Publications by authors named "Ryan Berg"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Complex correlates of Colombia's COVID-19 surge.

Lancet Reg Health Am 2021 Nov 10;3:100072. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lana.2021.100072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432891PMC
November 2021

Convergence of climate-driven hurricanes and COVID-19: The impact of 2020 hurricanes Eta and Iota on Nicaragua.

J Clim Chang Health 2021 Aug 25;3:100019. Epub 2021 May 25.

Robert A Knox Professor, School of Public Health, Boston University, 715 Albany Street - Talbot 301, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season was notable for a record-setting 30 named storms while, contemporaneously, the COVID-19 pandemic was circumnavigating the globe. The active spread of COVID-19 complicated disaster preparedness and response actions to safeguard coastal and island populations from hurricane hazards. Major hurricanes Eta and Iota, the most powerful storms of the 2020 Atlantic season, made November landfalls just two weeks apart, both coming ashore along the Miskito Coast in Nicaragua's North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Eta and Iota bore the hallmarks of climate-driven storms, including rapid intensification, high peak wind speeds, and decelerating forward motion prior to landfall. Hurricane warning systems, combined with timely evacuation and sheltering procedures, minimized loss of life during hurricane impact. Yet these protective actions potentially elevated risks for COVID-19 transmission for citizens sharing congregate shelters during the storms and for survivors who were displaced post-impact due to severe damage to their homes and communities. International border closures and travel restrictions that were in force to slow the spread of COVID-19 diminished the scope, timeliness, and effectiveness of the humanitarian response for survivors of Eta and Iota. Taken together, the extreme impacts from hurricanes Eta and Iota, compounded by the ubiquitous threat of COVID-19 transmission, and the impediments to international humanitarian response associated with movement restrictions during the pandemic, acted to exacerbate harms to population health for the citizens of Nicaragua.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joclim.2021.100019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146267PMC
August 2021

Venezuelan migrants in Colombia: COVID-19 and mental health.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 08;7(8):653-655

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30242-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377810PMC
August 2020

Analysis of an institutional protocol for thyroid lobectomy: Utility of routine intraoperative frozen section and expedited (overnight) pathology.

Surgery 2016 Feb 9;159(2):512-7. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

Background: Intraoperative frozen section (FS) often is performed in patients who undergo thyroid lobectomy to determine the need for completion thyroidectomy. At our institution, if FS pathology is benign, final pathology is expedited overnight. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of FS and to identify a cost-effective management algorithm for thyroid lobectomy.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy between January 2009 and May 2013. Preoperative cytology ranged from "benign" to "suspicious for malignancy." Clinically significant cancers were defined as >1 cm in size, or multifocal microcarcinomas.

Results: Of the 192 patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy with FS, FS was suspicious for malignancy in 5 (3%) patients; 1 (0.5%) underwent immediate completion thyroidectomy. On final pathology, 9 (5%) patients had clinically significant cancers and underwent completion thyroidectomy. FS had a sensitivity and positive predictive value of 22% and 40%, respectively, in identifying clinically significant thyroid cancer. Cost of thyroid lobectomy at varying rates of same-day discharge favored thyroid lobectomy without FS but with expedited pathology for all scenarios.

Conclusion: At our institution, there appears to be limited utility of FS at the time of thyroid lobectomy given the low predictive value for diagnosing a clinically significant thyroid cancer. In patients who are admitted overnight, expedited pathology is slightly less costly and may improve patient quality-of-life and decrease costs by avoiding delayed completion thyroidectomy. Overnight pathology for patients who undergo thyroid lobectomy may achieve modest cost-savings depending on institutional FS results and rates of malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2015.07.031DOI Listing
February 2016

Femoral micropuncture or routine introducer study (FEMORIS).

Cardiology 2014 9;129(1):39-43. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, UCSF Fresno Medical Education Program, Fresno, Calif., USA.

Objectives: The Micropuncture® 21-gauge needle may reduce complications related to vessel trauma from inadvertent venous or posterior arterial wall puncture.

Methods: This was a single-center, multiple-user trial. Four hundred and two patients undergoing possible or definite percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized 1:1 to an 18-gauge versus a 21-gauge needle. Patients and personnel pulling the sheaths and performing the follow-up were blinded. The primary end point was a composite of access bleeding. Events were tabulated following sheath removal, ≤ 24 h after the procedure and at the follow-up (at 1-2 weeks). End points were blindly adjudicated.

Results: The event rate overall was 12.4% and did not differ significantly between groups, although the 21-gauge needle was found to reduce events by more than one third. An exploratory subgroup analysis of prespecified variables indicated that: patients who did not undergo PCI or elective procedures, female patients and those with a final sheath size of ≤ 6 Fr all had a significant or near-significant reduction of complications with Micropuncture.

Conclusions: Although no significant differences between the use of the 18- and 21-gauge needles were observed, there was a 50-75% reduction with Micropuncture in several subgroups. The study was terminated prematurely. Access site complications may be reduced by the use of the 21-gauge needle, particularly when the risk of bleeding is not high. Further multicenter data will be required to confirm these hypothesis-generating observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000362536DOI Listing
May 2015

Are the culprit lesions severely stenotic?

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 Oct;6(10):1108-1114

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, UCSF Fresno Medical Education Program, Fresno, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2013.05.004DOI Listing
October 2013

A case of in-stent thrombosis in a patient with drug eluting stents during perioperative management with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2013 Dec 29;82(7):1108-12. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Division Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Francisco, MEP Fresno, Fresno, California.

The management of patients with drug eluting stents (DES) who require early surgical intervention prior to the completion of antiplatelet therapy is challenging. Available literature suggests that bridging these high risk patients with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (g2b3a) inhibitors could be efficacious in preventing stent thrombosis (Ben Morrison et al., Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2012;79;575-582). However, this still remains to be proven in larger prospective studies. We report a case of stent thrombosis in a patient with DES planned for neurosurgery while on bridging g2b3a inhibitors therapy in the perioperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.24845DOI Listing
December 2013

Treating and preventing no reflow in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Curr Cardiol Rev 2012 Aug;8(3):209-14

UCSF Fresno Division of Cardiology, 2823 Fresno Street, 5th Floor, Fresno, CA 93721, USA.

The no reflow phenomenon can happen during elective or primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This phenomenon is thought to be a complex process involving multiple factors that eventually lead to microvascular obstruction and endothelial disruption. Key pathogenic components include distal atherothrombotic embolization, ischemic injury, reperfusion injury, and susceptibility of coronary microcirculation to injury. Thus, pharmacologic and mechanical strategies to prevent and treat no reflow target these mechanisms. Specifically, pharmacologic therapy consisting of vasodilators and antiplatelet agents have shown benefit in the treatment of no-reflow and mechanical therapies such as distal protection and aspiration thrombectomy have also shown benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157340312803217148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3465826PMC
August 2012

Magnetococcus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine, magnetotactic bacterium that represents a novel lineage (Magnetococcaceae fam. nov., Magnetococcales ord. nov.) at the base of the Alphaproteobacteria.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013 Mar 11;63(Pt 3):801-808. Epub 2012 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, College of Biological Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Magnetotactic bacteria are a morphologically, metabolically and phylogenetically disparate array of bacteria united by the ability to biomineralize membrane-encased, single-magnetic-domain mineral crystals (magnetosomes) that cause the cell to orientate along the Earth's geomagnetic field. The most commonly observed type of magnetotactic bacteria is the ubiquitous magnetotactic cocci, which comprise their own phylogenetic group. Strain MC-1(T), a member of this group, was isolated from water collected from the oxic-anoxic interface of the Pettaquamscutt Estuary in Rhode Island, USA, and cultivated in axenic culture. Cells of strain MC-1(T) are roughly spherical, with two sheathed bundles of flagella at a single pole (bilophotrichous). Strain MC-1(T) uses polar magnetotaxis, and has a single chain of magnetite crystals per cell. Cells grow chemolithoautotrophically with thiosulfate or sulfide as the electron donors, and chemo-organoheterotrophically on acetate. During autotrophic growth, strain MC-1(T) relies on the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for CO2 fixation. The DNA G+C content is 54.2 mol%. The new genus and species Magnetococcus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. are proposed to accommodate strain MC-1(T) ( = ATCC BAA-1437(T)  = JCM 17883(T)), which is nominated as the type strain of Magnetococcus marinus. A new order (Magnetococcales ord. nov.) and family (Magnetococcaceae fam. nov.) are proposed for the reception of Magnetococcus and related magnetotactic cocci, which are provisionally included in the Alphaproteobacteria as the most basal known lineage of this class.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.038927-0DOI Listing
March 2013

Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens.

J Vis Exp 2012 Mar 3(61):e3930. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Wisconsin Water Science Center, United States Geological Survey, USA.

The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/3930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466626PMC
March 2012

Characterization of complex coronary artery stenosis morphology by coronary computed tomographic angiography.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009 Aug;2(8):950-8

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in identifying complex coronary stenosis morphology before invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Complexity of stenosis morphology affects PCI success. Whether CTA can detect the entire spectrum of recognized complex stenosis morphologies has not been investigated.

Methods: All nonbypassed, nonstented, >or=2-mm-diameter native coronary arterial segments in 85 consecutive patients who underwent ICA or=70% stenotic by visual inspection and characterized each as type C or nontype C, according to the modified American College of Cardiology morphology criteria for estimating PCI risk. Results were compared with ICA data similarly analyzed by 2 blinded interventional cardiologists. The PCI procedure duration and contrast use were compared between type C and nontype C lesions identified on both ICA and CTA.

Results: CTA detected 84 of 93 lesions (90%) causing >or=70% stenosis on ICA and correctly characterized 42 of 53 lesions (79%) found to concurrently show type C morphology on ICA. Type C features most frequently missed by CTA were ostial involvement (5 cases) and lesion length >20 mm (7 cases). Major branch involvement was the most frequent false-positive type C feature (12 cases). Mean PCI duration in patients with and without type C lesions on CTA were 42.4 +/- 24.7 min and 21.5 +/- 13.3 min (p = 0.009), respectively; mean total contrast used were 263 +/- 150 ml and 140 +/- 47 ml (p = 0.007), respectively.

Conclusions: In vessels segments >or=2 mm in diameter, CTA can predict lesions likely to reach >or=70% stenosis on ICA and provide added value in discerning complex morphologies associated with these lesions. Presence of complex, severely obstructive lesions on CTA is associated with higher contrast use and greater procedure length during PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2008.12.032DOI Listing
August 2009

The role of magnetic resonance imaging in determining the proximal extension of early stage cervical cancer to the internal os.

Eur J Radiol 2011 Apr 2;78(1):60-4. Epub 2009 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, G1-231, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 1105 AZ, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To study the interobserver variability of MRI for visualization of the internal os and measuring the distance between tumor and the internal os in patients with early cervical carcinoma and to compare the distance between tumor and the internal os measured on MRI with invasion of the internal os determined by histopathology.

Materials And Methods: All T2-weighed MRI examinations between January 2003 and December 2007 of patients who underwent hysterectomy, of ≤40 years, with clinical stage IB1 cervix carcinoma and tumor size ≤2cm were retrieved. 27 patients fulfilled these criteria. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the images for visualization of the internal os and the distance between tumor and the internal os; agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to determine interobserver variability. The distance between tumor and the internal os measured on MRI was compared with invasion of the internal os determined by histopathology.

Results: In 26 patients, visualization of the internal was rated as good or moderate by both radiologists (agreement 96%). In 15 patients, both radiologists observed a tumor and the ICC for the distance between tumor and the internal os was 0.752 (95%CI: 0.406-0.909). Assuming 5mm distance between tumor and the internal os on MRI as criterion for invasion of the internal os, 1 true-positive, 2 false-positives and none false-negatives were observed. Assuming 1cm as criterion increases the number of false-positives, respectively 3 and 5 by radiologist 1 and radiologist 2.

Conclusion: MRI has high interobserver values for visualization of the internal os and no false-negatives for involvement of the internal os.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.06.006DOI Listing
April 2011

Pimecrolimus and dual pimecrolimus-paclitaxel eluting stents decrease neointimal proliferation in a porcine model.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2007 Nov;70(6):871-9

Division of Cardiology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objectives And Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and vascular response of a pimecrolimus drug eluting stent and a combination (pimecrolimus + paclitaxel) stent as compared with bare metal controls in the porcine coronary model.

Methods And Results: In the first phase of the study, cobalt chromium stents were loaded with an erodible polymer and either a slow release or a fast release formulation of pimecrolimus. Thirty stents (metal, n = 10; pimecrolimus slow, n = 10; pimecrolimus fast, n = 10) were implanted in the coronary arteries of 10 pigs. At 30 days, neointimal proliferation and inflammation were both significantly less in the pimecrolimus fast release group as compared with the bare metal controls. Endothelialization was complete and equal in all three groups of stents. In the second phase of the study, stents were loaded with an erodible polymer with alternating reservoirs of paclitaxel and pimecrolimus. Twenty stents (8 control stents and 12 dual stents) were implanted in the coronary arteries of seven pigs. At 30 days, neointimal proliferation was significantly less in the dual drug group as compared with the bare metal controls. Endothelialization was complete in both groups of stents, suggesting complete healing of the arteries.

Conclusions: In a 30-day porcine stent model, pimecrolimus inhibits neointimal proliferation as compared with bare metal stents. Also, the proof of concept of a dual drug eluting stent was established showing both safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.21299DOI Listing
November 2007

Operational evaluation of pulse oximetry in NICU patients with arterial access.

J Perinatol 2003 Jul-Aug;23(5):378-83

Neonatology Department, Utah Valley Regional Medical Center, Provo, UT, USA.

Objective: To investigate pulse oximetry in neonates who require arterial access as represented by the clinical data recorded to manage their care.

Study Design: Analysis of simultaneous SpO(2) and SaO(2) from: 7-year historical NICU data (N=31905); 4-month prospective NICU data (N=566); verification data using two hemoximeters (N=52); and NICU data from two collaborating centers (N=95 and 168). The bias function (SpO(2)-SaO(2)) was regressed against the measured "gold" standard, SaO(2).

Results: A significant negative correlation was found for each of the data sets between the bias function and SaO(2). This bias was similar for devices from several manufacturers (Datex-Ohmeda, Masimo, Nellcor, and Spacelabs). Maximum operational performance occurred with peaks between 92 and 97% SaO(2), but declined markedly above and below this narrow range. In all, 71 to 95% of patients exhibited data with significant bias(.)

Conclusion: These operational data suggest that with the methodology and devices currently in use, SpO(2) values in most all neonates who require arterial lines inaccurately correlate with measured arterial saturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7210944DOI Listing
September 2003
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