Publications by authors named "Ryan J Andres"

2 Publications

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Modifications to a LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 gene are responsible for the major leaf shapes of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 01 20;114(1):E57-E66. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620;

Leaf shape varies spectacularly among plants. Leaves are the primary source of photoassimilate in crop plants, and understanding the genetic basis of variation in leaf morphology is critical to improving agricultural productivity. Leaf shape played a unique role in cotton improvement, as breeders have selected for entire and lobed leaf morphs resulting from a single locus, okra (l-D), which is responsible for the major leaf shapes in cotton. The l-D locus is not only of agricultural importance in cotton, but through pioneering chimeric and morphometric studies, it has contributed to fundamental knowledge about leaf development. Here we show that an HD-Zip transcription factor homologous to the LATE MERISTEM IDENTITY1 (LMI1) gene of Arabidopsis is the causal gene underlying the l-D locus. The classical okra leaf shape allele has a 133-bp tandem duplication in the promoter, correlated with elevated expression, whereas an 8-bp deletion in the third exon of the presumed wild-type normal allele causes a frame-shifted and truncated coding sequence. Our results indicate that subokra is the ancestral leaf shape of tetraploid cotton that gave rise to the okra allele and that normal is a derived mutant allele that came to predominate and define the leaf shape of cultivated cotton. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the LMI1-like gene in an okra variety was sufficient to induce normal leaf formation. The developmental changes in leaves conferred by this gene are associated with a photosynthetic transcriptomic signature, substantiating its use by breeders to produce a superior cotton ideotype.
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January 2017

Mapping and genomic targeting of the major leaf shape gene (L) in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2014 Jan 25;127(1):167-77. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Crop Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Key Message: A major leaf shape locus (L) was mapped with molecular markers and genomically targeted to a small region in the D-genome of cotton. By using expression analysis and candidate gene mapping, two LMI1 -like genes are identified as possible candidates for leaf shape trait in cotton. Leaf shape in cotton is an important trait that influences yield, flowering rates, disease resistance, lint trash, and the efficacy of foliar chemical application. The leaves of okra leaf cotton display a significantly enhanced lobing pattern, as well as ectopic outgrowths along the lobe margins when compared with normal leaf cotton. These phenotypes are the hallmark characteristics of mutations in various known modifiers of leaf shape that culminate in the mis/over-expression of Class I KNOX genes. To better understand the molecular and genetic processes underlying leaf shape in cotton, a normal leaf accession (PI607650) was crossed to an okra leaf breeding line (NC05AZ21). An F2 population of 236 individuals confirmed the incompletely dominant single gene nature of the okra leaf shape trait in Gossypium hirsutum L. Molecular mapping with simple sequence repeat markers localized the leaf shape gene to 5.4 cM interval in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 15. Orthologous mapping of the closely linked markers with the sequenced diploid D-genome (Gossypium raimondii) tentatively resolved the leaf shape locus to a small genomic region. RT-PCR-based expression analysis and candidate gene mapping indicated that the okra leaf shape gene (L (o) ) in cotton might be an upstream regulator of Class I KNOX genes. The linked molecular markers and delineated genomic region in the sequenced diploid D-genome will assist in the future high-resolution mapping and map-based cloning of the leaf shape gene in cotton.
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January 2014