Publications by authors named "Ryo Nakagawa"

51 Publications

Effect of Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Harboring Mutation in Early Clinical Experience.

J Cancer 2022 16;13(8):2656-2661. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ/BV) treatment is a combined immunotherapy consisting of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, which has brought a major paradigm shift in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Gain-of-function mutation of contributes to resistance of ICI monotherapy through the framework of non-T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment. However, whether mutation renders resistance to ATZ/BV similar to ICI monotherapy remains to be elucidated. In this study, a liquid biopsy sample in plasma of 33 patients with HCC treated with ATZ/BV was subjected to droplet digital PCR for detecting hotspot mutations at the exon 3 of locus. A total of eight patients (24.2%) exhibited at least one mutation. The objective response rate (ORR) in patients with wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) was 8.0% and 12.5%, respectively, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 68.0% and 87.5%, respectively. No significant difference in both ORR and DCR has been observed between the two groups. The median progression-free survival in patients with WT and MT was 6.6 and 7.6 months, respectively (not statistically significant). Similarly, no significant difference in overall survival has been observed between patients with WT and MT (13.6 vs. 12.3 months). In conclusion, the treatment effect of ATZ/BV in patients with HCC with MT was comparable to those patients with WT . These results implicate that BV added to ATZ might improve immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment caused by mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.71494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9174847PMC
May 2022

Liver biopsy technique in the era of genomic cancer therapies: a single-center retrospective analysis.

Int J Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: With the evolution of personalized medicine in the field of oncology, which includes optimal treatment selection using next-generation sequencing-based companion diagnostic systems and tumor-agnostic treatments according to common biomarkers, a liver tumor biopsy technique that can obtain a sufficient specimen volume must be established. The current study aimed to evaluate the safety and availability of a liver tumor biopsy technique with multiple puncture sites made using a coaxial introducer needle and embolization with gelatin sponge particles.

Methods: Patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer who underwent liver tumor biopsies with puncture tract embolization using gelatin sponge (Spongel) from October 2019 to September 2020 were included in the study. The complication and diagnostic rates were evaluated, and whether the specimen volume was sufficient for Foundation CDx was investigated.

Results: In total, 96 patients were enrolled in this analysis. The median total number of puncture times per patient was 3 (range 1-8). The pathological diagnostic rate was 79.2%. Using the FoundationOne CDx, specimens with a sufficient volume required for genomic medicine were collected in 84.9% of patients. The incidence rate of bleeding was 4.2% (n = 4), and only one patient presented with major bleeding requiring transfusion.

Conclusions: Liver biopsy with puncture tract embolization using a gelatin sponge may be safe and effective for collecting specimens with a volume sufficient for modern cancer treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-022-02195-9DOI Listing
June 2022

A diet-induced murine model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with obesity and insulin resistance that rapidly develops steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

Lab Invest 2022 May 28. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, 260-8677, Japan.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Patients with NAFLD often suffer steatohepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of visceral obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor and potential therapeutic target for NAFLD. The establishment of animal models with these metabolic comorbidities and with the rapid progression of the disease is needed for developing treatments for NAFLD but remains to be archived. In the present study, KK-A mice, widely used as T2DM models, or C57BL6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-fructose, and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with cholic acid (NAFLD diet). The KK-A mice fed a NAFLD diet exhibited remarkable obesity and insulin resistance. A prominent accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol in the liver was observed at 4 weeks. These mice developed steatohepatitis at 4 weeks and fibrosis at 12 weeks. In contrast, C57BL6 mice fed a NAFLD diet remained lean, although they still developed steatohepatitis and fibrosis. In summary, we established a diet-induced murine NAFLD model with the rapid development of steatohepatitis and fibrosis, bearing obesity and insulin resistance. This model could be useful as preclinical models for drug development of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-022-00807-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Nanocellulose Paper Semiconductor with a 3D Network Structure and Its Nano-Micro-Macro Trans-Scale Design.

ACS Nano 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Research Core for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

Semiconducting nanomaterials with 3D network structures exhibit various fascinating properties such as electrical conduction, high permeability, and large surface areas, which are beneficial for adsorption, separation, and sensing applications. However, research on these materials is substantially restricted by the limited trans-scalability of their structural design and tunability of electrical conductivity. To overcome this challenge, a pyrolyzed cellulose nanofiber paper (CNP) semiconductor with a 3D network structure is proposed. Its nano-micro-macro trans-scale structural design is achieved by a combination of iodine-mediated morphology-retaining pyrolysis with spatially controlled drying of a cellulose nanofiber dispersion and paper-crafting techniques, such as microembossing, , and . The electrical conduction of this semiconductor is widely and systematically tuned, the temperature-controlled progressive pyrolysis of CNP, from insulating (10 Ω cm) to quasimetallic (10 Ω cm), which considerably exceeds that attained in other previously reported nanomaterials with 3D networks. The pyrolyzed CNP semiconductor provides not only the tailorable functionality for applications ranging from water-vapor-selective sensors to enzymatic biofuel cell electrodes but also the designability of macroscopic device configurations for stretchable and wearable applications. This study provides a pathway to realize structurally and functionally designable semiconducting nanomaterials and all-nanocellulose semiconducting technology for diverse electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c10728DOI Listing
April 2022

Baseline soluble MICA levels act as a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of regorafenib treatment in colorectal cancer.

BMC Cancer 2022 Apr 20;22(1):428. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: To evaluate the effect of regorafenib on soluble MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) (sMICA) level in vitro. In addition, we clinically examined whether its plasma levels were associated with regorafenib activity in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with CRC.

Methods: Human CRC cell line HCT116 and HT29 cells were treated with regorafenib and its pharmacologically active metabolites, M2 or M5 at the same concentrations as those in sera of patients. We also examined the sMICA levels and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of regorafenib, M2 and M5.

Results: Regorafenib, M2, and M5 significantly suppressed shedding of MICA in human CRC cells without toxicity. This resulted in the reduced production of sMICA. In the clinical examination, patients with CRC who showed long median PFS (3.7 months) had significantly lower sMICA levels than those with shorter median PFS (1.2 months) (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: MICA is an attractive agent for manipulating the immunological control of CRC and baseline sMICA levels could be a predictive biomarker for the efficacy of regorafenib treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09512-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019943PMC
April 2022

Fusion HBx from HBV integrant affects hepatocarcinogenesis through deregulation of ER stress response.

Virus Res 2022 Jul 14;315:198787. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. HBV X protein (HBx) is potentially the most oncogenic among HBV-encoding proteins, while HBV integration, which is frequently observed in HCC, contributes to HCC development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HBV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we identified the fusion HBx, the HBx-human fusion protein derived from HBV integrant, in Hep3B cells and investigated its role in hepatocarcinogenesis. The identified full-length fusion mRNA was 3,725 bp in length, and the fusion HBx, which consisted of 1-140 amino acids of HBx followed by 61 amino acids from the human genome, was translated from the fusion mRNA. The fusion HBx knockdown resulted in reduced cell proliferation and invasion, and loss of tumor development in nude mice. Moreover, the fusion HBx, but not wild HBx, provided anchorage-independent growth ability in soft agar although its transactivation ability was abrogated. Microarray analysis revealed that fusion HBx deregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by modifying ATF3, ATF4, and ATF6 transcription. Interestingly, the effects of fusion HBx on ER stress signaling pathway were similar to those of C-terminal truncated HBx, but significantly different from those of wild HBx. Our findings suggest that the fusion HBx plays a significant role in hepatocarcinogenesis by modifying ER stress response and could be an attractive target for the treatment of HBV-induced HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2022.198787DOI Listing
July 2022

Durvalumab with or without tremelimumab combined with particle therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: protocol for the DEPARTURE phase Ib trial.

BMJ Open 2022 04 8;12(4):e059779. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion (MVI) has the worst prognosis among all phenotypes. This trial aims to evaluate whether treatment with durvalumab, alone or in combination with tremelimumab, plus particle therapy is a safe and synergistically effective treatment in patients with advanced HCC and MVI.

Methods And Analysis: This phase Ib, multicentre (two sites in Japan), open-label, single-arm, investigator-initiated clinical trial will assess durvalumab monotherapy in combination with particle therapy (cohort A) and that of durvalumab plus tremelimumab in combination with particle therapy (cohort B) for patients with advanced HCC with MVI. Cohort A will receive 1500 mg durvalumab every 4 weeks. Cohort B will receive 1500 mg durvalumab every 4 weeks in principle and 300 mg tremelimumab only on day 1 of the first cycle. Carbon-ion radiotherapy will be administered after day 8 of the first cycle. The primary endpoints are rates of any and severe adverse events, including dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs); secondary endpoints are overall survival, 6-month survival, objective response, 6-month progression-free survival and time to progression. Patients are initially enrolled into cohort A. If cohort A treatment is confirmed to be tolerated (ie, no DLT in three patients or one DLT in six patients), the trial proceeds to enrol more patients into cohort B. Similarly, if cohort B treatment is confirmed to be tolerated (ie, no DLT in three patients or one DLT in six patients), a total of 15 patients will be enrolled into cohort B.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved by the ethics committees of the two participating institutions (Chiba University Hospital and National Institutes for Quantum (approval number: 2020040) and Radiological Science and Technology, QST Hospital (approval number: C20-001)). Participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Trial results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal publication.

Trial Registration Number: jRCT2031210046.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8995959PMC
April 2022

Evolution of Survival Impact of Molecular Target Agents in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2022 Jan 6;11(1):48-60. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aims: The prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to improve as multiple molecular target agents (MTAs) are now available. However, the impact of the availability of sequential MTAs has not been fully verified yet.

Approach And Results: We retrospectively collected the data on the whole clinical course of 877 patients who received any MTAs as first-line systemic therapy for advanced HCC between June 2009 and March 2019. The study population was divided into 3 groups according to the date of first-line MTA administration (period 1: 2009-2012, = 267; period 2: 2013-2016, = 352; period 3: 2017-2019, = 258). Then, we compared the number of MTAs used, overall survival (OS), and MTA treatment duration among the 3 groups. Analysis was also performed separately for advanced-stage and nonadvanced-stage HCC. The proportion of patients who received multiple MTAs was remarkably increased over time (1.1%, 10.2%, and 42.6% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, < 0.001). The median OS times were prolonged to 10.4, 11.3, and 15.2 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively ( = 0.016). Similarly, the MTA treatment durations were extended (2.7, 3.2, and 6.6 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; < 0.001). We confirmed that the correlation between OS and MTA treatment duration was strengthened (period 1: 0.395, period 2: 0.505, and period 3: 0.667). All these trends were pronounced in the patients with advanced-stage HCC but limited in the patients with nonadvanced-stage HCC.

Conclusions: The availability of multiple MTAs had steadily improved the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC patients, particularly advanced-stage HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8820147PMC
January 2022

Combined inhibition of XIAP and BCL2 drives maximal therapeutic efficacy in genetically diverse aggressive acute myeloid leukemia.

Nat Cancer 2021 03 18;2(3):340-356. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory for Human Disease Models, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Aggressive therapy-resistant and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has an extremely poor outcome. By analyzing a large number of genetically complex and diverse, primary high-risk poor-outcome human AML samples, we identified specific pathways of therapeutic vulnerability. Through drug screens followed by extensive in vivo validation and genomic analyses, we found inhibition of cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-apoptotic proteins XIAP, BCL2 and MCL1, and a key regulator of mitosis, AURKB, as a vulnerability hub based on patient-specific genetic aberrations and transcriptional signatures. Combinatorial therapeutic inhibition of XIAP with an additional patient-specific vulnerability eliminated established AML in vivo in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) bearing diverse genetic aberrations, with no signs of recurrence during off-treatment follow-up. By integrating genomic profiling and drug-sensitivity testing, this work provides a platform for a precision-medicine approach for treating aggressive AML with high unmet need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43018-021-00177-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Exploring microsatellite instability in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and its tumor microenvironment.

JGH Open 2021 Nov 1;5(11):1266-1274. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Immune checkpoint inhibitors and their combination with other agents have recently been available in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hence, a thorough understanding of the tumor microenvironment based on tumor samples is yet to be achieved. This study aimed to explore the tumor microenvironment in advanced HCC in terms of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) by using tumor samples from advanced HCC patients eligible for systemic therapy.

Methods: MSI-H was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of mismatch repair proteins, PD-L1, CD8, VEGF, and HLA-class1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Whole-exome sequencing was performed for MSI-H tumor samples.

Results: Of 50 patients, one (2.0%) was confirmed with MSI-H. In the MSI-H advanced HCC tumor, a high tumor mutation burden, infiltration of CD8 lymphocytes, and low expression of VEGF were identified. Although PD-L1 expression was negative, there was shrinkage of tumor following pembrolizumab. However, another tumor nonresponsive to pembrolizumab was present simultaneously. Checking the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we found a similar case to this patient. The TCGA case had unique gene features of miR-21 and miR-155 overexpression and hypermethylation of the gene.

Conclusion: We identified a very small number of MSI-H cases in HCC using one tumor biopsy sample for each patient with advanced HCC. In addition, epigenetic aberrations possibly lead to MSI-H in HCC patients. Since different HCC clones might coexist in the liver, sampling from multiple tumors should be considered to clarify the true proportion of MSI-H in HCC and to analyze tumor microenvironments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593775PMC
November 2021

Changes in therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

Liver Int 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

The incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to increase, with most cases occurring in Asia. In some parts of Asia, the occurrence of HCC developing from metabolic-related liver disease has markedly increased in recent years, whereas the occurrence of HCC developing from viral-hepatitis-related liver disease has decreased. Advancements in the treatment of HCC over the past few decades has been remarkable, with most treatment strategies to remove or control liver tumours (hepatic resection, local ablation, radiation therapy, transarterial chemoembolisation, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy) primarily developing in Asia. In addition, recent progress in systemic therapies has prolonged the prognosis of advanced HCC. Nowadays, six regimens of systemic therapies have become available in most countries, according to phase III trials (atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, sorafenib, lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib and ramucirumab). In a global randomised phase III trial (IMbrave 150 trial), the most effective of the latest drug designs was newly emerged combination immunotherapy (atezolizumab plus bevacizumab), which has shown significantly prolonged overall survival compared with sorafenib, which was the first-line systemic therapy for more than a decade. Now, the treatment dynamics for HCC are undergoing a major transition as a result of two important changes: the replacement of viral-related HCC by metabolic-related HCC and the emergence of combination immune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.15101DOI Listing
November 2021

EZH1/2 inhibition augments the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 11 1;11(1):21396. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Both EZH2 and its homolog EZH1 function as histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferases and repress the transcription of target genes. Dysregulation of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) plays an important role in the development and progression of cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the relationship between the expression of EZH1/2 and the level of H3K27me3 in HCC. Additionally, the role of EZH1/2 in cell growth, tumorigenicity, and resistance to sorafenib were also analyzed. Both the lentiviral knockdown and the pharmacological inhibition of EZH1/2 (UNC1999) diminished the level of H3K27me3 and suppressed cell growth in liver cancer cells, compared with EZH1 or EZH2 single knockdown. Although a significant association was observed between EZH2 expression and H3K27me3 levels in HCC samples, overexpression of EZH1 appeared to contribute to enhanced H3K27me3 levels in some EZH2H3K27me3 cases. Akt suppression following sorafenib treatment resulted in an increase of the H3K27me3 levels through a decrease in EZH2 phosphorylation at serine 21. The combined use of sorafenib and UNC1999 exhibited synergistic antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Combination treatment canceled the sorafenib-induced enhancement in H3K27me3 levels, indicating that activation of EZH2 function is one of the mechanisms of sorafenib-resistance in HCC. In conclusion, sorafenib plus EZH1/2 inhibitors may comprise a novel therapeutic approach in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-00889-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8560765PMC
November 2021

Bioavailability comparison between a compound comprising hesperetin-7-glucoside with β-cyclodextrin and a mixture of hesperidin and dextrin in healthy adult human males.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Sep;85(10):2195-2199

Kaiseikai Medical Corporation, Kita-Shin Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

The pharmacokinetics of compounds comprising hesperetin-7-glucoside with β-cyclodextrin and physically mixed hesperidin/dextrin was compared in 8 healthy adult male subjects in a nonrandomized, double-blind, cross-over, controlled study. For 0-24 h, the area under the curve of the total plasma hesperetin concentration after hesperetin-7-glucoside with β-cyclodextrin consumption was >100-fold higher than that after hesperidin/dextrin consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab139DOI Listing
September 2021

Early prediction of COVID-19 severity using extracellular vesicle COPB2.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 06 2;10(8):e12092. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine Institute of Medical Science Tokyo Medical University Tokyo Japan.

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary broadly, ranging from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory failure and death. But the predictive biomarkers for characterizing the variability are still lacking. Since emerging evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) and extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are functionally involved in a number of pathological processes, we hypothesize that these extracellular components may be key determinants and/or predictors of COVID-19 severity. To test our hypothesis, we collected serum samples from 31 patients with mild COVID-19 symptoms at the time of their admission for discovery cohort. After symptomatic treatment without corticosteroids, 9 of the 31 patients developed severe/critical COVID-19 symptoms. We analyzed EV protein and exRNA profiles to look for correlations between these profiles and COVID-19 severity. Strikingly, we identified three distinct groups of markers (antiviral response-related EV proteins, coagulation-related markers, and liver damage-related exRNAs) with the potential to serve as early predictive biomarkers for COVID-19 severity. As the best predictive marker, EV COPB2 protein, a subunit of the Golgi coatomer complex, exhibited significantly higher abundance in patients remained mild than developed severe/critical COVID-19 and healthy controls in discovery cohort (AUC 1.00 (95% CI: 1.00-1.00)). The validation set included 40 COVID-19 patients and 39 healthy controls, and showed exactly the same trend between the three groups with excellent predictive value (AUC 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.97)). These findings highlight the potential of EV COPB2 expression for patient stratification and for making early clinical decisions about strategies for COVID-19 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172627PMC
June 2021

Disposable electrochemical glucose sensor based on water-soluble quinone-based mediators with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 21;189:113357. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Material Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-5358, Japan. Electronic address:

Glucose level measurement is essential for the point-of-care diagnosis, primarily for persons with diabetes. A disposable electrochemical glucose sensor is constructed using flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) and redox mediator for electron transfer from the enzyme to the electrode surface. Ideally, a suitable mediator should have high water solubility, high kinetic constant, high stability, and redox potential between -0.2 and 0.1 V vs. Ag|AgCl|sat. KCl. We designed and synthesized two new quinone-based water-soluble mediators: quinoline-5,8-dione (QD) and isoquinoline-5,8-dione (IQD). The formal potentials for both QD and IQD at pH 7.0 were -0.07 V vs. Ag|AgCl|sat. KCl. The logarithms of the electron exchange rate constants (k/(M s)) between QD/IQD and FAD-GDH were 7.7 ± 0.1 and 7.4 ± 0.1 for QD and IQD, respectively, which are the highest value among the water-soluble mediators for FAD-GDH reported to date. Disposable amperometric glucose sensors were fabricated by dropping FAD-GDH and QD or IQD onto a test strip. The sensor achieved a linear response up to glucose concentrations of 55.5 mM. The linear response was obtained even when the mediator loading was low (0.5 nmol/strip); loading was only 0.2 mol% of glucose. The results proved that the response current was primarily controlled by glucose diffusion. In addition, the sensor using QD exhibited high stability over 3 months at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113357DOI Listing
October 2021

Retinoids Decrease Soluble MICA Concentration by Inhibiting the Enzymatic Activity of ADAM9 and ADAM10.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2307-2320

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/aim: The association between MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development was identified in our previous genome-wide association study. Decreasing soluble MICA (sMICA) through MICA sheddases suppression facilitates natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The expression of ADAM9 in HCC has been correlated with poor prognosis, and our recent study showed that its suppression contributes to cancer elimination by decreasing sMICA.

Materials And Methods: Human HCC cell line PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 cells were used. sMICA levels were measured by ELISA. Expression of retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) was knocked down by siRNA.

Results: In our screening of FDA-approved drugs in vitro, retinoids were found to be efficient ADAM9 and ADAM10 inhibitors. Treatment with retinoids reduced sMICA levels in human HCC cells. Interestingly, the effects were abrogated by depletion of the retinoid receptor RXRα.

Conclusion: Retinoids can be potential novel agents for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15006DOI Listing
May 2021

Use of a Novel Fluorescent Catheter to Locate the Ureters during Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 07 19;28(7):1420-1424. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Drs. Fujita, Nakagawa, Katano, Nakano, Kitayama, and Tanaka), Medical Park Shonan, Kanagawa, Japan; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Dr. Kikuchi), Medical Park Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

Ureteral injury can occur during total laparoscopic hysterectomy. This report documents our experience in using the near-infrared ray catheter (NIRC), a newly developed fluorescent ureteral catheter made of material that contains a fluorescent dye to improve visualization of the ureters. We have used the device in 3 patients between 40 and 50 years of age (mean, 46.3 ± 4.5 years) undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for uterine myomas. The time of catheter insertion ranged from 4 minutes and 9 seconds to 10 minutes and 57 seconds. A number of intraoperative procedures were performed near the ureters, namely, identification and ligation of the uterine arteries, dissection of the cardinal ligament, incision of the vaginal canal, and suturing of the vaginal stump. The abovementioned fluorescent ureteral catheter appears green on a monitor when illuminated by near-infrared light, and this facilitated real-time confirmation of the ureter positions, increasing surgical safety. The patients were followed up for 6 months postoperatively, and no urinary tract infection or injury was found. Prophylactic use of the fluorescent ureteral catheter may improve visualization of the ureters in patients considered to be at high risk of ureteral injury, such as those expected to exhibit ureteral deviation due to severe adhesions or an enlarged uterus and when the surgeon has little experience in laparoscopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.04.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Serum Angiopoietin 2 acts as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(9):2694-2701. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is typically accompanied by abundant arterial blood flow. Although angiogenic growth factors such as Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) play a central role in tumor angiogenesis in HCC, the role of serum Ang2 as a biomarker in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of Ang2 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in HCC using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The median Ang2 levels in controls (n=20), chronic liver disease patients (n=98), and HCC patients (n=275) were 1.58, 2.33, and 3.53 ng/mL, respectively. The optimal cut-off value of Ang2 was determined as 3.5 ng/mL by receiver operating curve analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Ang2 for HCC detection were 50.9, 83.7, and 59.5%, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated only a weak correlation between Ang2 serum levels and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) serum levels. The diagnostic value of Ang2 was comparable to those of other existing markers. In addition, 24 out of 73 patients with normal AFP and DCP levels (32.9%) demonstrated abnormally high Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL). Although no significant difference in overall survival was found between Ang2 and Ang2 patients with curative ablation therapy, recurrence-free survival (RFS) in Ang2 patients was observed to be significantly shorter than those in Ang2 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high serum Ang2 levels (≥3.5 ng/mL) and the presence of multiple tumors were poor prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings indicate that serum Ang2 is a potential novel biomarker for both diagnosis and prognosis in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040723PMC
March 2021

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 04 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 03 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Stem Cell and Molecular Medicine, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

BK Virus-Associated Urothelial Carcinoma in a Patient with Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):8-12. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Urology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Bladder tamponade due to hemorrhagic cystitis caused by BK virus in immunocompetent patients is familiar to urologists. BK virus is an important cause of nephropathy and graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Although urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in kidney transplant recipients with persistent BK viruria is known, BK virus-associated urothelial carcinoma (BKVUC) in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipients is not as well known. A 54-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was treated in the Department of Hematology of our hospital. After recurrence 25 months later, he received chemotherapy for half a year and underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He achieved temporarily complete remission, but he developed hematuria with BK virus-positive result 1 month after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. One month later, he developed bladder tamponade-diagnosed hemorrhagic cystitis due to BK virus in our Urological Department. We performed transurethral coagulation to manage hemorrhage and removed a bleeding lesion in the bladder wall. Pathological examination of the removed bladder wall revealed pT1 stage BKVUC. We found that bladder tamponade could have led to reactivation of BK virus in this immunocompetent patient. This could be the first report of BKVUC of the bladder found in a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipient with close urological follow-up for 24 months. Adequate removal of bleeding lesions from the bladder mucosa with appropriate timing during hemorrhagic cystitis due to BKVUC could be essential to achieve good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879257PMC
January 2021

Regional protein expression changes within the left ventricle in a mouse model of dyssynchronous and resynchronized heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Heart and Vascular Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The biological mechanisms conveying the salutary effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure remain elusive. We have recently developed a mouse model of heart failure with dyssynchrony/resynchronization. The aim of this study was to characterize regional left ventricular heterogeneity in protein expression comparing early (septum) and late (lateral) activated left ventricular wall segments in synchronous (SHF), dyssynchronous (DHF), and resynchronized heart failure (RHF).

Methods And Results: Mice subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion were divided into three groups: sinus rhythm for 4 weeks (SHF), right ventricular pacing for 4 weeks (DHF), and right ventricular pacing for 2 weeks and 2 weeks of sinus rhythm (RHF). Relative concentrations of 92 proteins from septal and lateral left ventricular wall segments (n = 10 per group) were compared within each group. We also analysed the effect of DHF vs. SHF and RHF vs. DHF on protein expression pattern comparing the same left ventricular segments between the groups. Proteins with significantly differential expression between left ventricular segments were analysed for protein-protein correlations, protein-protein interactions, and biological and signalling pathways. Eight proteins were significantly down-regulated in the late activated (compared with early activated) lateral wall uniquely in RHF (P < 0.05 adjusted for a 5% false discovery rate): Erbb4, Ntf3, Pdgfb, Tnf, Notch3, Qdpr, Tpp1, and Itgb6. Protein correlation matrix showed that six of these were strongly and positively correlated and five had known protein-protein interactions. Biological pathways mainly down-regulated in late activated myocardium in RHF were MAPK signalling and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There were no significantly differentially expressed proteins comparing the same left ventricular segments between the DHF and SHF (range of P-values: 0.05-1.00) and RHF and DHF (range of P-values: 0.32-1.00).

Conclusions: In a mouse model of heart failure with dyssynchrony and resynchronization, we observed down-regulation of several proteins in the late activated lateral wall, compared with the septum, in resynchronized mice. These proteins display significant protein-protein correlation and share biological signalling pathways, including MAPK activation and hypertrophy signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754720PMC
October 2020

Aberrant expression of a novel circular RNA in pancreatic cancer.

J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 3;66(2):181-191. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are produced from pre-mRNAs through a process known as back-splicing. Although circRNAs are expressed under specific conditions, current understanding of their comprehensive expression status is still limited. Here, we performed a large-scale circRNA profiling analysis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, using circular RNA-specific RNA sequencing. We identified more than 40,000 previously unknown circRNAs, some of which were upregulated in PDAC tissues, compared with normal pancreatic tissues. We determined the full-length sequence of a circRNA upregulated in PDAC, which was derived from two noncoding RNA loci on chromosome 12. The novel circRNA, named circPDAC RNA, was not expressed in normal human cells, but was expressed in PDAC and other carcinoma cells. While postulated biological functions, such as peptide production from the circPDAC RNA, were not detected, its aberrant expression was confirmed in other PDAC tissues and in serum from a PDAC patient. These results demonstrate that comprehensive studies are necessary to reveal the expression status of circRNAs and that the circPDAC RNA identified here might serve as a novel biomarker for cancers, including PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00826-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Interferon-γ induced PD-L1 expression and soluble PD-L1 production in gastric cancer.

Oncol Lett 2020 Sep 19;20(3):2161-2168. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) plays an essential role in tumor cell escape from anti-tumor immunity in various types of cancer, including gastric cancer (GC). The present study investigated the intracellular and membrane-bound expression of PD-L1 in the GC cell lines MKN1, MKN74, KATO III and OCUM-1. Furthermore, soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) level in the supernatant of GC cells and the serum of patients with GC and healthy controls was determined by ELISA. Interferon (IFN)-γ treatment of cells resulted in increased cytoplasmic expression of PD-L1 in GC cells in a dose-dependent manner, except for MKN74 cells; however, there was no association between tumor necrosis factor-α treatment and enhanced PD-L1 expression. Concordant with these findings, results from flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that membrane-bound PD-L1 expression was also increased following GC cell treatment with IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, significant sPD-L1 overproduction was observed only in the culture supernatant of OCUM-1 cells. Serum level of sPD-L1 was significantly increased in patients with GC, in particular in stage IV patients, compared with healthy controls. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that IFN-γ treatment increased the intracellular and membrane-bound PD-L1 expression in GC cells. In addition, sPD-L1 was detected not only in the supernatant of GC cells but also in the serum of patients with GC. Further investigation on the underlying mechanism of regulation of PD-L1 expression and sPD-L1 production is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400993PMC
September 2020

A needle-type biofuel cell using enzyme/mediator/carbon nanotube composite fibers for wearable electronics.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Oct 12;165:112287. Epub 2020 May 12.

Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, 2-7 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, 808-0135, Japan. Electronic address:

To realize direct power generation from biofuels in natural organisms, we demonstrate a needle-type biofuel cell (BFC) using enzyme/mediator/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite fibers with the structure Osmium-based polymer/CNT/glucose oxidase/Os-based polymer/CNT. The composite fibers performed a high current density (10 mA/cm) in 5 mM artificial blood glucose. Owing to their hydrophilicity, they also provided sufficient ionic conductivity between the needle-type anode and the gas-diffusion cathode. When the tip of the anodic needle was inserted into natural specimens of grape, kiwifruit, and apple, the assembled BFC generated powers of 55, 44, and 33 μW from glucose, respectively. In addition, the power generated from the blood glucose in mouse heart was 16.3 μW at 0.29 V. The lifetime of the BFC was improved by coating an anti-fouling polymer 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) on the anodic electrode, and sealing the cathodic hydrogel chamber with medical tape to minimize the water evaporation without compromising the oxygen permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112287DOI Listing
October 2020

Leukotriene receptor antagonists enhance HCC treatment efficacy by inhibiting ADAMs and suppressing MICA shedding.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jan 18;70(1):203-213. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 142-8666, Japan.

In our previous genome-wide association study, we demonstrated the association between MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Increasing membrane-bound MICA (mMICA) in cancer cells by reducing MICA sheddases facilitates natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our recent study clarified that A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM), including ADAM9, are MICA sheddases in HCC, and that the suppression of ADAMs increases mMICA, demonstrating the rationality of mMICA-NK targeted therapy. Furthermore, we showed that regorafenib suppresses ADAM9 transcriptionally and translationally. A library of FDA-approved drugs was screened for more efficient inhibitors of ADAM9. Flow cytometry evaluation of the expression of mMICA after treatment with various candidate drugs identified leukotriene receptor antagonists as potential ADAM9 inhibitors. Furthermore, leukotriene receptor antagonists alone or in combination with regorafenib upregulated mMICA, which was in turn downregulated by leukotriene C4 and D4 via ADAM9 function. Our study demonstrates that leukotriene receptor antagonists could be developed as novel drugs for immunological control and suppression of ADAM9 in HCC. Further, leukotriene receptor antagonists should be explored as combination therapy partners with conventional multi-kinase inhibitors for developing therapeutic strategies with enhanced efficacies for HCC management and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02660-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838147PMC
January 2021

A Novel Role of Interleukin 13 Receptor alpha2 in Perineural Invasion and its Association with Poor Prognosis of Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 20;12(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Tumor Vaccines and Biotechnology Branch, Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

Perineural invasion (PNI) is one of the major pathological characteristics of pancreatic ductal adeno-carcinoma (PDAC), which is mediated by invading cancer cells into nerve cells. Herein, we identify the overexpression of Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 (IL-13Rα2) in the PNI from 236 PDAC samples by studying its expression at the protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the RNA level by in situ hybridization (ISH). We observe that ≥75% samples overexpressed IL-13Rα2 by IHC and ISH in grade 2 and 3 tumors, while ≥64% stage II and III tumors overexpressed IL-13Rα2 (≥2+). Interestingly, ≥36 % peripancreatic neural plexus (PL) and ≥70% nerve endings (Ne) among PNI in PDAC samples showed higher levels of IL-13Rα2 (≥2+). IL-13Rα2 +ve PL and Ne subjects survived significantly less than IL-13Rα2 -ve subjects, suggesting that IL-13Rα2 may have a unique role as a biomarker of PNI-aggressiveness. Importantly, IL-13Rα2 may be a therapeutic target for intervention, which might not only prolong patient survival but also help alleviate pain attributed to perineural invasion. Our study uncovers a novel role of IL-13Rα2 in PNI as a key factor of the disease severity, thus revealing a therapeutically targetable option for PDAC and to facilitate PNI-associated pain management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281570PMC
May 2020

A Simple and Robust Functionalization of Graphene for Advanced Energy Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 6;12(11):12736-12742. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

Efficient and selective methods for graphene functionalization are needed because they allow tuning of the graphene surface and electronic properties. To date, graphene has been functionalized using ionic bonds, π-π interactions, and covalent bonds. Graphene derivatives based on these methods have been used in various applications, but a new functionalization strategy that improves the properties of graphene is still needed. Herein, a new concept for graphene functionalization using halogenated graphene has been developed, in which brominated graphene is successfully functionalized by heteroatom-containing molecules to form onium bonds, such as pyridinium or ammonium. The counterion bromide is replaced with other anions, such as sulfate, by treating with sulfuric acid while retaining the molecules, which demonstrates the durable properties of onium bonding. To emphasize the advantages of this strategy for graphene functionalization, the performance for energy-related applications, such as biofuel cells, supercapacitors, and Li-ion batteries, is evaluated after introducing redox-active moieties onto graphene through onium bonding. This new graphene functionalization concept will provide a new approach to the design of tailor-made materials with targeted functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b21082DOI Listing
March 2020

Serum fibroblast growth factor 19 serves as a potential novel biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2019 Nov 12;19(1):1088. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Abnormal autocrine fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) production has been observed in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the potential of serum FGF19 as a novel tumor marker of HCC based on a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Methods: The serum FGF19 levels of 304 patients with HCC was measured by ELISA. The serum levels of existing markers, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were determined by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Both diagnostic value of FGF19 and its changes after curative ablation therapy was further examined.

Results: The median FGF19 levels in controls, chronic liver disease patients, and primary HCC patients, were 78.8 pg/mL, 100.1 pg/mL, and 214.5 pg/mL, respectively. The subsequent receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) successfully determined an optimal cut-off value of 200.0 pg/mL. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of FGF19 for HCC detection was comparable to those of AFP and DCP. Of importance, FGF19 showed higher sensitivity for the detection of small HCC (solitary cancer with diameter < 20 mm) than those of existing markers. In addition, 43 out of 79 cases (54.4%) with normal AFP and DCP (so-called "double negative HCC") exhibited serum FGF19 level ≥ 200 pg/mL. In 45 HCC patients treated with curative ablation therapy, serum FGF19 levels changed from 257.4 pg/mL to 112.0 pg/mL after the treatment.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal that FGF19 can be a potential novel biomarker for HCC. Although FGF19 is not necessarily a substitute for existing markers, it may help improve the prognosis in HCC patients owing to its resourceful use in various aspects of HCC management and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6322-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849282PMC
November 2019

Successful treatment of neonatal idiopathic ventricular tachycardia with landiolol hydrochloride.

Pediatr Int 2019 Oct 16;61(10):1048-1050. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital, Toyama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13969DOI Listing
October 2019
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