Publications by authors named "Ryuichi Takase"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polyunsaturated fatty acids-enriched lipid from reduced sugar alcohol mannitol by marine yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis Y2.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 06 18;526(4):1138-1142. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan; Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan. Electronic address:

Brown macroalgae is a promising marine biomass for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Here we investigate the biochemical processes used by marine oleaginous yeast for assimilating the major carbohydrate found in brown macroalgae. Briefly, yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis strain Y2 was isolated from seawater and grown in minimal medium containing reduced sugar alcohol mannitol as the sole carbon source with a salinity comparable to seawater. Conditions limiting nitrogen were used to facilitate lipid synthesis. R. fluvialis Y2 yielded 55.1% (w/w) and 39.1% (w/w) of lipids, per dry cell weight, from mannitol in the absence and presence of salinity, respectively. Furthermore, mannitol, as a sugar source, led to an increase in the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3), compared to glucose. This suggests that oxidation of mannitol leads to the activation of NADH-dependent fatty acid desaturases in R. fluvialis Y2. Such fatty acid composition may contribute to the cold-flow properties of biodiesel fuels. Our results identified a salt-tolerant oleaginous yeast species with unique metabolic traits, demonstrating a key role as a decomposer in the global carbon cycle through marine ecosystems. This is the first study on mannitol-induced synthesis of lipids enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids by marine yeast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.032DOI Listing
June 2020

Bacterial chemotaxis towards polysaccharide pectin by pectin-binding protein.

Sci Rep 2020 03 4;10(1):3977. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.

As opposed to typical bacteria exhibiting chemotaxis towards low-molecular-weight substances, such as amino acids and mono/oligosaccharides, gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. strain A1 shows chemotaxis towards alginate and pectin polysaccharides. To identify the mechanism of chemotaxis towards macromolecules, a genomic fragment was isolated from the wild-type strain A1 through complementation with the mutant strain A1-M5 lacking chemotaxis towards pectin. This fragment contained several genes including sph1118. Through whole-genome sequencing of strain A1-M5, sph1118 was found to harbour a mutation. In fact, sph1118 disruptant lost chemotaxis towards pectin, and this deficiency was recovered by complementation with wild-type sph1118. Interestingly, the gene disruptant also exhibited decreased pectin assimilation. Furthermore, the gene product SPH1118 was expressed in recombinant E. coli cells, purified and characterised. Differential scanning fluorimetry and UV absorption spectroscopy revealed that SPH1118 specifically binds to pectin with a dissociation constant of 8.5 μM. Using binding assay and primary structure analysis, SPH1118 was predicted to be a periplasmic pectin-binding protein associated with an ATP-binding cassette transporter. This is the first report on the identification and characterisation of a protein triggering chemotaxis towards the macromolecule pectin as well as its assimilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60274-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055323PMC
March 2020

Allele-specific RNA interference prevents neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D mouse models.

J Clin Invest 2019 12;129(12):5568-5583

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, USA.

Gene therapy approaches are being deployed to treat recessive genetic disorders by restoring the expression of mutated genes. However, the feasibility of these approaches for dominantly inherited diseases - where treatment may require reduction in the expression of a toxic mutant protein resulting from a gain-of-function allele - is unclear. Here we show the efficacy of allele-specific RNAi as a potential therapy for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D), caused by dominant mutations in glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS). A de novo mutation in GARS was identified in a patient with a severe peripheral neuropathy, and a mouse model precisely recreating the mutation was produced. These mice developed a neuropathy by 3-4 weeks of age, validating the pathogenicity of the mutation. RNAi sequences targeting mutant GARS mRNA, but not wild-type, were optimized and then packaged into AAV9 for in vivo delivery. This almost completely prevented the neuropathy in mice treated at birth. Delaying treatment until after disease onset showed modest benefit, though this effect decreased the longer treatment was delayed. These outcomes were reproduced in a second mouse model of CMT2D using a vector specifically targeting that allele. The effects were dose dependent, and persisted for at least 1 year. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of AAV9-mediated allele-specific knockdown and provide proof of concept for gene therapy approaches for dominant neuromuscular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI130600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877339PMC
December 2019

Hypermorphic and hypomorphic AARS alleles in patients with CMT2N expand clinical and molecular heterogeneities.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 12;27(23):4036-4050

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes implicated in several dominant and recessive disease phenotypes. The canonical function of ARSs is to couple an amino acid to a cognate transfer RNA (tRNA). We identified three novel disease-associated missense mutations in the alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) gene in three families with dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Two mutations (p.Arg326Trp and p.Glu337Lys) are located near a recurrent pathologic change in AARS, p.Arg329His. The third (p.Ser627Leu) is in the editing domain of the protein in which hitherto only mutations associated with recessive encephalopathies have been described. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that two mutations (p.Ser627Leu and p.Arg326Trp) represent loss-of-function alleles, while the third (p.Glu337Lys) represents a hypermorphic allele. Further, aminoacylation assays confirmed that the third mutation (p.Glu337Lys) increases tRNA charging velocity. To test the effect of each mutation in the context of a vertebrate nervous system, we developed a zebrafish assay. Remarkably, all three mutations caused a pathological phenotype of neural abnormalities when expressed in zebrafish, while expression of the human wild-type messenger RNA (mRNA) did not. Our data indicate that not only functional null or hypomorphic alleles, but also hypermorphic AARS alleles can cause dominantly inherited axonal CMT disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240730PMC
December 2018

Stabilization of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 by Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase in p16-Negative Cancer.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2018 Sep 24;1(1):21-31. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Medicinal Bioconvergence Research Center, Seoul National University, Suwon, 16229, Korea.

Although abnormal increases in the level or activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) occur frequently in cancer, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS) specifically stabilizes CDK4 by enhancing the formation of the complex between CDK4 and a chaperone protein. Knockdown of MRS reduced the CDK4 level, resulting in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The effects of MRS on CDK4 stability were more prominent in the tumor suppressor p16-negative cancer cells because of the competitive relationship of the two proteins for binding to CDK4. Suppression of MRS reduced cell transformation and the tumorigenic ability of a p16-negative breast cancer cell line . Further, the MRS levels showed a positive correlation with those of CDK4 and the downstream signals at high frequency in p16-negative human breast cancer tissues. This work revealed an unexpected functional connection between the two enzymes involving protein synthesis and the cell cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.8b00001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089025PMC
September 2018

Selective terminal methylation of a tRNA wobble base.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 04;46(7):e37

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Active tRNAs are extensively post-transcriptionally modified, particularly at the wobble position 34 and the position 37 on the 3'-side of the anticodon. The 5-carboxy-methoxy modification of U34 (cmo5U34) is present in Gram-negative tRNAs for six amino acids (Ala, Ser, Pro, Thr, Leu and Val), four of which (Ala, Ser, Pro and Thr) have a terminal methyl group to form 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methoxy-uridine (mcmo5U34) for higher reading-frame accuracy. The molecular basis for the selective terminal methylation is not understood. Many cmo5U34-tRNAs are essential for growth and cannot be substituted for mutational analysis. We show here that, with a novel genetic approach, we have created and isolated mutants of Escherichia coli tRNAPro and tRNAVal for analysis of the selective terminal methylation. We show that substitution of G35 in the anticodon of tRNAPro inactivates the terminal methylation, whereas introduction of G35 to tRNAVal confers it, indicating that G35 is a major determinant for the selectivity. We also show that, in tRNAPro, the terminal methylation at U34 is dependent on the primary m1G methylation at position 37 but not vice versa, indicating a hierarchical ranking of modifications between positions 34 and 37. We suggest that this hierarchy provides a mechanism to ensure top performance of a tRNA inside of cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909439PMC
April 2018

Compound heterozygosity for loss-of-function GARS variants results in a multisystem developmental syndrome that includes severe growth retardation.

Hum Mutat 2017 10 14;38(10):1412-1420. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that ligate amino acids onto tRNA molecules. Genes encoding ARSs have been implicated in myriad dominant and recessive disease phenotypes. Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) is a bifunctional ARS that charges tRNA in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. GARS variants have been associated with dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease but have not been convincingly implicated in recessive phenotypes. Here, we describe a patient from the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program with a multisystem, developmental phenotype. Whole-exome sequence analysis revealed that the patient is compound heterozygous for one frameshift (p.Glu83Ilefs*6) and one missense (p.Arg310Gln) GARS variant. Using in vitro and in vivo functional studies, we show that both GARS variants cause a loss-of-function effect: the frameshift variant results in depleted protein levels and the missense variant reduces GARS tRNA charging activity. In support of GARS variant pathogenicity, our patient shows striking phenotypic overlap with other patients having ARS-related recessive diseases, including features associated with variants in both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ARSs; this observation is consistent with the essential function of GARS in both cellular locations. In summary, our clinical, genetic, and functional analyses expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with GARS variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599332PMC
October 2017

TrmD: A Methyl Transferase for tRNA Methylation With mG37.

Enzymes 2017;41:89-115. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Center of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

TrmD is an S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyl transferase that synthesizes the methylated mG37 in tRNA. TrmD is specific to and essential for bacterial growth, and it is fundamentally distinct from its eukaryotic and archaeal counterpart Trm5. TrmD is unusual by using a topological protein knot to bind AdoMet. Despite its restricted mobility, the TrmD knot has complex dynamics necessary to transmit the signal of AdoMet binding to promote tRNA binding and methyl transfer. Mutations in the TrmD knot block this intramolecular signaling and decrease the synthesis of mG37-tRNA, prompting ribosomes to +1-frameshifts and premature termination of protein synthesis. TrmD is unique among AdoMet-dependent methyl transferases in that it requires Mg in the catalytic mechanism. This Mg dependence is important for regulating Mg transport to Salmonella for survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The strict conservation of TrmD among bacterial species suggests that a better characterization of its enzymology and biology will have a broad impact on our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.enz.2017.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054489PMC
June 2019

A genetically encoded fluorescent tRNA is active in live-cell protein synthesis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 04;45(7):4081-4093

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) perform essential tasks for all living cells. They are major components of the ribosomal machinery for protein synthesis and they also serve in non-ribosomal pathways for regulation and signaling metabolism. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent tRNA fusion with the potential for imaging in live Escherichia coli cells. This tRNA fusion carries a Spinach aptamer that becomes fluorescent upon binding of a cell-permeable and non-toxic fluorophore. We show that, despite having a structural framework significantly larger than any natural tRNA species, this fusion is a viable probe for monitoring tRNA stability in a cellular quality control mechanism that degrades structurally damaged tRNA. Importantly, this fusion is active in E. coli live-cell protein synthesis allowing peptidyl transfer at a rate sufficient to support cell growth, indicating that it is accommodated by translating ribosomes. Imaging analysis shows that this fusion and ribosomes are both excluded from the nucleoid, indicating that the fusion and ribosomes are in the cytosol together possibly engaged in protein synthesis. This fusion methodology has the potential for developing new tools for live-cell imaging of tRNA with the unique advantage of both stoichiometric labeling and broader application to all cells amenable to genetic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5397188PMC
April 2017

Structural determinants in bacterial 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate dehydrogenase KduD for dual-coenzyme specificity.

Proteins 2016 07 21;84(7):934-47. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan.

Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) is distributed in many organisms, from bacteria to humans, and has significant roles in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and other biomolecules. An important intermediate in acidic polysaccharide metabolism is 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG). Recently, two short and long loops in Sphingomonas KDG-producing SDR enzymes (NADPH-dependent A1-R and NADH-dependent A1-R') involved in alginate metabolism were shown to be crucial for NADPH or NADH coenzyme specificity. Two SDR family enzymes-KduD from Pectobacterium carotovorum (PcaKduD) and DhuD from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpyDhuD)-prefer NADH as coenzyme, although only PcaKduD can utilize both NADPH and NADH. Both enzymes reduce 2,5-diketo-3-deoxy-d-gluconate to produce KDG. Tertiary and quaternary structures of SpyDhuD and PcaKduD and its complex with NADH were determined at high resolution (approximately 1.6 Å) by X-ray crystallography. Both PcaKduD and SpyDhuD consist of a three-layered structure, α/β/α, with a coenzyme-binding site in the Rossmann fold; similar to enzymes A1-R and A1-R', both arrange the two short and long loops close to the coenzyme-binding site. The primary structures of the two loops in PcaKduD and SpyDhuD were similar to those in A1-R' but not A1-R. Charge neutrality and moderate space at the binding site of the nucleoside ribose 2' coenzyme region were determined to be structurally crucial for dual-coenzyme specificity in PcaKduD by structural comparison of the NADH- and NADPH-specific SDR enzymes. The corresponding site in SpyDhuD was negatively charged and spatially shallow. This is the first reported study on structural determinants in SDR family KduD related to dual-coenzyme specificity. Proteins 2016; 84:934-947. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.25042DOI Listing
July 2016

Molecular Basis and Consequences of the Cytochrome c-tRNA Interaction.

J Biol Chem 2016 May 9;291(19):10426-36. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

the Department of Cancer Biology and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, and

The intrinsic apoptosis pathway occurs through the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol, where it promotes activation of the caspase family of proteases. The observation that tRNA binds to cytochrome c revealed a previously unexpected mode of apoptotic regulation. However, the molecular characteristics of this interaction, and its impact on each interaction partner, are not well understood. Using a novel fluorescence assay, we show here that cytochrome c binds to tRNA with an affinity comparable with other tRNA-protein binding interactions and with a molecular ratio of ∼3:1. Cytochrome c recognizes the tertiary structural features of tRNA, particularly in the core region. This binding is independent of the charging state of tRNA but is regulated by the redox state of cytochrome c. Compared with reduced cytochrome c, oxidized cytochrome c binds to tRNA with a weaker affinity, which correlates with its stronger pro-apoptotic activity. tRNA binding both facilitates cytochrome c reduction and inhibits the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c, which is involved in its release from mitochondria. Together, these findings provide new insights into the cytochrome c-tRNA interaction and apoptotic regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.697789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4858987PMC
May 2016

A novel HSD17B10 mutation impairing the activities of the mitochondrial RNase P complex causes X-linked intractable epilepsy and neurodevelopmental regression.

RNA Biol 2016 05 7;13(5):477-85. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

d Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Thomas Jefferson University , Philadelphia , PA , USA.

We report a Caucasian boy with intractable epilepsy and global developmental delay. Whole-exome sequencing identified the likely genetic etiology as a novel p.K212E mutation in the X-linked gene HSD17B10 for mitochondrial short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR5C1. Mutations in HSD17B10 cause the HSD10 disease, traditionally classified as a metabolic disorder due to the role of SDR5C1 in fatty and amino acid metabolism. However, SDR5C1 is also an essential subunit of human mitochondrial RNase P, the enzyme responsible for 5'-processing and methylation of purine-9 of mitochondrial tRNAs. Here we show that the p.K212E mutation impairs the SDR5C1-dependent mitochondrial RNase P activities, and suggest that the pathogenicity of p.K212E is due to a general mitochondrial dysfunction caused by reduction in SDR5C1-dependent maturation of mitochondrial tRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2016.1159381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4962811PMC
May 2016

Metabolic fate of unsaturated glucuronic/iduronic acids from glycosaminoglycans: molecular identification and structure determination of streptococcal isomerase and dehydrogenase.

J Biol Chem 2015 Mar 20;290(10):6281-92. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

From the Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, and

Glycosaminoglycans in mammalian extracellular matrices are degraded to their constituents, unsaturated uronic (glucuronic/iduronic) acids and amino sugars, through successive reactions of bacterial polysaccharide lyase and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase. Genes coding for glycosaminoglycan-acting lyase, unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, and the phosphotransferase system are assembled into a cluster in the genome of pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococci and clostridia. Here, we studied the streptococcal metabolic pathway of unsaturated uronic acids and the structure/function relationship of its relevant isomerase and dehydrogenase. Two proteins (gbs1892 and gbs1891) of Streptococcus agalactiae strain NEM316 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 4-Deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate (Dhu) nonenzymatically generated from unsaturated uronic acids was converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate via 3-deoxy-d-glycero-2,5-hexodiulosonate through successive reactions of gbs1892 isomerase (DhuI) and gbs1891 NADH-dependent reductase/dehydrogenase (DhuD). DhuI and DhuD enzymatically corresponded to 4-deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate ketol-isomerase (KduI) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate dehydrogenase (KduD), respectively, involved in pectin metabolism, although no or low sequence identity was observed between DhuI and KduI or between DhuD and KduD, respectively. Genes for DhuI and DhuD were found to be included in the streptococcal genetic cluster, whereas KduI and KduD are encoded in clostridia. Tertiary and quaternary structures of DhuI and DhuD were determined by x-ray crystallography. Distinct from KduI β-barrels, DhuI adopts an α/β/α-barrel structure as a basic scaffold similar to that of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. The structure of DhuD is unable to accommodate the substrate/cofactor, suggesting that conformational changes are essential to trigger enzyme catalysis. This is the first report on the bacterial metabolism of glycosaminoglycan-derived unsaturated uronic acids by isomerase and dehydrogenase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.604546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4358265PMC
March 2015

Structure-based conversion of the coenzyme requirement of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase involved in bacterial alginate metabolism.

J Biol Chem 2014 Nov 6;289(48):33198-214. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

From the Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, and

The alginate-assimilating bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, degrades the polysaccharides to monosaccharides through four alginate lyase reactions. The resultant monosaccharide, which is nonenzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEH), is further metabolized to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate by NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family. A1-R-deficient cells produced another DEH reductase, designated A1-R', with a preference for NADH. Here, we show the identification of a novel NADH-dependent DEH reductase A1-R' in strain A1, structural determination of A1-R' by x-ray crystallography, and structure-based conversion of a coenzyme requirement in SDR enzymes, A1-R and A1-R'. A1-R' was purified from strain A1 cells and enzymatically characterized. Except for the coenzyme requirement, there was no significant difference in enzyme characteristics between A1-R and A1-R'. Crystal structures of A1-R' and A1-R'·NAD(+) complex were determined at 1.8 and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Because of a 64% sequence identity, overall structures of A1-R' and A1-R were similar, although a difference in the coenzyme-binding site (particularly the nucleoside ribose 2' region) was observed. Distinct from A1-R, A1-R' included a negatively charged, shallower binding site. These differences were caused by amino acid residues on the two loops around the site. The A1-R' mutant with the two A1-R-typed loops maintained potent enzyme activity with specificity for NADPH rather than NADH, demonstrating that the two loops determine the coenzyme requirement, and loop exchange is a promising method for conversion of coenzyme requirement in the SDR family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.585661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246080PMC
November 2014

Alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism in Sphingomonas sp. strain A1.

J Bacteriol 2014 Jul 9;196(14):2691-700. Epub 2014 May 9.

Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan

Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, a Gram-negative bacterium, directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm through a periplasmic alginate-binding protein-dependent ATP-binding cassette transporter. The polysaccharide is degraded to monosaccharides via the formation of oligosaccharides by endo- and exotype alginate lyases. The strain A1 proteins for alginate uptake and degradation are encoded in both strands of a genetic cluster in the bacterial genome and inducibly expressed in the presence of alginate. Here we show the function of the alginate-dependent transcription factor AlgO and its mode of action on the genetic cluster and alginate oligosaccharides. A putative gene within the genetic cluster seems to encode a transcription factor-like protein (AlgO). Mutant strain A1 (ΔAlgO mutant) cells with a disrupted algO gene constitutively produced alginate-related proteins. DNA microarray analysis indicated that wild-type cells inducibly transcribed the genetic cluster only in the presence of alginate, while ΔAlgO mutant cells constitutively expressed the genetic cluster. A gel mobility shift assay showed that AlgO binds to the specific intergenic region between algO and algS (algO-algS). Binding of AlgO to the algO-algS intergenic region diminished with increasing alginate oligosaccharides. These results demonstrated a novel alginate-dependent gene expression mechanism. In the absence of alginate, AlgO binds to the algO-algS intergenic region and represses the expression of both strands of the genetic cluster, while in the presence of alginate, AlgO dissociates from the algO-algS intergenic region via binding to alginate oligosaccharides produced through the lyase reaction and subsequently initiates transcription of the genetic cluster. This is the first report on the mechanism by which alginate regulates the expression of the gene cluster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01666-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097587PMC
July 2014

Molecular identification of unsaturated uronate reductase prerequisite for alginate metabolism in Sphingomonas sp. A1.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Sep 27;1804(9):1925-36. Epub 2010 May 27.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.

In Sphingomonas sp. A1, alginate is degraded by alginate lyases to its constituent monosaccharides, which are nonenzymatically converted to an alpha-keto acid, namely, 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH). The properties of the DEH-metabolizing enzyme and its gene in strain A1 were characterized. In the presence of alginate, strain A1 cells inducibly produced an NADPH-dependent DEH reductase (A1-R) in their cytoplasm. Molecular cloning of the enzyme gene indicated that A1-R belonged to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and catalyzed the conversion of DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconic acid most efficiently at around pH 7.0 and 50 degrees C. Crystal structures of A1-R and its complex with NADP were determined at around 1.6A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The enzyme consists of three layers (alpha/beta/alpha), with a coenzyme-binding Rossmann fold. NADP is surrounded by positively charged residues, and Gly-38 and Arg-39 are crucial for NADP binding. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that Ser-150, Tyr-164, and Lys-168 located around the Rossmann fold constitute the catalytic triad. To our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular cloning and structure determination of a bacterial DEH reductase responsible for alginate metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.05.010DOI Listing
September 2010
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