Publications by authors named "Ryan S Fischer"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Levels of Interleukin-6 in Saliva, but Not Plasma, Correlate with Clinical Metrics in Huntington's Disease Patients and Healthy Control Subjects.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 2;21(17). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Growing evidence suggests that inflammatory responses, in both the brain and peripheral tissues, contribute to disease pathology in Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting adults in their 30-40 s. Hence, studies of inflammation-related markers in peripheral fluids might be useful to better characterize disease features. In this study, we measured levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B), and alpha-amylase (AA) in saliva and plasma from = 125 subjects, including = 37 manifest HD patients, = 36 premanifest patients, and = 52 healthy controls, using immunoassays. We found increases in salivary levels of IL-6, IL-1B and CRP across different disease groups and increased levels of IL-6 in the plasma of HD patients as compared to premanifest patients and controls. The levels of salivary IL-6 were significantly correlated with each of the other salivary markers, as well as with IL-6 levels measured in plasma. Further, salivary IL-6 and IL-1B levels were significantly positively correlated with Total Motor Score (TMS) and chorea scores and negatively correlated with Total Functional Capacity (TFC) in HD patients, whereby in healthy control subjects, IL-6 was significantly negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDM). Interestingly, the plasma levels of IL-6 did not show similar correlations to any clinical measures in either HD or control subjects. These findings suggest that salivary IL-6 is particularly relevant as a potential non-invasive biomarker for HD symptoms. The advent of an effective, dependable salivary biomarker would meet the urgent need for a less invasive means of identifying and monitoring HD disease progression.
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September 2020

Uric Acid as a Potential Peripheral Biomarker for Disease Features in Huntington's Patients.

Front Neurosci 2020 4;14:73. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of Huntington's disease (HD). Uric acid (UA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is present in the brain and periphery. Growing evidence has implicated UA as a molecular biomarker for several neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated UA levels in clinical samples from HD patients and normal controls (NCs) and assessed potential relationships between UA levels and disease and clinical data. UA levels were measured in plasma ( = 107) and saliva ( = 178) samples from premanifest (pre-HD) and manifest HD patients and control subjects. Gender effects of UA levels were observed in both biofluids, with male patients showing higher UA levels compared to female patients. Comparisons of UA levels across diagnostic groups, separated by gender, revealed that both plasma and salivary UA levels were significantly lower in female pre-HD and manifest HD patients compared to NCs. Salivary levels of UA were also significantly lower in male manifest HD patients versus controls, but not in plasma. Correlations of peripheral UA levels to clinical data also showed differences according to gender. In male HD patients, both plasma and salivary UA levels were significantly negatively correlated with total functional capacity (TFC), while positive correlations were observed with total motor score (TMS). Female HD patients showed a significant positive correlation between plasma UA levels and TMS, while salivary UA levels from female patients were significantly correlated to disease burden. Finally, in a separate cohort, we show that UA levels are decreased in postmortem prefrontal cortical samples ( = 20) from HD subjects compared to matched controls. These findings suggest that decreased levels of UA in the brains of HD patients can be reflected in peripheral fluids, with salivary measures of UA particularly offering significant promise as a potentially relevant, non-invasive biomarker of disease symptoms and burden. Our findings further highlight the impact of sexual dimorphism in HD pathophysiology.
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March 2020