Publications by authors named "Ruud Valyasevi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biogenic amine formation in Nham, a Thai fermented sausage, and the reduction by commercial starter culture, Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546.

Food Chem 2011 Dec 11;129(3):846-53. Epub 2011 May 11.

Food Biotechnology Research Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phaholyothin Rd., Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Biogenic amines are of concern for sausage due to their toxicological effects on nervous, blood pressure, gastric and intestinal systems. In this study, the influence of raw pork meat quality and starter culture inoculation on biogenic amines accumulation in Nham, a Thai traditional fermented pork, were studied. Before Nham processing, pork meat was stored at 30°C for 6h, and at 4 and -20°C for 2days. Formation of biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, histamine and tyramine) was significantly higher in Nham processed from stored meat. Accumulation of these biogenic amines in Nham reduced significantly by the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546, a commercial Nham starter culture. The results highlight the importance of using fresh meat products and the inclusion of an appropriate starter culture to minimise the formation of biogenic amines during the process of Nham fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.033DOI Listing
December 2011

Isolation and characterization of acid-sensitive Lactobacillus plantarum with application as starter culture for Nham production.

Food Microbiol 2010 Sep 30;27(6):741-8. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The aim of this study was to derive new starter culture variants that are unable to grow below pH 4.6, the desirable pH of the Thai fermented pork sausage, Nham, specified by Thailand Food Standard, and apply them in Nham fermentation. Several acid-sensitive mutants of one of the commercial Nham starter cultures, Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546, were isolated as spontaneous neomycin-resistant mutants. The growth of three representative mutants was characterized in MRS broth, which revealed that their cell numbers and acid production were lower than that of the wild-type. The H(+)-ATPase activities of the three mutants were found significantly lower than that of the wild-type under either neutral or acidic conditions. Consequently, internal pH values of the mutants appeared to be lower, especially in acidic environment (pH 5). The most acid-sensitive mutant was applied in experimental Nham production and the pH of Nham fermented with the mutant had significantly higher pH at the end of fermentation (3 days) and after an additional 4 days of storage at 30 degrees C. These results indicate that the use of acid-sensitive L. plantarum as starter culture can reduce the severity of post-acidification and increase the shelf life of Nham at ambient temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2010.03.014DOI Listing
September 2010

Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and associated risk factors in Nham, a Thai fermented pork product.

Food Microbiol 2009 Aug 5;26(5):547-51. Epub 2009 Mar 5.

Food Biotechnology Laboratory, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens causing food-borne disease worldwide. Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) pre-formed in the implicated food. In this study, the incidences of S. aureus and classical SEs (SEA-SEE) contamination in 'Nham', a traditional Thai fermented pork product, were determined. Among 155 Nham samples tested, as high as 39.35% of the samples were positive for S. aureus (2-3500 MPN/g), but none were positive for the SEs. The risk factors for S. aureus contamination were highly correlated with the manufacturer and the pH of the product. A predictive model determined the probability of the presence of S. aureus to be < or = 0.24 at the pH < or = 4.6. During the fermentation process, the number of S. aureus slightly increased in the first day and decreased afterward. S. aureus counts continued to decrease when Nham was stored refrigerated. The negative result for enterotoxins and low counts of S. aureus in Nham surveyed in this study, and reduction of the pathogen counts during fermentation and storage suggested that there is very low risk of staphylococcal food poisoning from consuming properly fermented Nham.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.02.009DOI Listing
August 2009

Monitoring Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546 starter culture during fermentation of Nham, a traditional Thai pork sausage.

Int J Food Microbiol 2009 Feb 16;129(3):312-5. Epub 2008 Dec 16.

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

The use of Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 9546 (LpBCC9546) as a starter culture for Nham, a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage ensures product quality and consistency. However, no direct evidence has confirmed the growth of this starter during Nham fermentation. In order to investigate its role during Nham fermentation, LpBCC9546 was genetically modified to distinguish it from the natural microflora in Nham. LpBCC9546 was transformed with a recombinant plasmid pRV85 to produce the recombinant strain LpG11, which is resistant to erythromycin and emits green fluorescence. LpG11 was used as a starter culture for Nham fermentation, and its growth was monitored by plating on a selective medium and assay of fluorescent activity. During Nham fermentation the numbers of LpG11 increased ten fold during the first 12 h of fermentation, reaching maximum numbers of between 10(7) and 10(8) cfu g(-1) after 24 h, and then declining after 60 h to 10(5) cfu g(-1) at 168 h. The growth of LpG11 starter culture during Nham fermentation was very similar to that of the untransformed LpBCC9546, although after a prolonged period of fermentation the recombinant LpG11 bacteria appeared to lose the plasmid, or were outgrown by naturally present L. plantarum. The acidity, texture and color of fermented Nham inoculated with recombinant LpG11 or untransformed LpBCC9546 were similar. These results indicated that the recombinant L. plantarum strain LpG11 is a suitable starter culture for Nham fermentation, and that the ability to monitor its growth directly during Nham fermentation could be exploited to further improve Nham production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.12.011DOI Listing
February 2009

Isolation and characterization of acid-sensitive mutants of Pediococcus acidilactici.

Food Microbiol 2009 Feb 3;26(1):82-7. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

Food Biotechnology Laboratory, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 113 Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Acid-sensitive mutants of Pediococcus acidilactici BCC 9545, a starter culture of the Thai fermented pork sausage nham, were isolated as spontaneous neomycin resistant mutants. The mutants generally produced less acid and acidified the culture media less than the parent strain in a 72 h culturing period. Interestingly, the ATPase activities of the mutants did not differ considerably from that of the parent strain in acidic conditions. It was also found that the internal pH values of the mutant strains were somewhat lower in neutral environment, while at pH 5.0 their internal pHs were significantly lower compared to the parent's. Inhibiting the H(+)-ATPase activities in energized cells by N,N'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide also revealed that protons were leaking from the mutants at neutral pH, which increased under acidic conditions. In contrast, the parent strain exhibited a smaller proton leak and only under acidic conditions. The membrane fatty acid analysis of the mutants indicated that under acidic conditions the mutants had a significantly smaller major unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio ((C(18:1)+C(18:3n6))/(C(16:0)+C(18:0))) compared to the parent strain's membrane. Taken together, these observations suggest there is a reasonable possibility that the membrane fatty acid profile differences in the mutants resulted in their acid-sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2008.08.006DOI Listing
February 2009

Natrinema gari sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from fish sauce in Thailand.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008 Oct;58(Pt 10):2378-83

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped, halophilic archaea, designated strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1, were isolated from anchovy fish sauce (nam-pla) collected from two different locations in Thailand. The two strains were able to grow at 20-60 degrees C (optimum 37-40 degrees C), at 1.7-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.4 M NaCl) and at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 6.0-6.5). Hypotonic treatment with less than 1.7 M NaCl caused cell lysis. The major polar lipids of the isolates were C(20)C(20) and C(20)C(25) derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, two glycolipids and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C contents were 64.0-65.4 mol%. In addition to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 were related most closely to species of the genus Natrinema. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 and the type strains of recognized Natrinema species were 99.1-96.6 %. The two novel strains could be distinguished from recognized Natrinema species on the basis of low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness and differences in whole-cell protein patterns and phenotypic properties. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness between the two strains were 99.7 and 77.7 %, respectively, suggesting that they should be classified as representing a single species. Based on these taxonomic data, strains HIS40-3(T) and HDS3-1 are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Natrinema, for which the name Natrinema gari sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HIS40-3(T) (=BCC 24370(T) =JCM 14663(T) =PCU 303(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.65644-0DOI Listing
October 2008

Halobacterium piscisalsi sp. nov., from fermented fish (pla-ra) in Thailand.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008 Sep;58(Pt 9):2136-40

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, extremely halophilic archaeon, designated strain HPC1-2(T), was isolated from pla-ra, a salt-fermented fish product of Thailand. Strain HPC1-2(T) was able to grow at 20-60 degrees C (optimum at 37-40 degrees C), at 2.6-5.1 M NaCl (optimum at 3.4-4.3 M NaCl) and at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.0-7.5). Hypotonic treatment with less than 1.7 M NaCl caused cell lysis. The major polar lipids of the isolate were C(20)C(20) derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerol phosphate, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, triglycosyl diether, sulfated triglycosyl diether and sulfated tetraglycosyl diether. The G+C content of the DNA was 65.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus Halobacterium in the family Halobacteriaceae. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain HPC1-2(T) was related most closely to Halobacterium salinarum DSM 3754(T) (99.2%) and Halobacterium jilantaiense JCM 13558(T) (97.8%). However, low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness suggested that strain HPC1-2(T) was genotypically different from these closely related type strains. Strain HPC1-2(T) could also be differentiated based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, strain HPC1-2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium piscisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HPC1-2(T) (=BCC 24372(T)=JCM 14661(T)=PCU 302(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.65592-0DOI Listing
September 2008

An overview of small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries with special reference to Thailand: scope for their improvement.

Int J Food Microbiol 2002 May;75(3):231-9

National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok, Thailand.

Small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries have evolved through years of experience rather than through scientific breakthroughs. Many small-scale manufacturers are, therefore, reluctant to accept change and modify fermentation processes. Upgrading the quality and safety of fermented foods, while reducing their production cost and maintaining their authenticity and uniqueness, is of utmost importance. One strategic approach, which has been successfully implemented for the improvement of small-scale soy sauce fermentation in Thailand, is the consortium approach. This approach has allowed industry to work closely in sharing knowledge and common problems, which in turn has provided scientists with the research direction that would best benefit the industry. This consortium approach has brought about changes in the methodologies used in the production of soy sauce, by shortening processing times, introducing fiberglass tanks as bioreactors instead of the traditionally used small earthenware containers and introducing cost-effective waste management systems. One barrier to the application of starter cultures in the small-scale fermentation industry is the loss of uniqueness of fermented products. However, the advent of molecular biology techniques has allowed science to tailor starter cultures to the specific requirements of the manufacturer. Using the techniques of molecular biology, it has been shown that microflora of a specific product vary according to origin and sensory quality. A cell bank is being developed to serve as a resource base for Thai fermented pork sausage in order to facilitate the application of starter cultures in the manufacture of that product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(01)00711-5DOI Listing
May 2002