Publications by authors named "Ryan C Romano"

12 Publications

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Fibrohistiocytic Tumors.

Clin Lab Med 2017 09 15;37(3):603-631. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Hilton 11, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Fibrohistiocytic tumors are a diverse group of reactive and neoplastic lesions including xanthoma, fibrous histiocytoma and its variants, solitary xanthogranuloma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and atypical fibroxanthoma. This article reviews some of the more commonly encountered fibrohistiocytic tumors with an emphasis on clinical presentation, macroscopic and histologic characteristics, molecular/cytogenetic findings where applicable, and differential diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cll.2017.05.007DOI Listing
September 2017

Measures of Completeness and Accuracy of Clinical Information in Skin Biopsy Requisition Forms: An Analysis of 249 Cases.

Am J Clin Pathol 2016 Dec 27;146(6):727-735. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

From the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology,

Objectives: To define indices of completeness and accuracy of clinical information in the skin biopsy requisition form (RF) and correlate them with health care delivery outcomes and pathology service utilization.

Methods: RFs in our pathology information system were reviewed and assessed for the presence of 10 clinical elements considered critical for dermatopathologic diagnosis. Accuracy was determined by reviewing corresponding clinical notes.

Results: In total, 249 RFs were reviewed. In inflammatory dermatoses, provision of a clinical impression, provision of more than two elements, and achieving more than 75% accuracy were associated with improved outcomes and decreased utilization. For all nonlymphoproliferative cases, higher quality clinical information was associated with decreased turnaround time (P < .001). More clinical information was associated with increased utilization and turnaround time (P = .0235) for lymphoproliferative cases and higher resampling rates for melanocytic lesions (P = .0066).

Conclusions: In inflammatory dermatoses, providing high-quality clinical information on the RF promotes optimal histopathologic diagnostic performance and appropriate pathology service utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqw186DOI Listing
December 2016

High Relative Expression of Pannexin 3 (PANX3) in an Axillary Sweat Gland Carcinoma With Osteosarcomatous Transformation.

Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):846-851

*Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Departments of †Pathology, ‡Dermatology, and §Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR; ¶Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR; Departments of ‖Orthopedic Surgery and **Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare tumors that commonly involve axillae, have a high local recurrence rate, and rarely show sarcomatoid transformation. A 68-year-old man presented with rapid enlargement of a previously stable, asymptomatic pea-sized nodule in the left axilla. Initial excision (with positive surgical margins) at another institution showed characteristic histologic features of a high-grade osteosarcoma and molecular analysis using a 92-gene real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed a diagnosis of osteosarcoma with 96% certainty. Notably, the molecular assay demonstrated consistently high relative expression of pannexin 3 (PANX3), a gene involved in normal osteoblast differentiation which, when highly expressed, strongly predicts osteosarcoma per the assay's algorithm. However, on further histologic review, the tumor also contained focal cystic areas, nests, and ducts composed of malignant epithelial cells reminiscent of SGC; these areas directly transitioned into the osteosarcomatous component and were strongly positive for pancytokeratin, CK7, and p63. Within 2 weeks, the lesion recurred and grew rapidly, prompting complete resection, histologic sections of which showed high-grade osteosarcoma without residual epithelial elements. This is the fifth report, to our knowledge, of osteosarcomatous transformation in a SGC, and the only report to date including molecular data. This case demonstrates that osteosarcoma arising from a SGC has a similar molecular profile to de novo primary osteosarcoma of bone. It also emphasizes the importance of histopathologic findings as the established diagnostic gold standard and the need to interpret molecular results within the clinical context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000000583DOI Listing
November 2016

Sacral Chordoma.

Mayo Clin Proc 2016 Oct;91(10):e143-e144

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.06.015DOI Listing
October 2016

Malignant Melanoma of the Nail Apparatus: A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of 7 Cases.

Int J Surg Pathol 2016 Sep 15;24(6):512-8. Epub 2016 May 15.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Background Malignant melanoma of the nail apparatus is exceedingly rare. Increasingly, genetic studies have been employed to aid in distinguishing between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi. Methods Archived nail apparatus melanomas were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes targeting the genes at 6p25 (RREB1), 11q13 (CCND1), 8q24.1 (MYC), 6q23 (MYB), 9p21 (CDKN2A) and the centromeres of chromosomes 8 (D8Z2) and 6 (D6Z1). The results were correlated with clinical and demographic information. Results Mean patient age was 57.8 years (range 23-92 years). In all, 5 of 7 (71%) cases involved the upper extremity digits. RREB1 gain was seen in all cases. CCND1 gain was seen in 6 of 7 (86%) cases, 3 of which were amplified. MYB loss and MYC gain were both seen in 5 of 7 (71%) cases. Homozygous loss of CDKN2A was not observed in any case. Two of 7 (28.6%) patients had lymph node metastasis and died of widely metastatic disease. These 2 patients harbored the most genetic aberrations: gains of RREB1, CCND1, and MYC, and MYB loss. Both benign melanocytic nevi controls showed normal FISH results. Conclusions RREB1 and CCND1 gains are common in nail apparatus melanoma as in most melanomas, and an increased number of genetic aberrations may be associated with a poorer prognosis, though the limited number of cases precludes definitive correlation. FISH appears to be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of nail apparatus melanomas and improves diagnostic confidence even in the setting of unambiguous histomorphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896916648379DOI Listing
September 2016

A Primary Cutaneous CD30-Positive T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Arising in a Patient With Multiple Myeloma and Cutaneous Amyloidosis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2016 May;38(5):388-92

*Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; †Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, Dr. Cohen is now affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, and Department of Pathology, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Hospital, Houston, TX (As of/After July 1, 2015); ‡Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Division of Hematopathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and §Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, and Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, a group of T-cell neoplasms, including lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, require careful clinicopathologic correlation for diagnosis. An association between LyP and the development of a second hematolymphoid malignancy has been established in the literature. LyP has also been reported with systemic amyloidosis, but no such reports have documented coexisting cutaneous amyloid deposition with LyP to our knowledge. A 66-year-old woman with cutaneous amyloidosis, secondary to multiple myeloma, in remission, presented with erythematous and dark-brown papules involving the right arm, scalp, and torso. Punch biopsy of the arm showed a dermal infiltrate of intermediate-sized lymphocytes, some of which displayed a plasmacytoid morphology and prominent nodular subepidermal amyloid deposition. Punch biopsy of the scalp similarly showed a nonepidermotropic dense dermal infiltrate of intermediate-sized plasmacytoid lymphocytes and multifocal amyloid deposition. Both infiltrates were immunophenotypically CD30-positive, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative T-cell lymphoproliferative processes. Subsequent studies showed no systemic involvement, and clinical correlation suggested a final diagnosis of LyP. We present this case of LyP, which histologically mimics a B-cell proliferation with a plasmacytoid morphology arising in association with cutaneous amyloidosis to highlight the importance of clinicopathologic correlation, a thorough battery of immunohistochemical studies, and consideration for a second hematologic malignancy arising in the setting of LyP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000000534DOI Listing
May 2016

Disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking metastatic disease of the colon and omentum: Report of a case and literature review.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2015 Jun 22;16(2):66-8. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Covenant Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Lubbock, TX, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2015.01.002DOI Listing
June 2015

Aberrant intermediate filament and synaptophysin expression is a frequent event in malignant melanoma: an immunohistochemical study of 73 cases.

Mod Pathol 2015 Aug 29;28(8):1033-42. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Malignant melanomas are known to express vimentin, among other intermediate filaments. Though anomalous keratin expression by malignant melanoma has been reported, its frequency is not well-established and this phenomenon is not well-known. We have seen in consultation a number of malignant melanomas with anomalous expression of keratin, other intermediate filaments, or synaptophysin, and therefore studied a large group of primary and metastatic melanomas to determine the frequency of these events. About 73 cases of malignant melanoma (22 primaries and 51 metastases) from 71 patients (51 male, 20 female; mean 59 years, range 17-87 years) were retrieved from our archives. Prior diagnoses were confirmed by re-review of hematoxylin and eosin sections and relevant (e.g., S100 protein, HMB45, Melan-A, and tyrosinase) immunohistochemical studies. Available sections were immunostained for keratin (OSCAR and AE1/AE3 antibodies), desmin, neurofilament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A. Not all cases could be tested for all markers. Cases were predominantly epithelioid (48/73, 66%) or spindle cell/desmoplastic (25/73, 34%). S100 protein, Melan-A, HMB45, and tyrosinase were positive in 60/65 (92%), 34/64 (53%), 30/60 (50%), 25/48 (52%) of cases, respectively. All five S100-protein-negative cases expressed at least one of the other melanocytic markers: Melan-A (two of four, 50%), HMB45 (two of three, 67%), and tyrosinase (one of two, 50%). All cases expressed at least one melanocytic marker. Cases were positive for keratin (OSCAR, 17/61, 28%; AE1/AE3, 16/40, 40%), desmin (11/47, 24%), neurofilament protein (5/31, 16%), glial fibrillary acidic protein (3/32, 9%), and synaptophysin (10/34, 29%), typically only in a minority of cells. Chromogranin was negative (0/32, 0%). Altogether 9/73 cases (12%) showed expression of >1 intermediate filament. All S100-protein-negative melanomas showed anomalous intermediate filament expression (keratin--one case, desmin--three cases, neurofilament protein--one case). Anomalous intermediate filament or synaptophysin expression was more common in epithelioid (intermediate filament, 27/48, 56%; synaptophysin, 7/22, 32%) as compared with spindle cell/desmoplastic (intermediate filament, 8/25, 32%; synaptophysin, 3/12, 25%) melanomas. Overall, 48% (35/73) of cases showed anomalous expression of at least one intermediate filament. Anomalous expression of all intermediate filaments and synaptophysin was found in significant subsets of malignant melanoma, representing potentially serious diagnostic pitfalls. While the inclusion of consultation cases may inflate the frequency of these findings in this series, similar findings were also seen in institutional cases. Malignant melanoma showing anomalous intermediate filament and synaptophysin expression may easily be mistaken for carcinomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. Awareness of this phenomenon, careful histopathological evaluation, and an appropriate melanocytic immunohistochemical panel should facilitate the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with unusual immunophenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2015.62DOI Listing
August 2015

The essential role of pathologists in health care and health policy.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2015 Apr;139(4):441-4

From the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Drs Romano and Blessing); and the Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (Dr Allen).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2014-0335-EDDOI Listing
April 2015

Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis: Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Features.

Dig Dis Sci 2015 Jul 21;60(7):2049-57. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Background: Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (EDS) is a desquamative disorder of the esophagus, but there is a paucity of the literature regarding this condition.

Aim: We examined our institution's experience to further characterize clinical outcomes, and endoscopic and histopathologic features.

Methods: Endoscopy and pathology databases were retrospectively reviewed from 2000 to 2013 at Mayo Clinic Rochester to identify potential cases of EDS. Medical records and endoscopic images were reviewed to identify cases, and original pathologic specimens were also reviewed. Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics of EDS were defined.

Results: Forty-one subjects were identified with a median age at diagnosis of 65.0 years (IQR 52.8-76.1) and a female preponderance (63.4 %). Many patients were taking a psychoactive agent (73.1 %) or acid-suppressive therapy (58.5 %) preceding the index endoscopy. Strips of sloughed membranes had a predilection for the distal and/or middle esophagus and resolved in 85.7 % of subjects at endoscopic follow-up. Parakeratosis and intraepithelial splitting were histologic features seen in all patients, while splitting of the connective tissue and intraepithelial bullae were seen in 46.2 and 11.1 %, respectively. There were no disease-related complications at a median follow-up of 10.4 months (IQR 1.2-17.2).

Conclusions: EDS is likely under-recognized. A distinct endoscopic feature of EDS is "sloughing" strips of mucosa with parakeratosis and intraepithelial splitting being sine qua non histologic findings. The use of psychoactive agents (particularly a SSRI or SNRI) was prevalent at endoscopic diagnosis, although the clinical relevance of this is uncertain. EDS appears to be a benign, incidental finding without complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-015-3590-3DOI Listing
July 2015

Phakomatous choristoma in a 10-week-old boy: a case report and review of the literature.

Pediatr Dermatol 2015 May-Jun;32(3):405-9. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Phakomatous choristoma (PC) is a rare benign congenital lesion of lenticular anlage. It presents in young patients as a firm subcutaneous mass in the medial eyelid or orbit and may raise clinical concern for neoplasms such as rhabdomyosarcoma, but its histopathology is distinct, consisting of dense collagenous stroma and eosinophilic cuboidal epithelial cells forming nests, tubules, cords, or pseudoglands. We present a case of PC in a 10-week-old boy to illustrate the unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features of this condition and to reaffirm that familiarity with this rare entity aids accurate diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.12493DOI Listing
April 2016

Inflammatory Pseudotumor Containing Kayexalate Crystals: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Int J Surg Pathol 2014 Aug 31;22(5):464-9. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate), a cation exchange resin often used to treat hyperkalemia, is known to produce gastrointestinal complications in a minority of patients. These complications range from mild gastrointestinal bleeding to perforation with acute abdomen. The typical histopathologic findings include mucosal ulceration, necrosis, and the presence of polygonal basophilic refractile crystals with a "fish scale" appearance. We present a unique case of Kayexalate crystals embedded in a perihepatic inflammatory pseudotumor, developing adjacent to a colostomy site in a 62-year-old woman following Kayexalate treatment. Microscopically, the lesion demonstrated a myofibroblastic proliferation rich in histiocytes and inflammation (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils) as well as the presence of scattered typical Kayexalate crystals. This is the first report of extraintestinal Kayexalate identification in association with an inflammatory pseudotumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066896913507598DOI Listing
August 2014
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