Publications by authors named "Sébastien Helou"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence of obstetrical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a retrospective study within thrombocytopenic pregnant women. A difficult diagnosis and a treatable disease.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2015 Jun 17;15:137. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Service de Néphrologie Transplantation Dialyse, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) defined as ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 domain 13) activity <10 % is a rare aetiology of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy, although the precise incidence is unknown. During pregnancy, the diagnosis of TTP is crucial as it has high feto-maternal morbidity-mortality and requires urgent plasma exchange. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of TTP retrospectively and to describe case presentations and follow-up.

Methods: A monocentric retrospective study (2008-2009) was conducted among pregnant women followed in a tertiary care obstetrical unit who experienced at least one episode of severe thrombocytopenia (platelets ≤75 G/L) during 2008 and 2009. In cases of uncertain aetiology of thrombocytopenia, ADAMTS-13 activity was assessed by the full length technique.

Results: Among 8,908 deliveries over the 2 year period, 79 women had a platelet count nadir ≤75 G/L. Eighteen had a known aetiology of thrombocytopenia and 11 were lost to follow-up. Among 50 remaining patients, ADAMTS-13 activity was undetectable (<5 %) in 4, consistent with the diagnosis of TTP. Platelet count spontaneously normalized in 3 patients after delivery. None presented focal cerebral involvement. Three of the four, who were primipara patients, had a sustained severe deficiency in the absence of anti-ADAMTS-13 antibodies, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing indicated a constitutive deficiency. The fourth, a multipara patient, had an acquired, auto-immune TTP. Placental pathology in the three primipara patients showed severe and non-specific ischemic lesions. Two patients lost their babies shortly after birth. In subsequent pregnancies in these two patients, prophylactic plasma infusion initiated early with increasing volume throughout pregnancy prevented TTP relapse, improved placental pathology, and led to normal delivery.

Conclusions: The prevalence of TTP among thrombocytopenic pregnant women is high, up to 5 % in a tertiary unit. Platelet count normalization after delivery does not eliminate TTP. Clinicians should be aware of TTP during pregnancy, and, even if assessed retrospectively, ADAMTS-13 assessment is of particular importance for identifying patients with congenital TTP. In these patients, preventive plasma infusion and/or exchange can dramatically improve foetal prognosis, resulting in successful childbirth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-015-0557-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4469004PMC
June 2015

Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 haemolytic uraemic syndrome in France: outcome with eculizumab.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Mar 28;29(3):565-72. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Service de Néphrologie Transplantation Dialyse, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: An outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) due to Shiga toxin-secreting Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 from contaminated fenugreek sprouts occurred in June 2011 near Bordeaux, France. In the context of this outbreak, all patients were treated with the monoclonal anti-C5 antibody, eculizumab.

Methods: The diagnosis of HUS was made based on haemolytic anaemia, low platelet count and acute kidney injury. Data were obtained from initial gastrointestinal symptoms to the end of follow-up 10 weeks after the start of eculizumab.

Results: Among 24 cases of STEC gastroenteritis, HUS developed in nine patients (eight adults and one child), 6 (median; range 3-12) days after digestive symptoms begun. The median (range) highest or lowest biological values were platelet count 26 (range 14-93) G/L; haemoglobin 6.6 (range 5-10.7) g/dL; LDH 1520 (range 510-2568) IU/L; creatinine 152 (range 48-797) µmol/L. All patients had extra-renal complications (liver 9, pancreas 5, brain 3 and heart 3). Two patients were dialysed, and one was ventilated. After failure of plasma exchange to increase platelets in the first three patients, eculizumab was administered in all nine patients, 0-4 days after HUS diagnosis (median 1 day). One patient with very severe neurological HUS received immunoadsorption. Outcome was favourable in all patients, with rapid normalization of haemoglobin, platelets, LDH levels, renal function and neurological improvement. There were no deaths and no serious adverse events related to eculizumab.

Conclusions: Early treatment of O104:H4 STEC-HUS by eculizumab was associated with a rapid and efficient recovery. Controlled prospective evaluation of eculizumab in STEC-HUS is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938298PMC
March 2014