Publications by authors named "Ryodai Yamamura"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lipid and Energy Metabolism of the Gut Microbiota Is Associated with the Response to Probiotic Strain for Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

J Pers Med 2021 Sep 30;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center Japan, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

A recent meta-analysis found that probiotics have moderate-to-large beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, it remains unclear how the baseline gut microbiota before probiotic administration influences the host's response to probiotics. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the predicted functional profile of the gut microbiota influences the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 29 patients with schizophrenia consumed A-1 (synonym MCC1274) for 4 weeks. We considered patients who showed a 25% or more reduction in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score at 4 weeks from baseline to be "responders" and those who did not to be "non-responders". We predicted the gut microbial functional genes based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and applied the linear discriminant analysis effect size method to determine the gut microbial functional genes most likely to explain the differences between responders and non-responders at baseline. The results showed that lipid and energy metabolism was elevated at baseline in responders ( = 12) compared to non-responders ( = 17). These findings highlight the importance of assessing the gut microbial functional genes at baseline before probiotic therapy initiation in patients with psychiatric disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11100987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539730PMC
September 2021

The type rather than the daily dose or number of antipsychotics affects the incidence of hyperglycemic progression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Oct 9;113:110453. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. Electronic address:

There have been concerns that antipsychotics increase the incidence of hyperglycemic progression. Many factors have been suggested to contribute to the risk of antipsychotic-induced hyperglycemic progression, including the type, daily dose, and number of antipsychotics; however, few studies have examined these relationships. This study aimed to examine the affect of antipsychotic treatment-associated factors on hyperglycemic progression, after adjustment for the affect of background factors suggested to be associated with hyperglycemic progression. This was a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study examining the incidence of hyperglycemic progression during a 12 mo period following the initiation of newly prescribed antipsychotic medication. Demographic data, medication history, and blood test values were collected from 631 study participants with normal blood glucose levels at baseline for 12 mo. The primary endpoint (incidence of hyperglycemic progression) was defined as progression from normal to prediabetic or probable diabetic status, and was evaluated based on the Japanese monitoring guidance in patients with schizophrenia. To further examine the affect of antipsychotics on glucose metabolism over time, we examined changes in HbA1c levels 3, 6, and 12 mo after the initiation of treatment with each antipsychotic. We found that treatment with zotepine and clozapine was associated with a significantly high incidence of hyperglycemic progression. Furthermore, changes in HbA1c levels 6 mo after the initiation of zotepine treatment were significantly higher than those following blonanserin and haloperidol treatments. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the change in total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and BMI during the same period. Moreover, the "daily dose" and "number" of antipsychotics did not show an association with the incidence of hyperglycemic progression. However, in a post hoc analysis in which the antipsychotics were divided into two groups according to the strength of blockade of H, M, M, and 5-HT receptors, the incidence of hyperglycemic progression was higher in the medium- and high-daily dose groups than in the low-daily dose group in the antipsychotic group with strong blockade of these receptors. Our study indicated that the type of antipsychotic had a greater affect on the incidence of hyperglycemic progression than the daily dose of antipsychotics or their number. Among these, zotepine was most likely to increase the incidence of hyperglycemic progression, suggesting the need for caution when these antipsychotics are prescribed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110453DOI Listing
October 2021

Perilla Oil and for Alleviating Fear of Cancer Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors: Study Protocol for a Three-Arm Phase II Randomized Controlled Study (POB Study).

Methods Protoc 2021 Jul 6;4(3). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo 187-8551, Japan.

The fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is the most common and most severe unmet need among cancer survivors. Safe treatments for the FCR that are easily disseminated are greatly needed. Our primary aim is a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy and effect size of perilla oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, and , a probiotic, on FCR in breast cancer survivors after the completion of chemotherapy. This study has been planned as an exploratory clinical study (phase II) and will be conducted as a three-arm, 12-week parallel group, masked-rater randomized controlled trial. Fifteen participants will be randomized with 1:1:1 allocation to receive plus perilla oil, alone, or no intervention (control). Interventions will end within 12 weeks after the random allocation of each participant. The participants will be outpatients with invasive breast cancer aged 20 years or older whose chemotherapy was completed at least 6 months before registration; hormone therapy may be ongoing. The primary outcome will be severity of FCR at 12 weeks assessed by masked raters using the 4-item Concerns about Recurrence Scale concerning overall fear of recurrence. The study protocol for the current study is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCTs031200029).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mps4030046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293445PMC
July 2021

Fecal short-chain fatty acids and obesity in a community-based Japanese population: The DOSANCO Health Study.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):345-350. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

In Western populations, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity. However, gut microbiota involved in the production of SCFA varies between races. Our purpose was to investigate the associations between fecal SCFAs and the prevalence of obesity in a community-based Japanese population. We classified a total of 568 participants aged ≥18 into four quartiles of fecal concentrations of SCFA subtypes (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) and total SCFAs to compare the prevalence of obesity, defined as a body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m. Using the first quartile SCFA group as a reference, the prevalence ratios of obesity were calculated for each SCFA group through a log-binomial regression model adjusted for major potentially confounding factors including age, sex, exercise habits, total energy intake, and total dietary fiber intake. In the study population, the prevalence of obesity was 35.8%. The prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) of obesity in the second, third, and fourth quartile groups of fecal total SCFAs were 1.30 (0.89-1.89), 1.74 (1.23-2.47) and 1.70 (1.19-2.41), respectively, after adjusting for the confounders. Similar positive associations were observed for every subtype. The prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) in the fourth quartile groups of fecal acetate, butyrate, and propionate were 1.41 (1.02-1.97), 2.16 (1.49-3.14), and 1.97 (1.35-2.89), respectively, after adjusting for the confounders. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that fecal SCFA concentrations of every subtype were positively associated with the prevalence of obesity in a community-based Japanese population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2021.06.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Lower human defensin 5 in elderly people compared to middle-aged is associated with differences in the intestinal microbiota composition: the DOSANCO Health Study.

Geroscience 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Cell Biological Science, Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, North 21, West 11, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 001-0021, Japan.

Recently, aging is considered a risk factor for various diseases. Although changes in the intestinal microbiota along with aging are thought to associate with the increased disease risk, mechanisms that cause age-related transition of the intestinal microbiota remain unknown. This study aims to clarify relationships between the amount of human defensin 5 (HD5), a Paneth cell α-defensin, which is known to regulate the intestinal microbiota, and age-related differences of the intestinal microbiota composition. Fecal samples from 196 healthy Japanese (35 to 81 years old) were collected and measured HD5 concentration. HD5 concentration in the elderly group (age > 70 years old) was significantly lower than the middle-aged group (age ≤ 70 years old). Furthermore, individual age was negatively correlated with HD5 concentration (r =  - 0.307, p < 0.001). In β-diversity, the intestinal microbiota of the elderly showed a significantly different composition compared to the middle-aged. At the genus level, relative abundance of Collinsella, Alistipes, Peptococcaceae; unassigned, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Weissella, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Megasphaera, and [Eubacterium] eligens group was significantly higher, and Lachnospiraceae; unassigned, Blautia, Anaerostipes, Fusicatenibacter, Dorea, and Faecalibacterium was significantly lower in the elderly compared to the middle-aged. In addition, HD5 concentration was negatively correlated with Alistipes, Peptococcaceae; unassigned, and Christensenellaceae R-7 group and positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae; unassigned and Dorea. These results provide novel insights into the immunosenescence of enteric innate immunity, indicating low HD5 is suggested to contribute to the age-related differences in the intestinal microbiota and may relate to increased risk of diseases in elderly people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-021-00398-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Tiny Drosophila makes giant strides in cancer research.

Cancer Sci 2021 Feb 5;112(2):505-514. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Biomedical Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Cancer burden has been increasing worldwide, making cancer the second leading cause of death in the world. Over the past decades, various experimental models have provided important insights into the nature of cancer. Among them, the fruit fly Drosophila as a whole-animal toolkit has made a decisive contribution to our understanding of fundamental mechanisms of cancer development including loss of cell polarity. In recent years, scalable Drosophila platforms have proven useful also in developing anti-cancer regimens that are effective not only in mammalian models but also in patients. Here, we review studies using Drosophila as a tool to advance cancer study by complementing other traditional research systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893992PMC
February 2021

Associations of gut microbiota, dietary intake, and serum short-chain fatty acids with fecal short-chain fatty acids.

Biosci Microbiota Food Health 2020 5;39(1):11-17. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

In recent years, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to play an important role in maintaining human health. Fecal SCFA concentrations correlate well with colonic SCFA status and gut microbiota composition. However, the associations with the gut microbiota functional pathway, dietary intake, blood SCFAs, and fecal SCFAs remain uncertain. To clarify these relationships, we collected fecal samples, blood samples, and dietary habit data from 12 healthy adults aged 22-51 years. The relative abundance of several SCFA-producing bacteria, gut microbiota diversity, and functional pathways related to SCFA biosynthesis were positively associated with fecal SCFAs even after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, fecal acetate was likely to be positively associated with serum acetate. By contrast, dietary intake was not associated with fecal SCFAs. Overall, the present study highlights the potential usefulness of fecal SCFAs as an indicator of the gut microbiota ecosystem and dynamics of SCFAs in the human body.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12938/bmfh.19-010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971417PMC
October 2019
-->