Publications by authors named "Ryota Hashimoto"

340 Publications

Decreased frontotemporal connectivity in patients with parkinson's disease experiencing face pareidolia.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Oct 7;7(1):90. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

The precise neural underpinnings of face pareidolia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. We aimed to clarify face recognition network abnormalities associated with face pareidolia in such patients. Eighty-three patients with PD and 40 healthy controls were recruited in this study. Patients with PD were classified into pareidolia and nonpareidolia groups. Volumetric analyses revealed no significant differences between the pareidolia (n = 39) and nonpareidolia (n = 44) patient groups. We further observed decreased functional connectivity among regions of interest in the bilateral frontotemporal lobes in patients with pareidolia. Seed-based analysis using bilateral temporal fusiform cortices as seeds revealed significantly decreased connectivity with the bilateral inferior medial prefrontal cortices in the pareidolia group. Post hoc regression analysis further demonstrated that the severity of face pareidolia was negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the bilateral temporal fusiform and medial prefrontal cortices. Our findings suggest that top-down modulation of the face recognition network is impaired in patients with PD experiencing face pareidolia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41531-021-00237-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497472PMC
October 2021

Methylation Analysis in Monozygotic Twins With Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia and Discordant Responses to Clozapine.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:734606. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Schizophrenia is a mental illness that involves both genetic and environmental factors. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is a well-established therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. In this study, we focused on a set of monozygotic twins with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in which one twin effectively responded to clozapine treatment and the other did not. Our previous study generated neurons from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from these patients and compared the transcriptome profiles between mock- and clozapine-treated neurons. In this study, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation profiling to investigate the mechanisms underlying gene expression changes. First, we extracted the differentially methylated sites from each twin based on statistical analysis. Then, we combined the DNA methylation profiling with transcriptome profiling from our previous RNA-seq data. Among the genes with altered methylation and expression, we found the different proportions of the genes related to neuronal and synaptic functions between the clozapine responder and non-responder (35.7 and 6.7%, respectively). This trend was observed even when the basal differences between the responder and non-responder was excluded. These results suggest that effective clozapine action may correct the abnormalities of neuronal and synapse functions in schizophrenia via changes in methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.734606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488120PMC
September 2021

HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genetic diversity modulates response to lithium in bipolar affective disorders.

Sci Rep 2021 09 8;11(1):17823. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Psychiatry & Center of Sleep Disorders, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Bipolar affective disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness, for which lithium (Li) is the gold standard for acute and maintenance therapies. The therapeutic response to Li in BD is heterogeneous and reliable biomarkers allowing patients stratification are still needed. A GWAS performed by the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently identified genetic markers associated with treatment responses to Li in the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) region. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we have genetically imputed the classical alleles of the HLA region in the European patients of the ConLiGen cohort. We found our best signal for amino-acid variants belonging to the HLA-DRB1*11:01 classical allele, associated with a better response to Li (p < 1 × 10; FDR < 0.09 in the recessive model). Alanine or Leucine at position 74 of the HLA-DRB1 heavy chain was associated with a good response while Arginine or Glutamic acid with a poor response. As these variants have been implicated in common inflammatory/autoimmune processes, our findings strongly suggest that HLA-mediated low inflammatory background may contribute to the efficient response to Li in BD patients, while an inflammatory status overriding Li anti-inflammatory properties would favor a weak response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97140-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426488PMC
September 2021

Eye Movement Abnormalities in Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 10;12:673443. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Despite their high lifetime prevalence, major depressive disorder (MDD) is often difficult to diagnose, and there is a need for useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of MDD. Eye movements are considered a non-invasive potential biomarker for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, eye movement deficits in MDD remain unclear. Thus, we evaluated detailed eye movement measurements to validate its usefulness as a biomarker in MDD. Eye movements were recorded from 37 patients with MDD and 400 healthy controls (HCs) using the same system at five University hospitals. We administered free-viewing, fixation stability, and smooth pursuit tests, and obtained 35 eye movement measurements. We performed analyses of covariance with group as an independent variable and age as a covariate. In 4 out of 35 measurements with significant group-by-age interactions, we evaluated aging effects. Discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were conducted. In the free-viewing test, scanpath length was significantly shorter in MDD ( = 4.2 × 10). In the smooth pursuit test, duration of saccades was significantly shorter and peak saccade velocity was significantly lower in MDD ( = 3.7 × 10, = 3.9 × 10, respectively). In the fixation stability test, there were no significant group differences. There were significant group differences in the older cohort, but not in the younger cohort, for the number of fixations, duration of fixation, number of saccades, and fixation density in the free-viewing test. A discriminant analysis using scanpath length in the free-viewing test and peak saccade velocity in the smooth pursuit showed MDD could be distinguished from HCs with 72.1% accuracy. In the ROC analysis, the area under the curve was 0.76 (standard error = 0.05, = 1.2 × 10, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.85). These results suggest that detailed eye movement tests can assist in differentiating MDD from HCs, especially in older subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.673443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382962PMC
August 2021

Optimized protocol for the extraction of RNA and DNA from frozen whole blood sample stored in a single EDTA tube.

Sci Rep 2021 08 23;11(1):17075. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8505, Japan.

Cryopreservation of whole blood is useful for DNA collection, and clinical and basic research. Blood samples in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) tubes stored at - 80 °C are suitable for DNA extraction, but not for high-quality RNA extraction. Herein, a new methodology for high-quality RNA extraction from human blood samples is described. Quickly thawing frozen whole blood on aluminum blocks at room temperature could minimize RNA degradation, and improve RNA yield and quality compared with thawing the samples in a 37 °C water bath. Furthermore, the use of the NucleoSpin RNA kit increased RNA yield by fivefold compared with the PAXgene Blood RNA Kit. Thawing blood samples on aluminum blocks significantly increased the DNA yield by ~ 20% compared with thawing in a 37 °C water bath or on ice. Moreover, by thawing on aluminum blocks and using the NucleoSpin RNA and QIAamp DNA Blood kits, the extraction of RNA and DNA of sufficient quality and quantity was achieved from frozen EDTA whole blood samples that were stored for up to 8.5 years. Thus, extracting RNA from frozen whole blood in EDTA tubes after long-term storage is feasible. These findings may help advance gene expression analysis, as well as biomarker research for various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96567-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382694PMC
August 2021

Tumor necrosis factor-α expression aberration of M1/M2 macrophages in adult high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara, Japan.

The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is complex, and its pathobiology is characterized by enhanced inflammatory activities; however, the precise pathobiology and underlying causes of ASD remain unclear. This study was performed to identify inflammatory indicators useful for diagnosing ASD. The mRNA expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), was measured in cultured M1 and M2 macrophages from patients with ASD (n = 29) and typically developed (TD) individuals (n = 30). Additionally, TNF-α expression in the monocytes of patients with ASD (n = 7), showing aberrations in TNF-α expression in M1/M2 macrophages and TD individuals (n = 6), was measured. TNF-α expression in M1 macrophages and the TNF-α expression ratio in M1/M2 macrophages were markedly higher in patients with ASD than in TD individuals; however, this increase was not observed in M2 macrophages (M1: sensitivity = 34.5%, specificity = 96.7%, area under the curve = 0.74, positive likelihood ratio = 10.34; ratio of M1/M2: sensitivity = 55.2%, specificity = 96.7%, area under the curve = 0.79, positive likelihood ratio = 16.55). Additionally, TNF-α expression in monocytes did not significantly differ between patients with ASD and TD individuals. In conclusion, further studies on TNF-α expression in cultured macrophages may improve the understanding of ASD pathobiology. LAY SUMMARY: TNF-α expression in differentiated M1 macrophages and TNF-α expression ratio in differentiated M1/M2 macrophages were markedly higher in patients with ASD than in TD individuals, while no difference in TNF-α expression was found in pre-differentiation cells such as monocytes. These measurements allow elucidation of the novel pathobiology of ASD and can contribute to biomarker implementation for the diagnosis of adult high-functioning ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2585DOI Listing
August 2021

Characteristics of discharge prescriptions for patients with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder: Real-world evidence from the Effectiveness of Guidelines for Dissemination and Education (EGUIDE) psychiatric treatment project.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Sep 15;63:102744. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Monopharmacy with antipsychotics and antidepressants is the first-line treatment for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) in most clinical guidelines, while polypharmacy with psychotropic agents in the treatment of schizophrenia is common in clinical practice. There are no detailed data on the prescription patterns for inpatients with mental illness with reliable diagnoses made by treating psychiatrists.

Methods: We gathered prescription data at discharge from 2177 patients with schizophrenia and 1238 patients with MDD from October 2016 to March 2018.

Results: The patients with schizophrenia aged between 60 and 79 were prescribed lower doses of antipsychotics and hypnotics/anxiolytics than those aged between 40 and 59. There were significant differences between the prescription rate of antipsychotics in the patients with schizophrenia and that of antidepressants in the patients with MDD. The frequency of concomitant drugs such as anti-Parkinson drugs, anxiolytics/hypnotics and mood stabilizers in the subjects with schizophrenia prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy was significantly higher than that with monotherapy. For the patients with schizophrenia, olanzapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, and blonanserin were the five most prescribed antipsychotics. For the patients with MDD, mirtazapine, duloxetine, escitalopram, trazodone and sertraline were the five most prescribed antidepressants.

Conclusions: Our results showed the use of high doses of antipsychotics, high percentages of antipsychotic polypharmacy and concurrent use of hypnotics/anxiolytics in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, these data were collected before intensive instruction regarding the guidelines; therefore, we need to assess the change in the prescription pattern post guideline instruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102744DOI Listing
September 2021

Neural networks associated with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Aug 17;89:6-12. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Academic Assembly, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan; Endowed Research Department of Clinical Neuroengineering, Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: The neural underpinnings of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease remain unclear. This study was conducted to unravel which motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease influence health-related quality of life and reveal neural networks most likely linked to it.

Methods: Comprehensive clinical assessments were conducted for 247 Parkinson's disease patients and image analyses were performed for 181 patients. Clinical scores commonly used to assess various symptoms related to health-related quality of life were investigated. Factor and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses were reviewed to reveal health-related quality of life-associated brain networks.

Results: The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-39 summary index was high in the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 2, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, and Self-reported Autonomic Symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Multiple regression and Random Forest regression analyses indicated that health-related quality of life-associated factors were Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 1, Depression Rating Scales, and the above-mentioned scales. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed decreased functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and right temporo-parietal junction as health-related quality of life worsened.

Conclusion: Fear of falling, daily living activities, gait freezing, and autonomic dysfunction have notable effects on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Brain networks consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex and temporo-parietal junction may be associated with the emotion-related and social factors of health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.06.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of adverse childhood experiences and precuneus volume with intrusive reexperiencing in autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 09 29;14(9):1886-1895. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan.

Compared to typically developing (TD) children, people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Exposure to ACEs is associated with adult ASD psychological comorbidities, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Occurrence of intrusive event reexperiencing, characteristic of PTSD, often causes social dysfunction in adults with ASD, but its pathological basis is unclear. This study examined brain regions related to the severity of intrusive reexperiencing and explored whether ACE severity was associated with that of intrusive reexperiencing and/or extracted regional gray matter volume. Forty-six individuals with ASD and 41 TD subjects underwent T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of ACEs and intrusive reexperiencing. Brain regions related to the severity of intrusive reexperiencing in both groups were identified by voxel-based whole brain analyses. Associations among the severity of intrusive reexperiencing, that of ACEs, and gray matter volume were examined in both groups. The severities of intrusive reexperiencing and ACEs were significantly associated with reduced gray matter volume in the right precuneus in individuals with ASD but not in TD subjects. Although the right precuneus gray matter volume was smaller in individuals with ASD and severe ACEs than in those with mild ACEs or TD subjects, it was similar in the latter two groups. However, ACE-dependent gray matter volume reduction in the right precuneus led to intrusive reexperiencing in individuals with ASD. This suggests that exposure to ACEs is associated with right precuneus gray matter reduction, which is critical for intrusive reexperiencing in adults with ASD. LAY SUMMARY: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and of subsequent manifestation of intrusive reexperiencing of stressful life events. The present study found that reduced gray matter volume in the right precuneus of the brain was associated with more severe intrusive reexperiencing of ACEs by individuals with ASD. These results suggest that ACEs affect neural development in the precuneus, which is the pathological basis of intrusive event reexperiencing in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2558DOI Listing
September 2021

Serum levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor as a biomarker for mood disorders and lithium response.

Psychiatry Res 2021 07 27;301:113967. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan; Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan.

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined serum GDNF levels in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and their association with response to lithium therapy. We used a multicenter (six sites), exploratory, cross-sectional case-control design and recruited 448 subjects: 143 BD patients, 116 MDD patients, and 158 healthy controls (HCs). We evaluated the patients' clinical severity using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and responses to lithium therapy using the Alda scale. The serum GDNF levels were significantly decreased in the BD and MDD groups compared to the HCs, with no significant difference between the BD and MDD groups. After adjustment, the serum GDNF levels in the BD and MDD patients in remission or depressive states were decreased compared to the HC values. Lower serum GDNF levels in BD patients were associated with higher CGI and Alda scores (i.e., severe illness and good response to lithium therapy, respectively). Our findings suggest that the serum GDNF level may be a biomarker for both BD and MDD in remission or depressive states. The serum GDNF level may be associated with the lithium response of BD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113967DOI Listing
July 2021

Weather sensitivity associated with quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

BMC Rheumatol 2021 May 10;5(1):14. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Health Science, Osaka Yukioka College of Health Science, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, and more than half of patients with fibromyalgia report that weather-related variables aggravate their symptoms. However, the differences in actual symptoms have not been measured between those with and without weather sensitivity. The present study aimed to investigate whether weather sensitivity associated with the minimal clinically important difference values of quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia, between those with and without weather sensitivity.

Methods: Sixty-four consecutive outpatients with fibromyalgia on their first visit to our tertiary center were included. Weather sensitivity was measured using self-perceived symptoms. Pain intensity was measured using the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Quality of life was measured using the Euro Quality of life-5 Dimensions-3 level (EQ-5D-3L) scale. The variables were subjected to univariable and multivariable analysis using the EQ-5D-3L scale.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 50 years. Forty-eight patients (75%) were women. The mean EQ-5D-3L score was 0.55. Thirty-seven patients (58%) reported weather sensitivity. In univariable analysis, the welfare recipient, weather sensitivity, and NRS values were associated with EQ-5D-3L scale scores. In multivariable analysis, NRS value and weather sensitivity were independently associated with EQ-5D-3L scale scores. The NRS and EQ-5D-3L scale scores were significantly worse in those with weather sensitivity than those without weather sensitivity. The difference in NRS values was less than 1.5 points between groups. The differences in EQ-5D-3L scale scores were 0.16 points between groups.

Conclusions: Weather sensitivity was significantly associated with quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. There was an association with weather sensitivity and the minimal clinically important difference values of quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. The presence of weather sensitivity could have a key role in the quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41927-021-00185-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108353PMC
May 2021

1q21.1 distal copy number variants are associated with cerebral and cognitive alterations in humans.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 22;11(1):182. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01213-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985307PMC
March 2021

Criminal victimization of people with epilepsy: Sixteen criminal judgments in Japan between 1990 and 2019.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 05 18;118:107912. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

Criminal behavior by people with epilepsy (PWE) has often been discussed. However, there are limited studies on criminal victimization of PWE-in particular, how such victimizations occur. We identified criminal cases involving victims with epilepsy using databases containing criminal judgments and found 16 such cases between 1990 and 2019. Seven were homicide cases, including four filicide cases. In the four filicide cases, all the perpetrators had the intention of homicide-suicide; all the victims had intellectual disabilities or cerebral palsy; two of these victims had acted violently toward the family; and two mothers who perpetrated the crime against the victims had depression. It seemed that the comorbidities and problem behaviors of the victims were more strongly related to serious crimes by family caregivers than the epilepsy itself. To prevent victimization caused by family caregivers, reducing their stress levels is important. Defendants sometimes argued against objective evidence of a crime, claiming that epileptic seizure of PWE caused or was related to the death of victims. Legal and medical professionals involved in determining the manner of death need careful evaluation when sudden deaths of PWE occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107912DOI Listing
May 2021

Polygenic Risk Scores Differentiating Schizophrenia From Bipolar Disorder Are Associated With Premorbid Intelligence in Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Subjects.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 07;24(7):562-569

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan.

Background: Impairments in intelligence are more severe in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) than in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) despite clinical and genetic similarities between the disorders. Genetic loci differentiating SCZ from BD, that is, SCZ-specific risk, have been identified. Polygenetic [risk] scores (PGSs) for SCZ-specific risk are higher in SCZ patients than in healthy controls (HCs). However, the influence of genetic risk on impaired intelligence is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether SCZ-specific risk could predict impairments in intelligence in SCZ patients and HCs.

Methods: Large-scale genome-wide association study datasets related to SCZ vs BD, childhood intelligence (CHI), and adulthood intelligence (n = 12 441-282 014) were utilized to compute PGSs. PGSs derived from the genome-wide association studies were calculated for 130 patients with SCZ and 146 HCs. Premorbid and current intelligence and the decline were measured in SCZ patients and HCs. Correlations between PGSs and intelligence functions were investigated.

Results: High PGSs for SCZ-specific risk were correlated with low premorbid intelligence in SCZ patients and HCs (β = -0.17, P = 4.12 × 10-3). The correlation was still significant after adjusting for diagnostic status (β = -0.13, P = .024). There were no significant correlations between PGSs for SCZ-specific risk and current intelligence or intelligence decline (P > .05). PGSs for CHI were lower in SCZ patients than in HCs (R2 = 0.025, P = .025), while the PGSs for CHI were not significantly correlated with premorbid and current intelligence, the decline, or the PGSs for SCZ-specific risk (P > .05).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that genetic factors differentiating SCZ from BD might affect the pathogenesis of SCZ and/or pathological differences between SCZ and BD via the impairment of premorbid intelligence, that is, crystallized intelligence, while genetic factors for CHI might affect the pathogenesis of SCZ but not via impairments in intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyab014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299820PMC
July 2021

Intranasal oxytocin administration ameliorates social behavioral deficits in a POGZ mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

Mol Brain 2021 03 16;14(1):56. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core symptoms of impaired social behavior and communication. Recent studies have suggested that the oxytocin system, which regulates social behavior in mammals, is potentially involved in ASD. Mouse models of ASD provide a useful system for understanding the associations between an impaired oxytocin system and social behavior deficits. However, limited studies have shown the involvement of the oxytocin system in the behavioral phenotypes in mouse models of ASD. We have previously demonstrated that a mouse model that carries the ASD patient-derived de novo mutation in the pogo transposable element derived with zinc finger domain (POGZ mice), showed ASD-like social behavioral deficits. Here, we have explored whether oxytocin (OXT) administration improves impaired social behavior in POGZ mice and found that intranasal oxytocin administration effectively restored the impaired social behavior in POGZ mice. We also found that the expression level of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) was low in POGZ mice. However, we did not detect significant changes in the number of OXT-expressing neurons between the paraventricular nucleus of POGZ mice and that of WT mice. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that POGZ binds to the promoter region of OXTR and is involved in the transcriptional regulation of OXTR. In summary, our study demonstrate that the pathogenic mutation in the POGZ, a high-confidence ASD gene, impairs the oxytocin system and social behavior in mice, providing insights into the development of oxytocin-based therapeutics for ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-021-00769-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962304PMC
March 2021

Improvements in the degree of understanding the treatment guidelines for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in a nationwide dissemination and implementation study.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 06 11;41(2):199-206. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: To implement clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), it is necessary for psychiatrists to deepen their understanding of the CPGs. The Effectiveness of Guidelines for Dissemination and Education in Psychiatric Treatment (EGUIDE) project is a nationwide dissemination and implementation study of two sets of CPGs for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: A total of 413 psychiatrists (n = 212 in 2016; n = 201 in 2017) learned the two CPGs in the education program of the EGUIDE project, and clinical knowledge of these CPGs was evaluated at baseline and after the programs. To improve the correct answer rate for clinical knowledge after the programs, we revised the lecture materials associated with items that had a low correct answer rate in 2016 and used the revised lecture materials with the CPGs in 2017. The rates of correct answers after the programs between the 2016 and 2017 groups were compared.

Results: The correct answer rate of one item on the schizophrenia CPG and one item on the MDD CPG tended to be improved (S-D5 and D-C6) and that of one on the MDD CPG was significantly improved (D-D3, P = 0.0008) in the 2017 group compared to those in the 2016 group.

Conclusions: We reported improvements in clinical knowledge of CPGs after the EGUIDE program in the 2017 group following revision of the lecture materials based on results from the 2016 group. These attempts to improve the degree of understanding of CPGs may facilitate the successful dissemination and implementation of psychiatric guidelines in everyday practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340832PMC
June 2021

Do eye movement abnormalities in schizophrenia cause Praecox Gefühl?

Authors:
Ryota Hashimoto

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Mar;75(3):79-80

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13197DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence of the Academic Research Consortium high bleeding risk criteria in patients undergoing endovascular therapy for peripheral artery disease in lower extremities.

Heart Vessels 2021 Sep 2;36(9):1350-1358. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Cardiology, Japanese Red Cross Ashikaga Hospital, 284-1 Yobe-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi, Japan.

The Academic Research Consortium (ARC) recently published a definition of patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the prevalence of the ARC-HBR criteria in patients undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT) for peripheral artery disease in lower extremities has not been thoroughly investigated. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and impact of the ARC-HBR criteria in patients undergoing EVT. We analyzed 277 consecutive patients who underwent their first EVT from July 2011 to September 2019. We applied the full ARC-HBR criteria to the study population. The primary end point was a composite outcome of all-cause mortality, Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3 or 5 bleeding, and lower limb amputation within 12 months of EVT. Among the 277 patients, 193 (69.7%) met the ARC-HBR criteria. HBR patients had worse clinical outcomes compared with non-HBR patients at 12 months after EVT, including a higher incidence of the composite primary outcome (19.2% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001) and all-cause death (7.8% vs. 0%, p = 0.007). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, presence of the ARC-HBR criteria [hazard ratio (HR) 4.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-13.80, p = 0.020], body mass index (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p = 0.042), diabetes mellitus (HR 2.70, 95% CI 1.28-5.69, p = 0.009), hyperlipidemia (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.80, p = 0.009), and infrapopliteal lesions (HR 3.51, 95% CI 1.63-7.56, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of the primary composite outcome. Approximately 70% of Japanese patients undergoing EVT met the ARC-HBR criteria, and its presence was strongly associated with adverse outcomes within 12 months of EVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-021-01813-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Facilitative Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Semantic Memory Examined by Text-Mining Analysis in Patients With Schizophrenia.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:583027. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.

Beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are relevant to cognition and functional capacity, in addition to psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether tDCS would improve higher-order cognition, e.g., semantic memory organization, has remained unclear. Recently, text-mining analyses have been shown to reveal semantic memory. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether tDCS would improve semantic memory, as evaluated by text-mining analyses of category fluency data, in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-eight patients entered the study. Cognitive assessment including the category fluency task was conducted at baseline (before tDCS treatment) and 1 month after t administration of tDCS (2 mA × 20 min, twice per day) for 5 days, according to our previous study. The category fluency data were also obtained from 335 healthy control subjects. The verbal outputs (i.e., animal names) from the category fluency task were submitted to singular valued decomposition (SVD) analysis. Semantic memory structures were estimated by calculating inter-item cosines (i.e., similarities) among animal names frequently produced in the category fluency task. Data were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to compare the semantic structure within the patient group (i.e., baseline vs. follow-up) and between groups (patients vs. healthy controls). In the former, semantic associations for frequent items were compared in the form of cosine profiles, while in the latter, the difference in the magnitude of the correlations for inter-item cosines between healthy controls and patients (baseline, follow-up) was examined. Cosine profiles in the patient group became more cluster-based (i.e., pet, carnivores, and herbivores) at follow-up compared to those at baseline, yielding higher cosines within subcategories. The correlational coefficient of inter-item cosines between healthy controls and patients was significantly greater at follow-up compared to baseline; semantic associations in patients approached the normality status after multi-session tDCS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the facilitative effect of tDCS on semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia. Text-mining analysis was indicated to effectively evaluate semantic memory structures in patients with psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.583027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905092PMC
February 2021

Effects of age and sex on eye movement characteristics.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 06 21;41(2):152-158. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.

Abnormal eye movements are often associated with psychiatric disorders. Eye movements are sensorimotor functions of the brain, and aging and sex would affect their characteristics. A precise understanding of normal eye movements is required to distinguish disease-related abnormalities from natural differences associated with aging or sex. To date, there is no multicohort study examining age-related dependency and sex effects of eye movements in healthy, normal individuals using large samples to ensure the robustness and reproducibility of the results. In this study, we aimed to provide findings showing the impact of age and sex on eye movement measures. The present study used eye movement measures of more than seven hundred healthy individuals from three large independent cohorts. We herein evaluated eye movement measures quantified by using a set of standard eye movement tests that have been utilized for the examination of patients with schizophrenia. We assessed the statistical significance of the effects of age and sex and its reproducibility across cohorts. We found that 4-18 out of 35 eye movement measures were significantly correlated with age, depending on the cohort, and that 10 of those, which are related to the fixation and motor control of smooth pursuit and saccades, showed high reproducibility. On the other hand, the effects of sex, if any, were less reproducible. The present results suggest that we should take age into account when we evaluate abnormalities in eye movements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr2.12163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340818PMC
June 2021

Effects of copy number variations on brain structure and risk for psychiatric illness: Large-scale studies from the ENIGMA working groups on CNVs.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Center for Neuroimaging, Genetics and Genomics, School of Psychology, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25354DOI Listing
February 2021

Impaired inhibition of return during free-viewing behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

Sci Rep 2021 02 5;11(1):3237. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Ogawa-Higashi 4-1-1, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8553, Japan.

Schizophrenia affects various aspects of cognitive and behavioural functioning. Eye movement abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZs). Here we examined whether such abnormalities reflect an anomaly in inhibition of return (IOR), the mechanism that inhibits orienting to previously fixated or attended locations. We analyzed spatiotemporal patterns of eye movement during free-viewing of visual images including natural scenes, geometrical patterns, and pseudorandom noise in SZs and healthy control participants (HCs). SZs made saccades to previously fixated locations more frequently than HCs. The time lapse from the preceding saccade was longer for return saccades than for forward saccades in both SZs and HCs, but the difference was smaller in SZs. SZs explored a smaller area than HCs. Generalized linear mixed-effect model analysis indicated that the frequent return saccades served to confine SZs' visual exploration to localized regions. The higher probability of return saccades in SZs was related to cognitive decline after disease onset but not to the dose of prescribed antipsychotics. We conclude that SZs exhibited attenuated IOR under free-viewing conditions, which led to restricted scene scanning. IOR attenuation will be a useful clue for detecting impairment in attention/orienting control and accompanying cognitive decline in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82253-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865073PMC
February 2021

A woman complicated by sudden cardiac arrest owing to spontaneous coronary artery dissection after stillbirth.

J Cardiol Cases 2021 Feb 10;23(2):61-64. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Cardiology, Japanese Red Cross Ashikaga Hospital, Ashikaga, Japan.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most important cause of acute coronary syndrome in pregnant women. Pregnancy-associated SCAD frequently occurs in the third trimester or postpartum period. However, little is known regarding the relationship between the occurrence of SCAD and stillbirth. We describe here a 41-year-old woman complicated by sudden cardiac arrest owing to SCAD in the distal segment of the right coronary artery 13 days after stillbirth. After contacting emergency medical services, she was resuscitated by an automated external defibrillator because the initial electrocardiographic waveform was ventricular fibrillation. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the diagnosis of SCAD was confirmed by coronary angiography and intracoronary imaging, including intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. The patient was managed with conservative medical therapy because the culprit lesion was present in the distal segment of the right coronary artery and coronary blood flow was preserved. No major adverse cardiovascular events, including recurrent ventricular arrhythmia, were observed during hospitalization. Our findings indicate that pregnancy-associated SCAD leading to sudden cardiac arrest may occur in the postpartum period, even after stillbirth. Intravascular imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnosing SCAD. < Pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare but well-known cause of acute coronary syndrome in pregnant or postpartum women. However, whether the risk of pregnancy-associated SCAD in the postpartum period is different between normal birth and stillbirth remains unknown. Pregnancy-associated SCAD leading to sudden cardiac arrest owing to acute myocardial ischemia may occur in postpartum women, regardless of fetal survival.>.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2020.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817906PMC
February 2021

Prediction of lithium response using genomic data.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1155. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Predicting lithium response prior to treatment could both expedite therapy and avoid exposure to side effects. Since lithium responsiveness may be heritable, its predictability based on genomic data is of interest. We thus evaluate the degree to which lithium response can be predicted with a machine learning (ML) approach using genomic data. Using the largest existing genomic dataset in the lithium response literature (n = 2210 across 14 international sites; 29% responders), we evaluated the degree to which lithium response could be predicted based on 47,465 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms using a supervised ML approach. Under appropriate cross-validation procedures, lithium response could be predicted to above-chance levels in two constituent sites (Halifax, Cohen's kappa 0.15, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.07, 0.24]; and Würzburg, kappa 0.2 [0.1, 0.3]). Variants with shared importance in these models showed over-representation of postsynaptic membrane related genes. Lithium response was not predictable in the pooled dataset (kappa 0.02 [- 0.01, 0.04]), although non-trivial performance was achieved within a restricted dataset including only those patients followed prospectively (kappa 0.09 [0.04, 0.14]). Genomic classification of lithium response remains a promising but difficult task. Classification performance could potentially be improved by further harmonization of data collection procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80814-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806976PMC
January 2021

Platelet-derived growth factor BB: A potential diagnostic blood biomarker for differentiating bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 02 21;134:48-56. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Bipolar disorder (BD) is frequently misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) due to overlapping depressive symptoms. This study investigated whether serum platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is a differential diagnostic biomarker for BD and MDD. An initial SOMAscan proteomics assay of 1311 proteins in small samples from patients with BD and MDD and healthy controls (HCs) suggested that serum levels of PDGF-BB differed between BD and MDD. We then conducted a two-step, exploratory, cross-sectional, case-control study at our institute and five sites that included a total of 549 participants (157 with BD, 144 with MDD, and 248 HCs). Clinical symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. In the initial analysis at our institute, serum PDGF-BB levels in the MDD group (n = 36) were significantly lower than those in the BD (n = 39) and HC groups (n = 36). In the multicenter study, serum PDGF-BB levels in the MDD group were again significantly lower than those in the BD and HC groups, with no significant difference between the BD and HC groups. Treatment with sodium valproate was associated with significantly lower serum PDGF-BB levels in patients with BD. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, age, body mass index, clinical severity, and valproate medication), serum PDGF-BB levels were lower in the MDD group than in the BD group regardless of mood state. Our findings suggest that serum PDGF-BB may be a potential biomarker to differentiate BD and MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.12.051DOI Listing
February 2021

Polygenic risk scores for late smoking initiation associated with the risk of schizophrenia.

NPJ Schizophr 2020 Nov 23;6(1):36. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Addictive Substance Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Patients with schizophrenia display characteristic smoking-related behaviors and genetic correlations between smoking behaviors and schizophrenia have been identified in European individuals. However, the genetic etiology of the association remains to be clarified. The present study investigated transethnic genetic overlaps between European-based smoking behaviors and the risk of Japanese schizophrenia by conducting polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses. Large-scale European genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (n = 24,114-74,035) related to four smoking-related intermediate phenotypes [(i) smoking initiation, (ii) age at smoking initiation, (iii) smoking quantity, and (iv) smoking cessation] were utilized as discovery samples. PRSs derived from these discovery GWASs were calculated for 332 Japanese subjects [schizophrenia patients, their unaffected first-degree relatives (FRs), and healthy controls (HCs)] as a target sample. Based on GWASs of European smoking phenotypes, we investigated the effects of PRSs on smoking phenotypes and the risk of schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Of the four smoking-related behaviors, the PRSs for age at smoking initiation in Europeans significantly predicted the age at smoking initiation (R = 0.049, p = 0.026) and the PRSs for smoking cessation significantly predicted the smoking cessation (R = 0.092, p = 0.027) in Japanese ever-smokers. Furthermore, the PRSs related to age at smoking initiation in Europeans were higher in Japanese schizophrenia patients than in the HCs and those of the FRs were intermediate between those of patients with schizophrenia and those of the HCs (R = 0.015, p = 0.015). In our target subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean age at smoking initiation (p = 0.018) and rate of daily smoking initiation after age 20 years (p = 0.023) compared with the HCs. A total of 60.6% of the patients started to smoke before the onset of schizophrenia. These findings suggest that genetic factors affecting late smoking initiation are associated with the risk of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41537-020-00126-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684279PMC
November 2020

Relationship between white matter microstructure and work hours.

Neurosci Lett 2021 01 18;740:135428. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8553, Japan; Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

Human social activities are realized by a synergy of neuronal activity over various regions of the brain, which is supported by their connectivity. In the present study, we examined associations between social activities, represented by work hours, and brain connectivity as quantified using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In 483 healthy participants, DTI analysis was performed using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, and work hours were calculated, considering hours of paid employment (the "Work for Pay" category), hours of housework (the "Work at Home" category), and hours of school-related study (the "Student" category). The correlations between each class of work time and DTI indices were analyzed. The mean diffusivity (MD) values of the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (SFO) were negatively correlated with total work hours (ALIC: r = -0.192, p =  2.3 × 10; SFO: r = -0.161, p =  3.8 × 10). We also found that the MD values of the ALIC and the SFO were correlated with work hours in the Work for Pay category (ALIC: r = -0.211, p =  3.2 × 10; SFO: r = -0.163, p =  3.4 × 10) but not with those in the Work at Home category or the Student category. These results suggest that social activity is associated with the white matter microstructure of the ALIC and the SFO. The main difference between "Work for Pay" and the other two social activities appears to be the type of motivation-for example, external versus internal. Therefore, the white matter microstructure of the ALIC and SFO may be related to externally motivated social activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135428DOI Listing
January 2021

Association between the superior longitudinal fasciculus and perceptual organization and working memory: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

Neurosci Lett 2020 11 2;738:135349. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Department of Pathology of Mental Diseases, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; Molecular Research Center for Children's Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a white matter structure that has long bidirectional projections among the prefrontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal cortices and extends over a wide area in a human brain. Recently, anatomical details of the SLF have been clarified using a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) template of subjects from the Human Connectome Project. However, the neurobehavioral functions of the SLF have not been fully elucidated. It is speculated that the SLF contributes to a broad cognitive domain including visuospatial nonverbal cognitive ability and verbal memory ability because of its anatomical location; however, previous findings in imaging studies are inconsistent. Showing the contribution of the SLF to cognitive function may be important for improving our understanding of the functional role of white matter structures in the human brain. This study aimed to identify the relationship between DTI indices of the SLF and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition using regression analysis, accounting for the effects of age, sex and scanner type in 583 healthy volunteers. We showed significant correlations between the fractional anisotropy of the left SLF and the Perceptual Organization Index (β = 0.21, p =  4.5×10) and Working Memory Index (β = 0.19, p =  4.0×10). These findings may have implications for the rehabilitation of cognitive function in patients with neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135349DOI Listing
November 2020
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