation and export was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 73AD patients and 74 controls by quantitative PCR. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the expression of aconitase 1 (ACO1; P=0.007); ceruloplasmin (CP; P<0.001) and amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP; P=0.006) genes in AD patients compared with healthy volunteers. These observations point out to a significant downregulation in the expression of genes associated with ferroportin-mediated cellular Fe export in PBMCs from AD patients, when compared to controls. Taken together, these findings support previous studies suggesting impairment of Fe homeostasis in AD, which may lead to cellular Fe retention and oxidative stress, a typical feature of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.07.017DOI Listing
October 2015
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