Publications by authors named "Rupert M Bauersachs"

32 Publications

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of acute limb ischemia (ALI), a thrombotic event associated with amputation, disability, and mortality. Prior lower extremity revascularization (LER) is associated with increased ALI risk in chronic PAD. However, the pattern of risk, clinical correlates, and outcomes after ALI early after LER are not well-studied, and effective therapies to reduce ALI post-LER are lacking. VOYAGER PAD (NCT02504216) randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo on a background of low-dose aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of ALI, major amputation of vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. ALI was prospectively ascertained and adjudicated by a blinded committee. The cumulative incidence of ALI was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and associated confidence intervals. Analyses were performed as intention-to-treat. Among 6,564 patients followed for a median of 2.3 years, 382 (5.8%) had a total of 508 ALI events. In placebo patients, the 3-year cumulative incidence of ALI was 7.8%. After multivariable modeling, prior LER, baseline ABI <0.50, surgical LER, and longer target lesion length were associated with increased risk of ALI. Incident ALI was associated with subsequent all-cause mortality (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.98-3.39) and major amputation (HR 24.87, 95% CI 18.68-33.12). Rivaroxaban reduced ALI relative to placebo by 33% (absolute risk reduction 2.6% at 3 years, HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, P=0.0001), with benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85, P=0.0068 at 30 days). Benefit was present for severe ALI (associated with death, amputation, or prolonged hospitalization and ICU stay, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, P=0.003) and regardless of LER type (surgical vs endovascular revascularization, p-interaction=0.42) or clopidogrel use (p-interaction=0.59). After LER for symptomatic PAD, ALI is frequent, particularly early after LER, and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduces ALI after LER, including ALI events associated with the most severe outcomes. The benefit of rivaroxaban for ALI appears early, continues over time, and is consistent regardless of revascularization approach or clopidogrel use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055146DOI Listing
October 2021

[Superficial Vein Thrombosis].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Oct 22;146(19):1237-1242. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Klinik für Gefäßmedizin - Angiologie, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH.

Epidemiology And Risk Factors:  A large German registry on superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) documents that risk profiles, clinical presentation and treatment patterns are highly variable in patients with SVT, including a large variation in anticoagulation treatment modalities, intensities and durations. Inspite of a high percentage of initial anticoagulation there is a substantial risk of subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE), recurrences or extension after three months. Inspite of current guideline recommendations, one third of the patients receives heparins, oral anticoagulants or no anticoagulation at all. At initial presentation about one quarter of the patients with SVT have a concomitant, frequently asymptomatic VTE. Risk factors for this complication include prior hospitalization, immobilization, prior VTE, autoimmune disorders, higher age, cancer and SVT occurring in a non-varicose veins or SVT-extension into the perforator veins. These risk factors are also associated with thromboembolic complications during follow-up.

Treatment:  Based on a large placebo-controlled trial with clinical endpoints (The CALISTO-Study), guidelines recommend Fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily administered over 4 to 6 weeks. Alternatively, an intermediate dose of low molecular weight heparin can be considered. In high-risk patients, rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily was noninferior compared to Fondaparinux. A rebound of VTE recurrences was observed in both study arms after treatment had been discontinued after 45 days. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment needs to be extended beyond 45 days in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1286-2153DOI Listing
October 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Total Ischemic Event Reduction With Rivaroxaban After Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul 16;78(4):317-326. Epub 2021 May 16.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities) trial demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the total burden of vascular events in patients with PAD after LER and the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or aspirin alone. The primary endpoint was time to first event of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The current analysis considered all events (first and subsequent) for components of the primary endpoint as well as additional vascular events including peripheral revascularizations and venous thromboembolism. HRs were estimated by marginal proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 6,564 randomized events, there were 4,714 total first and subsequent vascular events including 1,614 primary endpoint events and 3,100 other vascular events. Rivaroxaban reduced total primary endpoint events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.02) and total vascular events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; P = 0.003). An estimated 4.4 primary and 12.5 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with rivaroxaban over 3 years.

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic PAD who are undergoing LER have a high total event burden that is significantly reduced with rivaroxaban. Total event reduction may be a useful metric to quantify the efficacy of rivaroxaban in this setting. (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Reply to "The VOYAGER PAD Trial in Surgical Perspective: A Debate".

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 05 1;61(5):723-724. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.02.051DOI Listing
May 2021

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 11;383(21):2090-2091

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2030413DOI Listing
November 2020

Survival and quality of life after early discharge in low-risk pulmonary embolism.

Eur Respir J 2021 02 4;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Emergency Dept, Clinico San Carlos Hospital, IdISSC, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality-of-life outcomes.

Methods: The multinational Home Treatment of Patients with Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism with the Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Rivaroxaban (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to 3-month recurrence (primary outcome) and 1-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (PEmb-QoL) questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L) scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS)) after pulmonary embolism.

Results: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%, one-sided upper 95% CI 1.3%) patients. The 1-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean±sd PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. The EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 at 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age was associated with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 points at 3 months (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02368-2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 28;382(21):1994-2004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

From Colorado Prevention Center (CPC) Clinical Research (M.P.B., M.R.N., W.H.C., L.D., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (M.P.B., C.N.H., W.R.H.), the Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery (M.R.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology (W.H.C.), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health (J.M.K.) - all in Aurora; the Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, and Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz (R.M.B.), the Department of Vascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery-Angiology-Endovascular Therapy, University of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (E.S.D.), and Bayer, Wuppertal (A.F.P., E.M.) - all in Germany; the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences and McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (S.S.A.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, NC (M.R.P.); the Vascular and Interventional Radiology Department, Careggi University Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy (F.F.); Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine (I.G.); B-A-Z County University Teaching Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary (L.M.); University of Latvia, Pauls Stradins University Hospital, Riga (D.K.K.); ECLA (Estudios Clínicos Latino América), ICR (Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario), Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); the Division of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (M.B.); and Janssen Research and Development, Raritan (L.P.H.), and Thrombosis Group Head, Clinical Development, Bayer U.S., Whippany (S.D.B.) - both in New Jersey.

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease who have undergone lower-extremity revascularization are at high risk for major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in this context are uncertain.

Methods: In a double-blind trial, patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone revascularization were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin or placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding, defined according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) classification; major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was a secondary safety outcome.

Results: A total of 6564 patients underwent randomization; 3286 were assigned to the rivaroxaban group, and 3278 were assigned to the placebo group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 508 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 584 in the placebo group; the Kaplan-Meier estimates of the incidence at 3 years were 17.3% and 19.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.96; P = 0.009). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 44 patients in the placebo group (2.65% and 1.87%; hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.97 to 2.10; P = 0.07). ISTH major bleeding occurred in 140 patients in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 100 patients in the placebo group (5.94% and 4.06%; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.84; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with peripheral artery disease who had undergone lower-extremity revascularization, rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin was associated with a significantly lower incidence of the composite outcome of acute limb ischemia, major amputation for vascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes than aspirin alone. The incidence of TIMI major bleeding did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of ISTH major bleeding was significantly higher with rivaroxaban and aspirin than with aspirin alone. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; VOYAGER PAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02504216.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000052DOI Listing
May 2020

Oral Anticoagulation in the Elderly and Frail.

Hamostaseologie 2020 Feb 30;40(1):74-83. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.

The proportion of elderly patients will increase substantially over the next decades, and both atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are more common in the elderly. Age is a risk factor not only for stroke and thromboembolism but also for bleeding, particularly in frail patients, in whom numerous pathophysiological changes occur that alter drug kinetics and toxicity of standard doses of oral anticoagulants (OACs). AF trials showed that the relative benefits of direct OACs (DOACs) also applied to elderly patients, and due to their higher risk this translates into a higher absolute risk reduction compared with vitamin K antagonists, suggesting that DOACs are the better choice. All DOACs-at varying extent-are eliminated via the kidney and it is crucial to evaluate renal function at initiation and during follow-up, especially for dabigatran. The fear of falls is a common reason against OAC. However, there is still a benefit with OAC, particularly with DOACs given the lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Polypharmacy represents a common challenge, nevertheless DOACs and warfarin were classified as beneficial. Nonetheless, attempts should be undertaken to reduce comedication, and drug-drug interactions should be assessed. Coadministration of platelet inhibitors increases bleeding risk and should be avoided. In conclusion, elderly and frail patients requiring anticoagulation for AF or VTE are at higher risk of adverse outcomes, but also have a higher absolute benefit from OAC. Important practical aspects to improve efficacy and safety in this challenging population are summarized in this overview.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701476DOI Listing
February 2020

Early discharge and home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban: an international multicentre single-arm clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 01;41(4):509-518

Helios Albert-Schweitzer-Klinik, Albert-Schweitzer-Weg 1, 37154 Northeim, Germany.

Aims: To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban.

Methods And Results: We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for ≥3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of α = 0.004 (<6 primary outcome events). From May 2014 through June 2018, consecutive patients were enrolled in seven countries. Of the 525 patients included in the interim analysis, three (0.6%; one-sided upper 99.6% confidence interval 2.1%) suffered symptomatic non-fatal VTE recurrence, a number sufficiently low to fulfil the condition for early termination of the trial. Major bleeding occurred in 6 (1.2%) of the 519 patients comprising the safety population. There were two cancer-related deaths (0.4%).

Conclusion: Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz367DOI Listing
January 2020

Women, thrombosis, and cancer: A gender-specific analysis.

Thromb Res 2017 Mar;151 Suppl 1:S21-S29

Department of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Rambam Health Care Campus, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major common complication in cancer patients. Risk-adapted thromboprophylaxis and antithrombotic therapy for patients diagnosed with VTE can reduce the recurrence of VTE events. Thrombotic risk varies according to cancer type, stage, and comorbidities. The current review analyzes most recent data and provides clinical guidance for the management of women with cancer-associated thrombosis.

Highlights:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(17)30062-2DOI Listing
March 2017

Post-thrombotic syndrome in patients treated with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonists for acute deep-vein thrombosis. A post-hoc analysis.

Thromb Haemost 2016 Sep 1;116(4):733-8. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Y. W. Cheung, MD, Department of Vascular Medicine, F4-143, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Tel.: +31 20 5665976, Fax: +31 20 5669343, E-mail:

Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a common complication of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Poor quality treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is a risk factor for PTS. We hypothesised that treatment with the direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) rivaroxaban may lower PTS incidence as compared to enoxaparin/VKA, as DOACs have a more stable pharmacologic profile than VKA. We performed a post-hoc subgroup analysis of the Einstein DVT trial (n=3449). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare the cumulative incidence of PTS between the rivaroxaban and enoxaparin/VKA groups. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. We included 336 patients with a mean age of 58 ± 16 years and a median follow-up after index DVT of 57 months (interquartile range 48-64). Of these, 162 (48 %) had been treated with rivaroxaban and 174 (52 %) with enoxaparin/VKA. The cumulative PTS incidence at 60 months follow-up was 29 % in the rivaroxaban group and 40 % in the enoxaparin/VKA group. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, previous VTE, ipsilateral recurrent DVT, extent of DVT, idiopathic DVT, duration of anticoagulant treatment, compliance to assigned study medication, elastic compression stocking use and active malignancy, the HR of PTS development for rivaroxaban was 0.76 (95 % CI: 0.51-1.13). In conclusion, treatment of acute DVT with rivaroxaban was associated with a numerically lower but statistically non-significant risk of PTS compared to enoxaparin/VKA treatment. The potential effect on reducing PTS deserves evaluation in a large randomised trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH16-01-0041DOI Listing
September 2016

LMWH in cancer patients with renal impairment - better than warfarin?

Thromb Res 2016 Apr;140 Suppl 1:S160-4

Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Department of Vascular Medicine, Darmstadt, Germany; Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, which are known to have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for VTE. The anticoagulant treatment of VTE in cancer patients is less effective with a three-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared to non-cancer patients, and it is less safe with more than double rates of major bleeding. Compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKA), long-term secondary prevention with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and therefore, current international guidelines recommend the use of LMWH over VKA. With increasing age, cancer prevalence and VTE incidence increase while renal function decreases. Anti-cancer treatment may impair renal function additionally. Therefore, renal insufficiency is a frequent challenge in CAT patients, which is associated with a higher risk of both bleeding and recurrent VTE. Both VKA and LMWH may be associated with less efficacy and higher bleeding risk in renal insufficiency. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective data on renal insufficiency and CAT. A recent sub-analysis from a large randomized controlled trial shows that the bleeding risk in patients with severe renal insufficiency in CAT is not elevated with the use of LMWH compared to VKA while efficacy is maintained. In addition, LMWH treatment has several practical advantages over VKA, particularly in patients with CAT while they are receiving anti-cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(16)30116-5DOI Listing
April 2016

[Renal impairment in patients with thromboembolic event: prevalence and clinical implications. A systematic review of the literature].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2015 Aug 25;140(17):e166-74. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Institut für Pharmakoökonomie und Arzneimittellogistik an der Hochschule Wismar.

Background And Study Objectives: The assessment of the renal function of patients with a deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (VTE patients) is of utmost importance for the selection/dosage of an agent in the initial anticoagulation management of these patients because the majority of available anticoagulants are cleared renally. Specifically, there is a high risk of drug accumulation and subsequent bleedings in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Consequently, specific recommendations have been made for the initial anticoagulation management of these patients in both product labels and AWMF treatment recommendations: some drugs should not be used in these patients, for other drugs a careful use, intensified screening (anti-Xa), or, in the case of enoxaparin, a dose-adjustment are recommended.This literature review aimed to answer the following questions: · What is the prevalence of renal insufficiency in VTE patients?. · Which data are available with regard to the real-world initial anticoagulation management and corresponding clinical outcomes (recurrent VTE events, bleedings, mortality) of these patients?

Methodology: We did a systematic review of existing publications in german or english published in 2004-2014. Only quantitative analyses have been included in the review.

Results: We identified 1,135 publications, 37 of them were included in our review. The prevalence of renal insufficiency in VTE patients, defined as CrCl < 60 ml / min, was reported to be 12.3 %-71.9 % related to all VTE patients. The prevalence of severe renal insufficiency, defined as CrCl < 30 ml / min, was reported to be 3,3 %-13,6 %. The substantial ranges in reported prevalences are mainly due to differences in the characteristics of patients addressed in the different publications.A CrCl < 30 ml / min is an independent predictor for both mortality and lethal recurrent pulmonary embolism, possibly also for severe bleedings in VTE patients. In addition to that, a severe renal insufficiency may also be a predictor for the probability that a first VTE event occurs.Several anticoagulants approved for the initial anticoagulation management of VTE patients face the risk of drug accumulation in renally insufficent patients. So, for example, a standard enoxaparin dosage was shown to be associated with elevated bleeding risk compared to adjusted enoxaparin dosage in renally insufficient patients. However, similar data do not exist for other low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) or unfractioned heparins (UFHs). Only for two LMWHs, Certoparin and Tinzaparin, safety data with regard to renally insufficient patients have been published so far.None of the included studies showed advantages of UFH therapy in comparison to LMWH therapy in initial anticoagulation management of VTE patients. In contrast to that, available evidence shows disadvantageous efficacy/safety of UFH in comparison to LMWH treatment. However, this evidence is not based on head-to-head comparisons but is derived from registry and observational study data only.

Conclusion: A detailed knowledge of product labels is of utmost importance in the inital anticoagulation treatment of VTE patients because several agents may not be used in the addressed patients with severe renal insufficiency at all while others may be used based on specific dosage/surveillance schemes only. We also recommend to critically appraise the current AWMF treatment guideline because it still recommends initial anticoagulation management with UFHs in VTE patients with severe renal insufficiency. Available data do not support that recommendation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-103168DOI Listing
August 2015

Guidelines for the management of cancer and thrombosis - Special aspects in women.

Thromb Res 2015 Feb 9;135 Suppl 1:S16-22. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Vascular Medicine, Medical Department IV, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, D-64283 Darmstadt, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer is associated with unfavorable prognosis, and VTE treatment is less effective and more complicated in cancer patients. Several women specific aspects related to the underlying cancer type and VTE management need to be considered.

Methods: Guidelines on VTE prevention and treatment in cancer patients issued from several international bodies are reviewed with respect to women specific recommendations, and general guideline recommendations are summarized.

Results: All guidelines recommend an initial parenteral treatment, preferably with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), while fondaparinux or unfractionated heparin (UFH) can also be used. Long-term treatment, comprising 3 to 6 months after initial anticoagulation should preferably be performed with LMWH, or vitamin K antagonists (VKA), if LMWH is not available. For extended treatment beyond six months, there are no specific recommendations due to lack of evidence, and anticoagulation can be performed with LMWH or VKA. Novel or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been studied in several trials in comparison to VKA in VTE patients, including 3-9% cancer patients. While NOACs showed comparable efficacy and safety to VKA in those cancer patients, results from trials comparing NOACs with LMWH are not available. Because of the paucity of data, there are no guideline recommendations for women specific cancer types or women specific issues in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

Conclusions: While there is agreement on general VTE management in cancer patients across different international guidelines, there is insufficient guidance on many women specific aspects commonly encountered during clinical practice. Future trials are required that specifically and prospectively address women specific issues in the management of VTE in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(15)50434-9DOI Listing
February 2015

Prevalence of renal insufficiency in hospitalised patients with venous thromboembolic events: a retrospective analysis based on 6,725 VTE patients.

Thromb Res 2014 Nov 9;134(5):1014-9. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Institute for Pharmacoeconomics and Medication Logistics, Philipp-Müller-Str. 12, Wismar, Germany.

Renal impairment (RI) is an important factor in the selection of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolic event (VTE) patients. In particular, the risk of bleeding events is higher for VTE patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 30 mL/min. The aim of this study was to collect data on the prevalence of RI in hospitalised VTE patients in Germany. Furthermore, we investigated how renal function changed during inpatient treatment. We conducted a retrospective chart review in six German hospitals. All patients with a VTE diagnosis who were treated as inpatients from 2007-2011 were included. Patients were categorised according to their renal function. RI was estimated from serum creatinine values. Persistent RI was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <30 mL/min over at least 72 hours. Renal function could be determined for 5,710 VTE patients. Of these 21.4% had an eGFR>90 mL/min, 38.1% had an eGFR of 60-89 mL/min, 17.3% had an eGFR of 45-59 mL/min, 12.5% had an eGFR of 30-44 mL/min, 7.2% had an eGFR of 15-29 mL/min and 3.6% of the VTE patients had end-stage renal disease. Persistent severe RI was observed in 74.8% of patients with an eGFR <30 mL/min. Overall, 40.6% of the VTE patients investigated had an eGFR <60 mL/min; 10.8% had an eGFR <30 mL/min. Almost three quarters of RI-VTE patients suffered from persistent severe RI. These results suggest that more than one in ten VTE patients is exposed to a high risk of accumulating anticoagulants; most of these RI patients also face an increased risk of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.09.003DOI Listing
November 2014

Managing venous thromboembolism with novel oral anticoagulants in the elderly and other high-risk patient groups.

Eur J Intern Med 2014 Sep 25;25(7):600-6. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Department of Vascular Medicine, Grafenstraße 9, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany; Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

The novel oral anticoagulants represent a new era of anticoagulation for patients with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These agents may offer advantages to patients in whom the use of traditional anticoagulants is typically challenging, such as elderly patients, patients with renal impairment and those with low body weight. Currently, rivaroxaban and dabigatran are the only approved novel oral anticoagulants for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. It is likely that additional agents will become available in the near future. This review summarises recent phase III data for these agents, focusing, where possible, on results obtained in frail patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2014.05.017DOI Listing
September 2014

Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonist therapy in patients with venous thromboembolism and renal impairment.

Thromb J 2014 24;12:25. Epub 2014 Nov 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Patients with renal impairment receiving classical anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at increased risk of bleeding and possibly pulmonary embolism. We examined the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban in patients with VTE with and without renal impairment.

Methods: Prespecified subgroup analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies comparing fixed-dose rivaroxaban with enoxaparin/a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), performed in 8246 patients enrolled from 2007 to 2011 in 314 hospitals.

Results: Outcomes were recurrent VTE and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients with normal renal function (n = 5569; 67.3%) or mild (n = 2037; 24.6%), moderate (n = 636; 7.7%), or severe (n = 21; 0.3%) renal impairment. Rates of recurrent VTE were 1.8%, 2.8%, 3.3%, and 4.8% in patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively (ptrend = 0.001). Hazard ratios for recurrent VTE were similar between treatment groups across renal function categories (pinteraction = 0.72). Major bleeding in rivaroxaban recipients occurred in 0.8%, 1.4%, 0.9%, and 0%, respectively (ptrend = 0.50). Respective rates in enoxaparin/VKA recipients were 1.0%, 3.0%, 3.9%, and 9.1% (ptrend < 0.001). Rivaroxaban-enoxaparin/VKA hazard ratios were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-1.36) for normal renal function, 0.44 (95% CI 0.24-0.84) for mild renal impairment, and 0.23 (95% CI 0.06-0.81) for moderate renal impairment (pinteraction = 0.034).

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic VTE and renal impairment are at increased risk of recurrent VTE. Renal impairment increased the risk of major bleeding in enoxaparin/VKA-treated patients but not in rivaroxaban-treated patients.

Trial Registration: NCT00440193 and NCT00439777.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-9560-12-25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351845PMC
March 2015

Clinical presentation of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2012 Sep 31;25(3):243-51. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Vascular Medicine, Medical Department IV, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: In the past, the clinical diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) had been very challenging, because clinical presentation is non-specific and inaccurate.

Objective: To review and assess clinical signs, symptoms and risk factors of DVT and PE and identify most common differential diagnoses.

Results: Important components for the clinical diagnosis of VTE include risk factors such as immobilization, presence of cancer, confinement to bed, previous major surgery, prior VTE and - specific for DVT - whole limb enlargement, one-sided calf enlargement and dilatation of superficial veins. Additional items specific for PE include tachycardia, dyspnea chest pain and hemoptysis. Many of these clinical characteristics are included into clinical prediction rules, such as the Wells pre-test probability score for DVT or PE or the Geneva score for PE. These scores are used to determine the pre-test probability for VTE and they constitute the basis for a diagnostic algorithm. Various clinical prediction rules for DVT or PE show comparable accuracy.

Conclusion: Even though the clinical presentation of DVT and PE varies substantially in individual patients and settings and may be misleading, diagnostic prediction rules based on clinical presentation and risk factors are very useful to assess pre-test probability, which is a very important concept for the diagnosis of DVT and PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beha.2012.07.004DOI Listing
September 2012

Use of anticoagulants in elderly patients.

Thromb Res 2012 Feb 19;129(2):107-15. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany.

Thromboembolic disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and the risk of thromboembolism increases with age. Anticoagulants are recommended for indications including the prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgical and medical patients, treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Traditional anticoagulants that have been used include unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux and vitamin K antagonists. However, these agents are all associated with drawbacks (i.e. parenteral administration or frequent coagulation monitoring/dose titration), and it has been particularly challenging to treat elderly patients with anticoagulants. Some specific characteristics of elderly patients may influence the safety of anticoagulant therapy, such as decreased renal function, co-morbidities and the use of multiple medications. The complexity of anticoagulation therapy and the increased risk of bleeding complications in elderly patients may prevent some physicians from prescribing anticoagulants to these patients, which leaves them at risk of thromboembolic events. Thus, safer and more convenient anticoagulants are needed, particularly for elderly patients. New oral anticoagulants have been developed in recent years and have shown promise in clinical studies that included elderly patients. These agents could simplify the management of thromboembolic disorders and improve the safety of anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2011.09.013DOI Listing
February 2012

Fondaparinux for the treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis in the legs.

N Engl J Med 2010 Sep;363(13):1222-32

INSERM CIE3, F-42055, EA3065 Université Jean-Monnet, and Service de Médecine et Thérapeutique, Centre Hôpitalier Universitaire Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France.

Background: The efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment for patients with acute, symptomatic superficial-vein thrombosis in the legs, but without concomitant deep-vein thrombosis or symptomatic pulmonary embolism at presentation, have not been established.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 3002 patients to receive either fondaparinux, administered subcutaneously at a dose of 2.5 mg once daily, or placebo for 45 days. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death from any cause or symptomatic pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, or symptomatic extension to the saphenofemoral junction or symptomatic recurrence of superficial-vein thrombosis at day 47. The main safety outcome was major bleeding. The patients were followed until day 77.

Results: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 13 of 1502 patients (0.9%) in the fondaparinux group and 88 of 1500 patients (5.9%) in the placebo group (relative risk reduction with fondaparinux, 85%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 74 to 92; P<0.001). The incidence of each component of the primary efficacy outcome was significantly reduced in the fondaparinux group as compared with the placebo group, except for the outcome of death (0.1% in both groups). The rate of pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis was 85% lower in the fondaparinux group than in the placebo group (0.2% vs. 1.3%; 95% CI, 50 to 95; P<0.001). Similar risk reductions were observed at day 77. A total of 88 patients would need to be treated to prevent one instance of pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis. Major bleeding occurred in one patient in each group. The incidence of serious adverse events was 0.7% with fondaparinux and 1.1% with placebo.

Conclusions: Fondaparinux at a dose of 2.5 mg once a day for 45 days was effective in the treatment of patients with acute, symptomatic superficial-vein thrombosis of the legs and did not have serious side effects. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00443053.)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0912072DOI Listing
September 2010

Impact of gender on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of deep-vein thrombosis.

Thromb Haemost 2010 Apr 19;103(4):710-7. Epub 2010 Feb 19.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Darmstadt Municipal Hospital, Darmstadt, Germany.

It is uncertain whether gender influences the clinical presentation of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and the discriminative value of the Wells diagnostic pretest probability score. The aim of the study was to determine whether gender impacts the clinical presentation and diagnosis of DVT. The study analysed a cohort of 4,976 outpatients with clinically suspected DVT of the leg prospectively recruited by 326 vascular medicine physicians in the German ambulatory care sector between October and December 2005. The diagnosis of DVT was based on compression ultrasonography in 96% of patients. Among 4,777 patients who had a diagnostic work-up for DVT there were more women (n=2,998) than men (n=1,779). However, the prevalence of confirmed DVT was 37.0% (658/1779) in men vs. 24.3% (730/2,998) in women (p<0.001). Among patients with confirmed DVT, proximal DVT was more common in men (59.6% vs. 44.5% in women, p<0.001). Swelling of the leg, pitting oedema and dilated superficial veins were more frequently reported by men (p<0.001). The percentage of patients with a high probability Wells clinical pretest score was higher in men than in women (67.0% vs. 57.0%, p<0.001). However, overall, the score equally discriminated risk groups for DVT in both sexes. In conclusion, women were more frequently referred for a diagnostic work-up for DVT than men, but the prevalence of DVT was higher in men and their thrombotic events were more severe. Nevertheless, the Wells clinical pretest probability score correctly identified low- and high-risk groups in both genders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH09-10-0705DOI Listing
April 2010

Treatment of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy.

Thromb Res 2009 ;123 Suppl 2:S45-50

Medical Department IV, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: Acute VTE occurs with an incidence of 1-2/1,000 during pregnancy and is associated with an acute mortality of 1-2%. However, data on VTE treatment during pregnancy are sparse: Even though 50 cases occur daily in the EU and US, a recent review identified only 174 cases in the literature.

Acute Treatment: Standard treatment is LMWH at therapeutic doses or APTT-adjusted UFH. LMWH is at least as safe and effective as UFH in non-pregnant patients. In pregnancy, LMWH is the preferred option, because it offers better bioavailability, fewer injections, superior safety regarding HIT and osteoporosis. LONG-TERM TREATMENT: VKA are contraindicated because of teratogenicity and thus heparin is used for secondary prevention. Since UFH requires therapeutic doses throughout pregnancy, carrying the risk of osteoporosis, LMWH is the drug of choice. In a recent review most patients were treated initially with LMWH, predominately with twice daily injections. Recurrent VTE occurred in 1.2%, bleeding in 1.7%, with no HIT. Whether the long-term dose of LMWH can be reduced remains unresolved: Intermediate dose LMWH has been used effectively in cancer patients, who - like pregnant women - continue to have a high pro-thrombotic burden after the initial phase.

Conclusion: Even though acute VTE is not uncommon and represents a life-threatening event during pregnancy, data are sparse, and prospective trial data are needed to answer open questions concerning treatment modalities. Nevertheless, it is evident that LMWH is the preferred option for treatment of VTE during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(09)70010-6DOI Listing
May 2009

Effect of lanthanum on red blood cell deformability.

Biorheology 2007 ;44(5-6):361-73

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Prior reports describing the effects of lanthanum (La(3+)) on red blood cells (RBC) have focused on the effects of this lanthanide on cell fusion or on membrane characteristics (e.g., ion movement across membrane, membrane protein aggregation); the present study explores its rheological and biophysical effects. Normal human RBC were exposed to La(3+) levels up to 200 microM then tested for: (1) cellular deformability using a laser-based ektacytometer and an optical-based rheoscope; (2) membrane viscoelastic behavior via micropipettes; (3) surface charge via micro electrophoresis. La(3+) concentrations of 12.5 to 200 microM caused dose-dependent decreases of deformability that were greatest at low stresses: these rheological changes were completely reversible upon removing La(3+) from the media either by washing with La(3+)-free buffer or by suspending La(3+)-exposed cells in La(3+)-free media (i.e., viscous dextran solution). Both membrane shear elastic modulus and membrane surface viscosity were increased by 25-30% at 100 or 200 microM. As expected, La(3+) decreased RBC electrophoretic mobility (EPM), with EPM inversely but not linearly associated with deformability; changes of EPM were also completely reversible. These results thus indicate novel aspects of RBC cellular and membrane rheological behavior yet raise questions regarding specific mechanisms responsible for La(3+)-induced alterations.
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December 2008

Risk stratification and heparin prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism in pregnant women.

Thromb Haemost 2007 Dec;98(6):1237-45

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.

Women with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE), thrombophilia or both may be at increased risk of thrombosis during pregnancy, but the optimal management strategy is not well defined in clinical guidelines because of limited trial data. A strategy of risk assessment and heparin prophylaxis was evaluated in pregnant women at increased risk of VTE. In a prospective trial (Efficacy of Thromboprophylaxis as an Intervention during. Gravidity [EThIG]), 810 pregnant women were assigned to one of three management strategies according to pre-defined risk factors related to history of VTE and thrombophilic profile. Low-risk women (group I), received 50-100 IU dalteparin/kg body weight/day for 14 days postpartum, or earlier when additional risk factors occurred. Women at high (group II) or very high risk (group III) received dalteparin from enrollment until six weeks postpartum (50-100 IU and 100-200 IU/kg/day, respectively). Objectively confirmed, symptomatic VTE occurred in 5/810 women (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 1.5%) (group I, 0 of 225; II, 3/469; III, 2/116). The rate of serious bleeding was 3.0% (95 % CI, 1.9 to 4.4%); 1.1% (95 % CI, 0.5 to 2.2%) was possibly dalteparin-related. There was no evidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, one case of osteoporosis, and rates of miscarriage and stillbirth were similar to previous, retrospective studies. Risk-stratified heparin prophylaxis was associated with a low incidence of symptomaticVTE and few clinically important adverse events. Antepartum heparin prophylaxis is, therefore, warranted in pregnant women with idiopathic thrombosis or symptomatic thrombophilia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/th07-05-0329DOI Listing
December 2007

Periprocedural bridging therapy in patients receiving chronic oral anticoagulation therapy.

Curr Med Res Opin 2006 Jun;22(6):1109-22

Clinical Thrombosis Center, Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.

Background: In patients receiving chronic oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) it may be necessary to temporarily discontinue VKA therapy to allow surgery or other invasive procedures to be performed, as maintaining treatment may increase the risk of bleeding during the procedure. This, however, creates a clinical dilemma, since discontinuing VKAs may place the patient at risk of thromboembolism.

Scope: We undertook a systematic narrative review of patients on chronic oral anticoagulation, requiring a periprocedural bridging therapy with heparin during invasive procedures.

Findings And Recommendations: For patients requiring temporary discontinuation of VKA, current guidelines recommend the use of 'bridging' therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients considered to be at intermediate-to-high risk of thromboembolism, such as those with prosthetic heart valves or atrial fibrillation. Recent studies show that LMWHs are associated with low rates of thromboembolism and, when compared with UFH, are as effective and safe as UFH when used as periprocedural bridging therapy in such patients. LMWHs also offer advantages such as ease of administration and predictable anticoagulant effects. Moreover, outpatient-based periprocedural bridging therapy with LMWH has been shown to result in significant cost savings compared with in-hospital UFH.

Conclusions: The decision to provide bridging therapy requires careful consideration of the relative risks of thromboembolism and bleeding in each patient. Based upon the studies reviewed we recommend a therapeutic dose of UFH or LMWH for patients at intermediate-to-high thromboembolic risk requiring interruption of VKA, especially for low bleeding risk procedures. We would like to propose upgrading the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guideline recommendations from 2C to 1C. However, there is still a need for a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of the available bridging strategies, including heparin and placebo comparators, in preventing thromboembolism for specific patients and procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/030079906X104858DOI Listing
June 2006

[Treatment options in deep vein thrombosis].

MMW Fortschr Med 2005 Nov;147(47):40-2, 44-6

Medizinische Klinik IV Max-Ratschow-Klinik für Angiologie Städtisches Klinikum Darmstadt.

In the event of a deep vein thrombosis, the major concern is to prevent the subsequent development of an embolism or a recurrence. The therapeutic time gap to the development of the full effect of the vitamin K antagonists is bridged in the initial acute treatment phase with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. In patients in whom vitamin K antagonists are contraindicated, or in pregnancy, secondary prophylaxis is alternatively continued with dose-adjusted LMWH. Compression therapy serves merely to prevent a post-thrombotic syndrome.
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November 2005
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