Publications by authors named "Ruy de Souza Lino-Junior"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In Vivo Treatment with the Combination of Nitazoxanide and Flubendazole Induces Gluconeogenesis and Protein Catabolism in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Aug 5. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute, Federal University of Goias, Rua 235, s/n, Setor Universitário, Goiânia, Goiás, CEP:74605-050, Brazil.

Purpose: Cysticercosis is the presence of Taenia solium larvae in humans or swines tissues. It is a public health problem related to bad hygienic habits and consumption of infected pork. T. crassiceps is a widely used cysticercosis experimental model. The combination of two effective drugs such as nitazoxanide (NTZ) and flubendazole (FBZ) may potentialize their effect. The aim of this study was to use biochemical analysis to determine the metabolic impact of the combination of NTZ and FBZ on cysticerci inoculated intraperitoneally in mice.

Methods: Balb/c mice intraperitoneally infected with T. crassiceps cysticerci received a single oral dose NTZ/FBZ (50 mg/kg). 24 h after the treatment the cysticerci were removed, frozen and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography regarding the detection of the following metabolic pathways: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, homolactic fermentation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, proteins catabolism and fatty acids oxidation.

Results: The treatment with the drugs combination induced a statistically significant increase in gluconeogenesis and in protein catabolism when compared to the control groups.

Conclusion: The drugs combination is potentialized and capable of causing greater metabolic stress than the separate treatment with NTZ or FBZ, showing its potential for an alternative cysticercosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00263-6DOI Listing
August 2020

Does CO2 pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopy interfere with collagen deposition in abdominal surgical wounds?

Acta Cir Bras 2020 13;35(6):e202000605. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

School of Medicine, UnB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Purpose To determine by histomorphometric analysis whether CO2 pneumoperitoneum interferes with collagen deposition in surgical wounds in the aponeurosis of rats. Methods This experiment involved 80 male Wistar rats, randomly allocated into four groups according to pneumoperitoneum period (PRE: 30 min preoperatively; POST: 30 min postoperatively; PP: 30 min pre- and postoperatively; C: control group). CO2 pneumoperitoneum was insufflated to 5 mmHg of pressure. A laparotomy was performed; 1 cm of the left colon was then resected, and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed to simulate surgical trauma, after which the abdominal wall was closed. On postoperative days 7 or 14, a sample of the abdominal wall was collected, stained with picrosirius red and observed under polarized light in an optical microscope. The amount of collagen was estimated by computerized histomorphometric analysis. Results There were no significant differences in collagen deposition between the control and experimental groups on postoperative days 7 (p=0.720) or 14 (p=0.933). The amount of collagen increased as expected in all groups between postoperative days 7 and 14 (p=0.0003). Conclusion At 5 mmHg, CO2 pneumoperitoneum does not interfere with collagen deposition in abdominal wall surgical wounds in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020200060000005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357835PMC
September 2020

Nanodelivery of nitazoxanide: impact on the metabolism of cysticerci intracranially inoculated in mice.

Ther Deliv 2020 May 3;11(5):329-339. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Federal University of Goias Goiania, BR 74605-220, Brazil.

To formulate nanocapsules and nanoemulsions of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and evaluate the metabolic effect on cysticerci inoculated intracranially into mice. NTZ nanosystems were formulated through solvent diffusion methodology. These nanoformulations were administered perorally and their impact on glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid metabolism in cysticerci was investigated. Gluconeogenesis and protein catabolism were significantly increased by the nanoformulations when compared with the control group and the NTZ-treated group. All the other metabolic pathways were inhibited by the nanoformulation treatments. The remarkable metabolic modifications that occur in this model through the application of these developed nanosystems confirm their capability to deliver NTZ into targeted tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2020-0017DOI Listing
May 2020

Demyelination in experimental intraventricular neurocysticercosis.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2020 02;78(2):103-111

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Goiânia GO, Brazil.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is classified as a neglected tropical disease, which affects mainly Latin America and Africa in spite of some reports in North America and Europe. NCC represents the cause of up to 30% of the reported cases of epilepsy in endemic countries. The NCC injuries present direct relation to the development stage, location, and number of parasites as well as to the host immune response. This study aimed the characterization of the inflammatory response and tissue injuries by means of the analyses of the periventricular and parenchymatous demyelination through the experimental intraventricular NCC infection. Therefore, BALB/c mice were submitted to experimental NCC inoculation with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. Their brains were removed at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation (DAI), and analyzed after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl. It was possible to observe ventriculomegaly, inflammatory infiltration composed by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, and foamy macrophages. The presence of inflammatory cells was associated with neurodegeneration detected by the areas with demyelination observed initially in the periventricular area and lately in the parenchyma. In conclusion, the presence of cysticerci and the consequent inflammation were able to promote initial periventricular demyelination followed by parenchymatous demyelination as the infection progressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20190155DOI Listing
February 2020

Partial inhibition of the main energetic pathways and its metabolic consequences after treatment with benzimidazole derivatives in experimental neurocysticercosis.

Parasitology 2019 10 31;146(12):1578-1582. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Brazil.

Benzimidazole derivatives such as albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole are important molecules used in helminthic treatment. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of acquired epilepsy throughout the world and is currently treated with ABZ. New molecules have been studied in order to aid in the treatment of this neglected tropical disease, among them RCB15 and RCB20. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic impact of RCB15 and RCB20 on Taenia crassiceps cysticerci intracranially inoculated in Balb/c mice. Thirty days after the inoculation the mice were treated with 50 mg kg-1 of RCB15, RCB20, ABZ or NaCl 0.9%. The euthanasia and cysticerci removal were performed 24 h after the treatment. The cysticerci were analysed through high performance liquid chromatography. After the treatments, there was an impairment in the main energetic pathways such as glycolytic pathway, homolactic fermentation or in mitochondrion energy production detected through the decrease in pyruvate, lactate, oxaloacetate, malate and fumarate concentrations. This induced the parasite to resort to alternative energetic pathways such as proteins catabolism, propionate fermentation and fatty acids oxidation. Therefore, benzimidazole derivatives are a promising alternative to ABZ use as they also reach the brain tissue and induce a metabolic stress in the cysticerci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182019000933DOI Listing
October 2019

Facial trauma reconstruction with polymethyl methacrylate-A case report.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Dec 23;17(6):1037-1040. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Background: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a dermatologic filler commonly used in esthetic procedures. However, it can also be used in more severe cases such as reconstruction of facial traumas.

Aims: The aim of this report was to describe the use of PMMA in a nasal reconstruction of a patient victim of an automobilist accident which presented previous rejection of autograft.

Patient: A young female patient, 26 y, victim of automobilist accident, with no bone support due to trauma both in the mandibulum and maxilla, presented fracture of several facial bones. Presented rejection of a bone autograft from the skullcap implanted on the nose. In order to harmonize the facial aspect, a nasal fill with PMMA for the anatomic reconstruction of the nose was performed.

Results And Conclusions: PMMA promoted the recovery of facial and nasal esthetic characteristics of the patient ensuring a satisfactory result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12786DOI Listing
December 2018

Histopathologic aspects of experimental cysticercosis and in situ cytokines profile in C57BL/6 mice.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2018 May;76(5):339-345

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Instituto de Saúde Pública, Patologia Tropical, Goiânia GO, Brasil.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the parasitic infections that most affects the central nervous system. The knowledge regarding its immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology needs broadening. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci are used as the NCC experimental model. The aim of this work was to describe the general pathological processes and the in situ cytokine profile in C57BL/6 mice inoculated intracranially with viable T. crassiceps cysticerci. The histopathology analysis showed cysticerci in the extraparenchymal and intraventricular region, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration surrounding the parasite, microgliosis and meningitis. The analysis of the in situ immune profiles showed a predominance of the Th2 response. The IL-4 and IL-10 dosages were significantly increased in the infected group. The decrease in the INF-gamma dosage reflects the immunomodulation from the cysticerci. In conclusion, a T. crassiceps NCC infection in C57BL/6 mice triggers an inflammatory response, a predominance of Th2 type in situ profile, with mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, meningitis and microgliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20180032DOI Listing
May 2018

Antitumor effectiveness and mechanism of action of Ru(II)/amino acid/diphosphine complexes in the peritoneal carcinomatosis progression.

Tumour Biol 2017 Oct;39(10):1010428317695933

1 Laboratório de Genética Molecular e Citogenética, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil.

Peritoneal carcinomatosis is considered as a potentially lethal clinical condition, and the therapeutic options are limited. The antitumor effectiveness of the [Ru(l-Met)(bipy)(dppb)]PF(1) and the [Ru(l-Trp)(bipy)(dppb)]PF(2) complexes were evaluated in the peritoneal carcinomatosis model, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss mice. This is the first study that evaluated the effect of Ru(II)/amino acid complexes for antitumor activity in vivo. Complexes 1 and 2 (2 and 6 mg kg) showed tumor growth inhibition ranging from moderate to high. The mean survival time of animal groups treated with complexes 1 and 2 was higher than in the negative and vehicle control groups. The induction of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice led to alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters, and not the treatment with complexes 1 and 2. The treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice with complexes 1 and 2 increased the number of Annexin V positive cells and cleaved caspase-3 levels and induced changes in the cell morphology and in the cell cycle phases by induction of sub-G1 and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In addition, these complexes reduce angiogenesis induced by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. The treatment with the LAT1 inhibitor decreased the sensitivity of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells to complexes 1 and 2 in vitro-which suggests that the LAT1 could be related to the mechanism of action of amino acid/ruthenium(II) complexes, consequently decreasing the glucose uptake. Therefore, these complexes could be used to reduce tumor growth and increase mean survival time with less toxicity than cisplatin. Besides, these complexes induce apoptosis by combination of different mechanism of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010428317695933DOI Listing
October 2017

Nephroprotective effect of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth leaves on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Apr 24;201:100-107. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Laboratório de Fisiologia e Terapêutica Cardiovascular, ICB, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Electronic address:

Relevance: Rudgea viburnoides, popularly known as "congonha-de-bugre" or "erva de bugre", is used in folk medicine as hypotensive, blood depurative, anti-rheumatic, diuretic and in the treatment of kidney and bladder pain.

Aim: Based on the popularly acclaimed nephron-protective effect of R. viburnoides, we investigated, using rats, the protective effect of this plant extract on gentamicin-induced kidney injury.

Material And Methods: Urinary volume, water and food intakes were assessed in adult male Wistar rats (naive or gentamicin-induced model of nephrotoxicity) treated with R. viburnoides extract. Also blood and kidney samples were collected for further laboratory and histological analyses.

Results: R. viburnoides leaves extract improved renal function. It also improved the renal function impairments caused by gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, as revealed by glomerular filtration rate, urine output and proteinuria.

Conclusion: R. viburnoides exert renoprotective effect, which may support its popular use for renal diseases treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.035DOI Listing
April 2017

EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2016 07;58:55

Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute (UFG), rua 235 s/n, Setor Universitario 74650-050 Goiânia, GO, Brasil. E-mails:

Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI). All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c) or resistance (C57BL/6) were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946201658055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964324PMC
July 2016

Experimental infection of T4 Acanthamoeba genotype determines the pathogenic potential.

Parasitol Res 2016 Sep 11;115(9):3435-40. Epub 2016 May 11.

Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública (IPTSP), Universidade Federal de Goiás, Rua 235, s/n, Setor Universitário, Goiânia, GO, 74650-050, Brazil.

T4 is the Acanthamoeba genotype most related to cases of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) in immunocompromised patients and of keratitis in contact lens wearers. The determination of the pathogenic potential of Acanthamoeba clinical and environmental isolates using experimental models is extremely important to elucidate the capacity of free-living organisms to establish and cause disease in hosts. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the histopathology and culture between two different routes of experimental infection of T4 Acanthamoeba isolated from environmental and clinical source in mice (intracranial and intraperitoneal). Swiss isogenic healthy mice were inoculated with 10(4) trophozoites by intracranial (IC) and intraperitoneal (IP) routes and observed during 21 days. The brains from animals inoculated by the IC route were collected and from the animals of the IP inoculation group, the brains, livers, kidneys, spleens, and lungs were removed. The organs were prepared and appropriately divided to be evaluated with histopathology and culture. There was no significant difference between the inoculation routes in terms of isolates recovery (χ(2) = 0.09; p = 0.76). In the IC group, isolate recovery rate was significantly higher in histopathology than the one achieved by culture (χ(2) = 6.45; p < 0.01). Experimental infection revealed that all isolates inoculated could be considered invasive because it was possible to recover evolutive forms of Acanthamoeba in both routes. This work represents the first in vivo pathogenicity assay of primary isolation source in Central region of Brazil showing in vivo pathogenicity and hematogenous spread capacity of these protozoa, improving the knowledge on free-living amoebae isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5105-3DOI Listing
September 2016

Identification and Biological Characterization of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis Isolated from a Patient with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Goiás, a Nonendemic Area for This Species in Brazil.

Biomed Res Int 2015 25;2015:350764. Epub 2015 Oct 25.

Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Rua 235 S/N, Setor Universitário, 74605-050 Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to characterize clinical field isolates of Leishmania spp. obtained from patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) who live in Goiás state, Brazil. The presumed areas of infection were in Goiás, Tocantins, and Pará states. Three isolates of parasites were identified as L. (Viannia) braziliensis and one as L. (V.) guyanensis. The in vitro growth profiles were found to be similar for all parasites. Nevertheless, in C57BL/6 mice, L. (V.) guyanensis infection was better controlled than L. (V.) braziliensis. Yet in C57BL/6 mice deficient in interferon gamma, L. (V.) guyanensis lesions developed faster than those caused by L. (V.) braziliensis isolates. In BALB/c mice, the development of lesions was similar for isolates from both species; however, on the 11th week of infection, amastigotes could not be observed in macrophages from L. (V.) guyanensis-infected mice. Thus, L. (V.) guyanensis can be circulating in Goiás, a state where autochthonous cases of this species had not yet been reported. Considering the difficulties to differentiate L. (V.) guyanensis from L. (V.) braziliensis at the molecular, morphological, and clinical (human and murine models) levels, the presence of L. (V.) guyanensis infections is possibly underestimated in several regions of Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/350764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4637049PMC
August 2016

Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2014 Sep 29;25(9):2153-62. Epub 2014 Jun 29.

Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Rodovia GO 330, km 241 - Anel Viário, S/N, Ipameri, CEP 75.780-000, Brazil,

The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-014-5255-8DOI Listing
September 2014

Analysis of Spleen Cells in Susceptible and Resistant Mice with Experimental Lagochilascariosis.

ISRN Parasitol 2013 12;2013:180652. Epub 2012 Sep 12.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Parasitology and Pathology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Lagochilascariosis is an emerging parasitic disease caused by the helminth Lagochilascaris minor. The experimental mouse model has been used to study the immune response against L. minor infection. In the present work, immunohistochemistry analysis of spleen cells populations was evaluated in susceptible (C57BL/6) and resistant (BALB/c) mice experimentally infected with L. minor. The BALB/c mice exhibited increased spleen cell indexes as follows: F4/80+ at 100 days after infection (DPI), CD4+ at 100 and 250 DPI, CD8+ at 35 and 100 DPI, and CD19+ at 100, 150, and 250 DPI. In the spleens of the infected C57BL/6 mice, increased indexes of the following spleen cells were observed: F4/80+ cells at 250 DPI, CD4+ cells at 150 DPI, CD8+ cells at 35, 150, and 250 DPI, and CD19+ cells at 150 to 250 DPI. The index of spleen cells confirmed the differences between the control and infected groups at several time points following the infection. These data demonstrate an association between a preferential increase in the number of CD4+ and CD19+ spleen cells and resistance to experimental lagochilascariosis in BALB/c mice and between a preferential increase in the number of CD8+ spleen cells and susceptibility in C57BL/6 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/180652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4890894PMC
June 2016

Influence of gender on cardiac and encephalic inflammation in the elderly with cysticercosis: a case control study.

J Trop Med 2012 26;2012:540858. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Biological Sciences Department, General Pathology Discipline, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Disciplina de Patologia Geral, Rua Frei Paulino no. 30, Bairro Abadia CEP: 38025-180 Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Background. The present study explores the influence of the host's age and gender upon the inflammatory infiltrate. We aimed to quantify the inflammatory infiltrate caused by cysticercosis, which is related to aging, in the heart and in the encephalon. Methods. 75 autopsy protocols with cysticercosis diagnosis from department of pathology at a university hospital from 1970 to 2008 were reviewed. Two groups were formed: elderly with cysticercosis and nonelderly with cysticercosis. We used KS-300 (Kontron-Zeiss) software for morphometric analysis of the inflammation. Results. The elderly had an average of 3.1 ± 2.5 cysticerci, whereas the non-elderly had 2.7 ± 3.8 parasites. The non-elderly group with cysticercosis had significantly more inflammation, both cardiac and encephalic, than the elderly group. The elderly females with cysticercosis had more cardiac and encephalic inflammation. Conclusions. In this study, we showed that the non-elderly had significantly more cardiac and encephalic inflammation than the elderly, and that such inflammatory infiltrate decreases with age and depends upon the evolutionary stage of the cysticercus. Furthermore, there are differences concerning gender in the intensity of the inflammatory response due to cysticerci in the heart and brain parenchyma during senescence. Even during this period, women continue to have a more intense response to the parasitosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/540858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3463955PMC
October 2012

Effects of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) L. R. Landrum, on melanized and non-melanized Cryptococcus neoformans.

Mycopathologia 2012 Dec 30;174(5-6):421-8. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility and capsular width from both melanized and non-melanized Cryptococcus neoformans cells in the presence of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus crude extract were determined. The results were compared with those obtained for voriconazole and amphotericin B. Melanization was obtained in minimal medium broth with the addition of L-dopa, and the antifungal susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method. Capsular width of 30 cells of each one of the isolates in medium with crude extracts of P. pseudocaryophyllus or voriconazole or amphotericin B at a concentration corresponding to 0.5 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured, and the mean was calculated. The MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) for plant extract and voriconazole were identical for both melanized and non-melanized C. neoformans isolates, but for amphotericin, the MFCs for melanized cells were up to 8 times higher than for non-melanized cells. The capsular width of C. neoformans cells was smaller (p < 0.001) in the presence crude extract of P. pseudocaryophyllus and of voriconazole regardless melanization. The findings of capsule alterations of C. neoformans verified in this study provide fertile ways for future research into the effects of antifungal agents on the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-012-9574-3DOI Listing
December 2012

[People with vascular ulcers in outpatient nursing care: a study of sociodemographic and clinical variables].

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2012 Apr;46(2):302-10

Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Goiânia, Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with vascular ulcers and to investigate the association between these variables. This cross-sectional, observational clinical study was conducted in outpatient clinics from February to August 2009. Interview, clinical exam, Pressure Ulcer Scale Healing and photographic registry of the wounds were performed. Forty-two individuals participated who were, on average, 60 (± 12) years old, 73.8% males, with single wounds (66.7%) resulting from alterations in venous circulation (90.5%). Their wounds had lasted for up to one year (55.5%). There was an association between the PUSH score (p=0.019) and depth of wound (p=0.027) with currently performing occupational activity, as well as between history of tobacco use and gender (p=0.049). The sociodemographic characteristics that were observed were similar to the others, except for being male, which indicates the need for more studies in the population in Goiânia, Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0080-62342012000200006DOI Listing
April 2012

Fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy sources detected in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci after host treatment with antihelminthic drugs.

Exp Parasitol 2012 May 23;131(1):111-5. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Setor Universitário, Goiânia, Goiás CEP 74650-050, Brazil.

Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps is rare however it is considered of zoonotic risk. The treatment of the infected patients was successful when using albendazole or praziquantel. The active forms of albendazole inhibit the glucose uptake and the active forms of praziquantel alter glycogen levels and nutrients absorption. The aim of this study was to analyze the production of organic acids that indicate the oxidation of fatty acids and the use of alternative energy sources from T. crassiceps cysticerci removed from the peritoneal cavity of mice treated with low dosages of albendazole (5.75 and 11.5mg/kg) or praziquantel (3.83 and 7.67 mg/kg). The beta-hydroxibutyrate production was higher by the larval stage cysticerci in all treated groups and the propionate production was higher in final stage cysticerci treated with 11.5mg/kg of albendazole when compared to the control group. The larval stages of cysticerci from the groups treated with 5.75 mg/kg of albendazole and 3.83 mg/kg of praziquantel produced more urea than the initial and final stages which indicate amino acids breakdown. We conclude that it was possible to detect the fatty acid oxidation and amino acids breakdown which indicate the use of alternative energy production sources as the used dosages only cause a partial blockage of the glucose uptake and leads to metabolic alterations in the cysticerci. The metabolic behavior observed after host treatment was different from former descriptions of the in vitro one which indicates great host-parasite interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2012.03.017DOI Listing
May 2012

Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2012 Apr 24;70(4):287-92. Epub 2012 Feb 24.

Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Objectives: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship.

Methods: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions.

Results: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern.

Conclusions: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x2012005000010DOI Listing
April 2012

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 24;2012:375671. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Natural Products, Pharmacy Faculty, Federal University of Goiás, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/375671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270572PMC
August 2012

Healing activity of laser InGaAlP (660nm) in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Oct;26(5):373-8

UFG, Goiania, GO, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect the healing activity of diode laser Indium Gallium Aluminum Phosphorus (InGaAlP) ë660nm on healing of surgical wounds in rats.

Methods: Fifty-four female Wistar rats were used, divided into three groups (n=18) and subdivided into three subgroups (n=6) to be studied in 5, 10 and 15(th) days after surgical procedures. The wound was induced in the dorsal-cervical using punch. The lesions were irradiated on alternate days with InGaAlP laser, the energy densities of 3J/cm(2) (L3) or 6J/cm(2) (L6). The control group received no irradiation. At 5, 10 and 15(th) days after surgery the animals were euthanized and the repair area was removed and histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrossírius. We evaluated macroscopic and histological lesions in the times cited, as well as morphometric analysis of angiogenesis and collagen content.

Results: The wound healing activity InGaAlP laser was evidenced by increased angiogenesis group L3 and L6 in relation to control group (CG) at the 5(th) day (p=0.0001) and decreased polymorphonuclear infiltrate and hemorrhage (p=0.045 and p=0.07 respectively) in the groups L3 and L6 in relation to control group (GC). On the 10 and 15(th) days was also observed in groups treated with laser L3 and L6 stimulation was pronounced fibroplasia (p=0.0003 and p=0.034 respectively) when compared with the control group (CG).

Conclusion: The InGaAlP laser acted positively on the healing of skin wounds in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502011000500008DOI Listing
October 2011

Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Feb;26(1):19-24

Department of Pathology, UFG, Goias, Brazil.

Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant.

Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats.

Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors.

Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502011000100005DOI Listing
February 2011

Lagochilascaris minor: Susceptibility and Resistance to Experimental Infection in Mice Is Independent of H-2 Haplotype and Correlates with the Immune Response in Immunized Animals.

J Parasitol Res 2010 22;2010. Epub 2010 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Immunochemistry, Butantan Institute, 05503-900 São Paulo, Brazil.

Recently, we demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice are more susceptible to experimental lagochilascariosis than BALB/c mice. To investigate the pattern of infection and the role of the genetic background on susceptibility to infection, we studied experimental lagochilascariosis in H-2(a) identical B10.A and A/J mice. Infected B10.A mice had a lower survival ratio and more severe lesions in the lungs than did A/J mice. Splenocytes of A/J mice immunized with the crude extract of the parasite showed increased proliferation and produced a higher level of interleukin 10 and interferon-gamma in the presence of CE or concanavalin A when compared to B10.A mice. This suggests that resistance of A/J mice may be due to less severe lesions in lungs and other organs and a better immune response to parasite antigens. This paper provides evidence that major histocompatibility complex haplotype does not influence the survival to experimental infection with L. minor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/610457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915754PMC
July 2011

Taenia crassiceps: fatty acids oxidation and alternative energy source in in vitro cysticerci exposed to anthelminthic drugs.

Exp Parasitol 2009 Jul 5;122(3):208-11. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Institute from Federal, University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.

Cysticerci metabolic studies demonstrate alternative pathways responsible for its survival, such as energy sources, fatty acids oxidation and excretion of beta-hydroxybutyrate, which indicates the capability of energy production from proteins. The aim of this study was to detect alternative metabolic pathways for energy production and its end products in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole, in sub-lethal doses. Spectrophotometer and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect: propionate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, urea and creatinine, SE by cysticerci in vitro exposed to praziquantel and albendazole. The drugs influenced the metabolism by inducing the creatinine phosphate phosphorylation as an alternative energy source, inhibiting the use of proteins and amino acids in the acid nucleic synthesis; and preventing the budding and replication of the cysticerci. This study also highlights the description of urea excretion, which is an important metabolic pathway to excrete toxic products such as ammonia, and the fatty acid oxidation as an alternative energy source in cysticerci exposed to anthelmintic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2009.03.015DOI Listing
July 2009

Taenia crassiceps: energetic and respiratory metabolism from cysticerci exposed to praziquantel and albendazole in vitro.

Exp Parasitol 2008 Nov 25;120(3):221-6. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

Tropical Pathology and Public Health Institute at the Federal University of Goias, Anapolis, 74605-050 Goias, Brazil.

Praziquantel prevents glucose uptake, influencing energy metabolism, while albendazole selectively inhibits the uptake of glucose, leading to glycogen storage depletion in the parasite. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of glucose and organic acids related to energy and respiratory metabolisms in in vitro Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in the initial, larval and final stages exposed to sub lethal dosages of anti-helminthic drugs. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic analysis were performed to detect glucose, lactate, oxaloacetate, citrate, malate, fumarate and succinate secreted/excreted by in vitro cysticerci with 0.03 and 0.06 microg/mL of praziquantel and 0.05 and 0.075 microg/mL of albendazole. The anti-helminthic drugs decreased the excretion of lactate and induced aerobic energy pathways. Concentrations of glucose remained unaltered confirming blockage of its uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2008.07.008DOI Listing
November 2008

Lagochilascaris minor: experimental infection of C57BL/6 and BALB/c isogenic mice reveals the presence of adult worms.

Exp Parasitol 2008 Jul 26;119(3):325-31. Epub 2008 Mar 26.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Parasitology and Pathology (DMIPP), Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health (IPTSP), Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil.

The nematode Lagochilascaris minor is the causative agent of lagochilascariosis, a human disease that affects the neck region causing exudative abscesses with eggs, larvae, and adult parasites. Mice are currently considered intermediate hosts for the parasite. To determine the pattern of infection and the possibility of mice as definitive hosts for L. minor, experimental lagochilascariosis was studied in two distinct isogenic mouse strains: BALB/c and C57BL/6. Our results indicate that BALB/c mice are more resistant to L. minor infection than C57BL/6, having less intense lesions in the lungs, a lower number of nodules with encysted larvae and fewer adult worms, and displaying a higher serum level of IFN gamma. Both mouse strains had low levels of serum IL-10. We also observed adult parasites in both mouse strains, raising the possibility that mice are definitive hosts of L. minor. This is the first description of adult parasite development of L. minor in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2008.03.009DOI Listing
July 2008

Anatomopathological aspects of neurocysticercosis in autopsied patients.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007 Mar;65(1):87-91

General Pathology Disciplines, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberabe, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence and morphology of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in autopsies. We revised 2218 autopsies performed at the School Hospital from Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, 1970-2003. Data referring to age, gender and color of patients were reported and NCC was microscopically and macroscopically analyzed. We found 53 (2.4%) NCC cases. The mean age was 50 years old, 34 (64.1%) individuals were male and 36 (67.9%) white. Macroscopically, 17 cysticerci were analyzed. The most frequent location was meningocortical in 12 (70.6%) cases. Microscopically, the cysticerci presented an ovoid shape, containing the larvae preserved in 4 (23.5%) cases or in destruction degrees in 13 (76.5%) cases. Therefore, in NCC was found several general pathologic processes (necrosis, interstitial deposits, fibrosis, gliosis, inflammation) amongst which are highlighted beta-fibrillose in 13 (76.5%) cases associated to inflammatory process in 16 (94.1%) cases caused by the parasite, not yet related to NCC, and calcification present in viable and destruction parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x2007000100019DOI Listing
March 2007

[Developmental characteristics of Cysticercus cellulosae in the human brain and heart].

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2002 Nov-Dec;35(6):617-22. Epub 2003 Feb 26.

Disciplina de Patologia Geral, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brasil.

The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cysticercosis, to classify the developmental phases of cysticerci found in human brains and hearts, and differentiate these according to the macro and microscopic aspects of the general pathological processes, and to compare the process found in the brains and hearts. Protocols from autopsies performed at the Hospital of the School of Medicine of the Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil, in the period from 1970 to 2000 were reviewed. The prevalence of cysticercosis was verified in 71 cases, of which 53 (74.6%) were encephalic cysticercosis and 18 (25.3%) cardiac cysticercosis. Nineteen cysticerci were analyzed, from 9 brains and 10 hearts. The cysticerci were classified according to their developmental stage: vesicular, colloidal vesicular, granular nodular and calcified nodular, with similarities between the macroscopic and microscopic diagnoses. Among the pathological processes found beta-fibrilosis and endocardial fibroelastosis are underscored. In addition, it was demonstrated that this classification may be applied both to encephalic and cardiac cysticercosis.
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May 2003