Publications by authors named "Ryan T Demeter"

10 Publications

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Tumor Evolution in Two Patients with Basal-like Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Genomics Study of Multiple Metastases.

PLoS Med 2016 Dec 6;13(12):e1002174. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual.

Methods And Findings: We performed DNA whole genome and mRNA sequencing on two primary tumors, each with either four or five distinct tissue site-specific metastases, from two individuals with triple-negative/basal-like breast cancers. As evidenced by their case histories, each patient had an aggressive disease course with abbreviated survival. In each patient, the overall gene expression signatures, DNA copy number patterns, and somatic mutation patterns were highly similar across each primary tumor and its associated metastases. Almost every mutation found in the primary was found in a metastasis (for the two patients, 52/54 and 75/75). Many of these mutations were found in every tumor (11/54 and 65/75, respectively). In addition, each metastasis had fewer metastatic-specific events and shared at least 50% of its somatic mutation repertoire with the primary tumor, and all samples from each patient grouped together by gene expression clustering analysis. TP53 was the only mutated gene in common between both patients and was present in every tumor in this study. Strikingly, each metastasis resulted from multiclonal seeding instead of from a single cell of origin, and few of the new mutations, present only in the metastases, were expressed in mRNAs. Because of the clinical differences between these two patients and the small sample size of our study, the generalizability of these findings will need to be further examined in larger cohorts of patients.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that multiclonal seeding may be common amongst basal-like breast cancers. In these two patients, mutations and DNA copy number changes in the primary tumors appear to have had a biologic impact on metastatic potential, whereas mutations arising in the metastases were much more likely to be passengers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5140046PMC
December 2016

A common founding clone with TP53 and PTEN mutations gives rise to a concurrent germ cell tumor and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2016 Jan;2(1):a000687

McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA;; Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA;

We report the findings from a patient who presented with a concurrent mediastinal germ cell tumor (GCT) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Bone marrow pathology was consistent with a diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), and biopsy of an anterior mediastinal mass was consistent with a nonseminomatous GCT. Prior studies have described associations between hematological malignancies, including AML M7 and nonseminomatous GCTs, and it was recently suggested that a common founding clone initiated both cancers. We performed enhanced exome sequencing on the GCT and the AML M7 from our patient to define the clonal relationship between the two cancers. We found that both samples contained somatic mutations in PTEN (C136R missense) and TP53 (R213 frameshift). The mutations in PTEN and TP53 were present at ∼100% variant allele frequency (VAF) in both tumors. In addition, we detected and validated five other shared somatic mutations. The copy-number analysis of the AML exome data revealed an amplification of Chromosome 12p. We also identified a heterozygous germline variant in FANCA (S858R), which is known to be associated with Fanconi anemia but is of uncertain significance here. In summary, our data not only support a common founding clone for these cancers but also suggest that a specific set of distinct genomic alterations (in PTEN and TP53) underlies the rare association between GCT and AML. This association is likely linked to the treatment resistance and extremely poor outcome of these patients. We cannot resolve the clonal evolution of these tumors given limitations of our data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a000687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4849848PMC
January 2016

Optimizing cancer genome sequencing and analysis.

Cell Syst 2015 Sep;1(3):210-223

The McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 63108 ; Department of Genetics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 63108 ; Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 63108 ; Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 63108.

Tumors are typically sequenced to depths of 75-100× (exome) or 30-50× (whole genome). We demonstrate that current sequencing paradigms are inadequate for tumors that are impure, aneuploid or clonally heterogeneous. To reassess optimal sequencing strategies, we performed ultra-deep (up to ~312×) whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exome capture (up to ~433×) of a primary acute myeloid leukemia, its subsequent relapse, and a matched normal skin sample. We tested multiple alignment and variant calling algorithms and validated ~200,000 putative SNVs by sequencing them to depths of ~1,000×. Additional targeted sequencing provided over 10,000× coverage and ddPCR assays provided up to ~250,000× sampling of selected sites. We evaluated the effects of different library generation approaches, depth of sequencing, and analysis strategies on the ability to effectively characterize a complex tumor. This dataset, representing the most comprehensively sequenced tumor described to date, will serve as an invaluable community resource (dbGaP accession id phs000159).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2015.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4669575PMC
September 2015

PML-RARA requires DNA methyltransferase 3A to initiate acute promyelocytic leukemia.

J Clin Invest 2016 Jan 23;126(1):85-98. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

The DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B are primarily responsible for de novo methylation of specific cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides during mammalian development. While loss-of-function mutations in DNMT3A are highly recurrent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), DNMT3A mutations are almost never found in AML patients with translocations that create oncogenic fusion genes such as PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, and MLL-AF9. Here, we explored how DNMT3A is involved in the function of these fusion genes. We used retroviral vectors to express PML-RARA, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, or MLL-AF9 in bone marrow cells derived from WT or DNMT3A-deficient mice. Additionally, we examined the phenotypes of hematopoietic cells from Ctsg-PML-RARA mice, which express PML-RARA in early hematopoietic progenitors and myeloid precursors, with or without DNMT3A. We determined that the methyltransferase activity of DNMT3A, but not DNMT3B, is required for aberrant PML-RARA-driven self-renewal ex vivo and that DNMT3A is dispensable for RUNX1-RUNX1T1- and MLL-AF9-driven self-renewal. Furthermore, both the PML-RARA-driven competitive transplantation advantage and development of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) required DNMT3A. Together, these findings suggest that PML-RARA requires DNMT3A to initiate APL in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI82897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701540PMC
January 2016

Association Between Mutation Clearance After Induction Therapy and Outcomes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

JAMA 2015 Aug;314(8):811-22

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Importance: Tests that predict outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are imprecise, especially for those with intermediate risk AML.

Objectives: To determine whether genomic approaches can provide novel prognostic information for adult patients with de novo AML.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Whole-genome or exome sequencing was performed on samples obtained at disease presentation from 71 patients with AML (mean age, 50.8 years) treated with standard induction chemotherapy at a single site starting in March 2002, with follow-up through January 2015. In addition, deep digital sequencing was performed on paired diagnosis and remission samples from 50 patients (including 32 with intermediate-risk AML), approximately 30 days after successful induction therapy. Twenty-five of the 50 were from the cohort of 71 patients, and 25 were new, additional cases.

Exposures: Whole-genome or exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. Risk of identification based on genetic data.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mutation patterns (including clearance of leukemia-associated variants after chemotherapy) and their association with event-free survival and overall survival.

Results: Analysis of comprehensive genomic data from the 71 patients did not improve outcome assessment over current standard-of-care metrics. In an analysis of 50 patients with both presentation and documented remission samples, 24 (48%) had persistent leukemia-associated mutations in at least 5% of bone marrow cells at remission. The 24 with persistent mutations had significantly reduced event-free and overall survival vs the 26 who cleared all mutations. Patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk profiles had similar findings. [table: see text].

Conclusions And Relevance: The detection of persistent leukemia-associated mutations in at least 5% of bone marrow cells in day 30 remission samples was associated with a significantly increased risk of relapse, and reduced overall survival. These data suggest that this genomic approach may improve risk stratification for patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.9643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621257PMC
August 2015

Functional heterogeneity of genetically defined subclones in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer Cell 2014 Mar 6;25(3):379-92. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

The Genome Institute, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Oncology, Section of Stem Cell Biology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

The relationships between clonal architecture and functional heterogeneity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples are not yet clear. We used targeted sequencing to track AML subclones identified by whole-genome sequencing using a variety of experimental approaches. We found that virtually all AML subclones trafficked from the marrow to the peripheral blood, but some were enriched in specific cell populations. Subclones showed variable engraftment potential in immunodeficient mice. Xenografts were predominantly comprised of a single genetically defined subclone, but there was no predictable relationship between the engrafting subclone and the evolutionary hierarchy of the leukemia. These data demonstrate the importance of integrating genetic and functional data in studies of primary cancer samples, both in xenograft models and in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2014.01.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3983786PMC
March 2014

The origin and evolution of mutations in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cell 2012 Jul;150(2):264-78

Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Most mutations in cancer genomes are thought to be acquired after the initiating event, which may cause genomic instability and drive clonal evolution. However, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), normal karyotypes are common, and genomic instability is unusual. To better understand clonal evolution in AML, we sequenced the genomes of M3-AML samples with a known initiating event (PML-RARA) versus the genomes of normal karyotype M1-AML samples and the exomes of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from healthy people. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the mutations found in AML genomes are actually random events that occurred in HSPCs before they acquired the initiating mutation; the mutational history of that cell is "captured" as the clone expands. In many cases, only one or two additional, cooperating mutations are needed to generate the malignant founding clone. Cells from the founding clone can acquire additional cooperating mutations, yielding subclones that can contribute to disease progression and/or relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407563PMC
July 2012

Background mutations in parental cells account for most of the genetic heterogeneity of induced pluripotent stem cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2012 May 26;10(5):570-82. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Section of Stem Cell Biology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

To assess the genetic consequences of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming, we sequenced the genomes of ten murine iPSC clones derived from three independent reprogramming experiments, and compared them to their parental cell genomes. We detected hundreds of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in every clone, with an average of 11 in coding regions. In two experiments, all SNVs were unique for each clone and did not cluster in pathways, but in the third, all four iPSC clones contained 157 shared genetic variants, which could also be detected in rare cells (<1 in 500) within the parental MEF pool. These data suggest that most of the genetic variation in iPSC clones is not caused by reprogramming per se, but is rather a consequence of cloning individual cells, which "captures" their mutational history. These findings have implications for the development and therapeutic use of cells that are reprogrammed by any method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348423PMC
May 2012

Hybrid capture and next-generation sequencing identify viral integration sites from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

J Mol Diagn 2011 May;13(3):325-33

Department of Pathology, University of Utah, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake, UT 84108, USA.

Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been the domain of large genome centers, it is quickly becoming more accessible to general pathology laboratories. In addition to finding single-base changes, NGS allows for the detection of larger structural variants, including insertions/deletions, translocations, and viral insertions. We describe the use of targeted NGS on DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and show that the short read lengths of NGS are ideally suited to fragmented DNA obtained from FFPE tissue. Further, we describe a novel method for performing hybrid-capture target enrichment using PCR-generated capture probes. As a model, we captured the 5.3-kb Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome in FFPE cases of Merkel cell carcinoma using inexpensive, PCR-derived capture probes, and achieved up to 37,000-fold coverage of the MCPyV genome without prior virus-specific PCR amplification. This depth of coverage made it possible to reproducibly detect viral genome deletions and insertion sites anywhere within the human genome. Out of four cases sequenced, we identified the 5' insertion sites in four of four cases and the 3' sites in three of four cases. These findings demonstrate the potential for an inexpensive gene targeting and NGS method that can be easily adapted for use with FFPE tissue to identify large structural rearrangements, opening up the possibility for further discovery from archival tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2011.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077736PMC
May 2011