Publications by authors named "Russell Bouwman"

7 Publications

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Pharmacological Inhibition of β3 Integrin Reduces the Inflammatory Toxicities Caused by Oncolytic Adenovirus without Compromising Anticancer Activity.

Cancer Res 2015 Jul 14;75(14):2811-21. Epub 2015 May 14.

Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom.

Adenoviruses have been clinically tested as anticancer therapies but their utility has been severely limited by rapid, systemic cytokine release and consequent inflammatory toxicity. Here, we describe a new approach to tackling these dangerous side effects. Using human ovarian cancer cell lines as well as malignant epithelial cells harvested from the ascites of women with ovarian cancer, we show that tumor cells do not produce cytokines in the first 24 hours following in vitro infection with the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947. In contrast, dl922-947 does induce inflammatory cytokines at early time points following intraperitoneal delivery in mice with human ovarian cancer intraperitoneal xenografts. In these animals, cytokines originate predominantly in murine tissues, especially in macrophage-rich organs such as the spleen. We use a nonreplicating adenovirus to confirm that early cytokine production is independent of adenoviral replication. Using β3 integrin knockout mice injected intraperitoneally with dl922-947 and β3 null murine peritoneal macrophages, we confirm a role for macrophage cell surface β3 integrin in this dl922-947-induced inflammation. We present new evidence that co-administration of a cyclic RGD-mimetic-specific inhibitor of β3 integrin significantly attenuates the cytokine release and inflammatory hepatic toxicity induced by dl922-947 in an intraperitoneal murine model of ovarian cancer. Importantly, we find no evidence that β3 inhibition compromises viral infectivity and oncolysis in vitro or anticancer efficacy in vivo. By enabling safe, systemic delivery of replicating adenoviruses, this novel approach could have a major impact on the future development of these effective anticancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-3761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506788PMC
July 2015

Human immunodeficiency virus Tat associates with a specific set of cellular RNAs.

Retrovirology 2014 Jul 3;11:53. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) exhibits a wide range of interactions with the host cell but whether viral proteins interact with cellular RNA is not clear. A candidate interacting factor is the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein. Tat is required for expression of virus genes but activates transcription through an unusual mechanism; binding to an RNA stem-loop, the transactivation response element (TAR), with the host elongation factor P-TEFb. HIV-1 Tat has also been shown to alter the expression of host genes during infection, contributing to viral pathogenesis but, whether Tat also interacts with cellular RNAs is unknown.

Results: Using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis, we have discovered that HIV-1 Tat is associated with a specific set of human mRNAs in T cells. mRNAs bound by Tat share a stem-loop structural element and encode proteins with common biological roles. In contrast, we do not find evidence that Tat associates with microRNAs or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The interaction of Tat with cellular RNA requires an intact RNA binding domain and Tat RNA binding is linked to an increase in RNA abundance in cell lines and during infection of primary CD4+ T cells by HIV.

Conclusions: We conclude that Tat interacts with a specific set of human mRNAs in T cells, many of which show changes in abundance in response to Tat and HIV infection. This work uncovers a previously unrecognised interaction between HIV and its host that may contribute to viral alteration of the host cellular environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-11-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086691PMC
July 2014

Short RNAs are transcribed from repressed polycomb target genes and interact with polycomb repressive complex-2.

Mol Cell 2010 Jun;38(5):675-88

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London W1T 4JF, UK.

Polycomb proteins maintain cell identity by repressing the expression of developmental regulators specific for other cell types. Polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27me3). Although repressed, PRC2 targets are generally associated with the transcriptional initiation marker H3K4me3, but the significance of this remains unclear. Here, we identify a class of short RNAs, approximately 50-200 nucleotides in length, transcribed from the 5' end of polycomb target genes in primary T cells and embryonic stem cells. Short RNA transcription is associated with RNA polymerase II and H3K4me3, occurs in the absence of mRNA transcription, and is independent of polycomb activity. Short RNAs form stem-loop structures resembling PRC2 binding sites in Xist, interact with PRC2 through SUZ12, cause gene repression in cis, and are depleted from polycomb target genes activated during cell differentiation. We propose that short RNAs play a role in the association of PRC2 with its target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2010.03.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2886029PMC
June 2010

PI3K(p110 alpha) protects against myocardial infarction-induced heart failure: identification of PI3K-regulated miRNA and mRNA.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010 Apr;30(4):724-32

Ramaciotti Centre for Gene Function Analysis, University of New South Wales, Randwick, Australia.

Objective: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious complication of atherosclerosis associated with increasing mortality attributable to heart failure. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K(p110 alpha)] is considered a new strategy for the treatment of heart failure. However, whether PI3K(p110 alpha) provides protection in a setting of MI is unknown, and PI3K(p110 alpha) is difficult to target because it has multiple actions in numerous cell types. The goal of this study was to assess whether PI3K(p110 alpha) is beneficial in a setting of MI and, if so, to identify cardiac-selective microRNA and mRNA that mediate the protective properties of PI3K(p110 alpha).

Methods And Results: Cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic mice with increased or decreased PI3K(p110 alpha) activity (caPI3K-Tg and dnPI3K-Tg, respectively) were subjected to MI for 8 weeks. The caPI3K-Tg subjected to MI had better cardiac function than nontransgenic mice, whereas dnPI3K-Tg had worse function. Using microarray analysis, we identified PI3K-regulated miRNA and mRNA that were correlated with cardiac function, including growth factor receptor-bound 14. Growth factor receptor-bound 14 is highly expressed in the heart and positively correlated with PI3K(p110 alpha) activity and cardiac function. Mice deficient in growth factor receptor-bound 14 have cardiac dysfunction.

Conclusions: Activation of PI3K(p110 alpha) protects the heart against MI-induced heart failure. Cardiac-selective targets that mediate the protective effects of PI3K(p110 alpha) represent new drug targets for heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.201988DOI Listing
April 2010

The transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3 control alternative pathways of T-cell differentiation through a shared set of target genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Oct 5;106(42):17876-81. Epub 2009 Oct 5.

MRC/UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom.

Upon detection of antigen, CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can differentiate into a number of effector types that tailor the immune response to different pathogens. Alternative Th1 and Th2 cell fates are specified by the transcription factors T-bet and GATA-3, respectively. Only a handful of target genes are known for these two factors and because of this, the mechanism through which T-bet and GATA-3 induce differentiation toward alternative cell fates is not fully understood. Here, we provide a genomic map of T-bet and GATA-3 binding in primary human T cells and identify their target genes, most of which are previously unknown. In Th1 cells, T-bet associates with genes of diverse function, including those with roles in transcriptional regulation, chemotaxis and adhesion. GATA-3 occupies genes in both Th1 and Th2 cells and, unexpectedly, shares a large proportion of targets with T-bet. Re-complementation of T-bet alters the expression of these genes in a manner that mirrors their differential expression between Th1 and Th2 lineages. These data show that the choice between Th1 and Th2 lineage commitment is the result of the opposing action of T-bet and GATA-3 at a shared set of target genes and may provide a general paradigm for the interaction of lineage-specifying transcription factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909357106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764903PMC
October 2009

Increased glucose production in mice overexpressing human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008 Nov 9;295(5):E1132-41. Epub 2008 Sep 9.

Department of Medicine, Austin Health and Northern Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Heights, Australia.

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) predominantly from the liver is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes, which positively correlates with fasting hyperglycemia. Gluconeogenesis is the biochemical pathway shown to significantly contribute to increased EGP in diabetes. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulated enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is increased in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. However, whether a specific increase in liver FBPase can result in increased EGP has not been shown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of upregulated liver FBPase in glucose homeostasis. To achieve this goal, we generated human liver FBPase transgenic mice under the control of the transthyretin promoter, using insulator sequences to flank the transgene and protect it from site-of-integration effects. This resulted in a liver-specific model, as transgene expression was not detected in other tissues. Mice were studied under the following conditions: 1) at two ages (24 wk and 1 yr old), 2) after a 60% high-fat diet, and 3) when bred to homozygosity. Hemizygous transgenic mice had an approximately threefold increase in total liver FBPase mRNA with concomitant increases in FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels. After high-fat feeding, hemizygous transgenics were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates (P < 0.02). Furthermore, when bred to homozygosity, chow-fed transgenic mice showed a 5.5-fold increase in liver FBPase levels and were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates, with a significantly higher rate of EGP (P < 0.006). This is the first study to show that FBPase regulates EGP and whole body glucose homeostasis in a liver-specific transgenic model. Our homozygous transgenic model may be useful for testing human FBPase inhibitor compounds with the potential to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.90552.2008DOI Listing
November 2008

Protective effects of exercise and phosphoinositide 3-kinase(p110alpha) signaling in dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Jan 3;104(2):612-7. Epub 2007 Jan 3.

Experimental Cardiology and Heart Failure Division, Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne 8008, Australia.

Physical activity protects against cardiovascular disease, and physiological cardiac hypertrophy associated with regular exercise is usually beneficial, in marked contrast to pathological hypertrophy associated with disease. The p110alpha isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a critical role in the induction of exercise-induced hypertrophy. Whether it or other genes activated in the athlete's heart might have an impact on cardiac function and survival in a setting of heart failure is unknown. To examine whether progressive exercise training and PI3K(p110alpha) activity affect survival and/or cardiac function in two models of heart disease, we subjected a transgenic mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) to swim training, genetically crossed cardiac-specific transgenic mice with increased or decreased PI3K(p110alpha) activity to the DCM model, and subjected PI3K(p110alpha) transgenics to acute pressure overload (ascending aortic constriction). Life-span, cardiac function, and molecular markers of pathological hypertrophy were examined. Exercise training and increased cardiac PI3K(p110alpha) activity prolonged survival in the DCM model by 15-20%. In contrast, reduced PI3K(p110alpha) activity drastically shortened lifespan by approximately 50%. Increased PI3K(p110alpha) activity had a favorable effect on cardiac function and fibrosis in the pressure-overload model and attenuated pathological growth. PI3K(p110alpha) signaling negatively regulated G protein-coupled receptor stimulated extracellular responsive kinase and Akt (via PI3K, p110gamma) activation in isolated cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that exercise and enhanced PI3K(p110alpha) activity delay or prevent progression of heart disease, and that supraphysiologic activity can be beneficial. Identification of genes important for hypertrophy in the athlete's heart could offer new strategies for treating heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0606663104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1766433PMC
January 2007