Publications by authors named "Rupert Bauersachs"

139 Publications

Safety and Effectiveness of Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Devices in Peripheral Artery Revascularization: Insights From VOYAGER PAD.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Nov;78(18):1768-1778

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Paclitaxel drug-coated devices (DCDs) were developed to improve lower extremity revascularization (LER) patency in peripheral artery disease (PAD) but have been associated with long-term mortality.

Objectives: This study assessed DCD safety and effectiveness in LER for PAD.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) randomized patients with PAD who underwent LER to rivaroxaban or placebo. The primary VOYAGER PAD study efficacy and safety outcomes were composite cardiovascular and limb events and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. For prespecified DCD analyses, primary safety and effectiveness outcomes were mortality and unplanned index limb revascularization (UILR). Major adverse limb events (MALE) were a secondary outcome. Inverse probability treatment weighting was used to account for each subject's propensity for DCD treatment. Effects of rivaroxaban were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 4,316 patients who underwent LER, 3,478 (80.6%) were treated for claudication, and 1,342 (31.1%) received DCDs. Median follow-up was 31 months, vital status was ascertained in 99.6% of patients, and there were 394 deaths. After weighting, DCDs were not associated with mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83-1.09) or MALE (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.90-1.30) but were associated with reduced UILR (3-year Kaplan-Meier: 21.5% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.92). Irrespective of DCD use, consistent benefit of rivaroxaban for composite cardiovascular and limb events (P = 0.88) and safety of rivaroxaban with respect to bleeding (P = 0.57) were observed.

Conclusions: In >4,000 patients with PAD who underwent LER, DCDs were not associated with mortality or MALE but were associated with persistent reduction in UILR. These findings provide insight into the safety and effectiveness of DCDs in PAD. (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.08.052DOI Listing
November 2021

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of acute limb ischemia (ALI), a thrombotic event associated with amputation, disability, and mortality. Prior lower extremity revascularization (LER) is associated with increased ALI risk in chronic PAD. However, the pattern of risk, clinical correlates, and outcomes after ALI early after LER are not well-studied, and effective therapies to reduce ALI post-LER are lacking. VOYAGER PAD (NCT02504216) randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo on a background of low-dose aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of ALI, major amputation of vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. ALI was prospectively ascertained and adjudicated by a blinded committee. The cumulative incidence of ALI was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and associated confidence intervals. Analyses were performed as intention-to-treat. Among 6,564 patients followed for a median of 2.3 years, 382 (5.8%) had a total of 508 ALI events. In placebo patients, the 3-year cumulative incidence of ALI was 7.8%. After multivariable modeling, prior LER, baseline ABI <0.50, surgical LER, and longer target lesion length were associated with increased risk of ALI. Incident ALI was associated with subsequent all-cause mortality (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.98-3.39) and major amputation (HR 24.87, 95% CI 18.68-33.12). Rivaroxaban reduced ALI relative to placebo by 33% (absolute risk reduction 2.6% at 3 years, HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, P=0.0001), with benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85, P=0.0068 at 30 days). Benefit was present for severe ALI (associated with death, amputation, or prolonged hospitalization and ICU stay, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, P=0.003) and regardless of LER type (surgical vs endovascular revascularization, p-interaction=0.42) or clopidogrel use (p-interaction=0.59). After LER for symptomatic PAD, ALI is frequent, particularly early after LER, and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduces ALI after LER, including ALI events associated with the most severe outcomes. The benefit of rivaroxaban for ALI appears early, continues over time, and is consistent regardless of revascularization approach or clopidogrel use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055146DOI Listing
October 2021

Detection of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patient Urine Samples by Prototype and Commercial Test Strips for DOACs - A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

TH Open 2021 Jul 24;5(3):e438-e448. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Medical Statistics and Biomathematics, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

The DOAC Dipstick accurately detects the presence or absence of factor Xa (DXI) and thrombin inhibitor (DTI) classes of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients' urine samples on DOAC treatment. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature and compare the performance of prototype and commercial test strips with a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of electronic databases PubMed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane Library was performed. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using the Chi-squared test and the I index. A random effects model was used to pool data to compare the performance of prototype and commercial test strips. Using PRISMA reporting guidelines, four of 1,081 publications were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis: three reporting on prototype (DXI  = 658, DTI  = 586) and one on commercial test strips (DXI  = 451, DTI  = 429). Sensitivity and specificity of DXI and DTI detection did not differ significantly between the prototype and commercial test strips. Odds ratios were 0.718 and 0.365 for sensitivity and 1.211 and 1.072 for specificity of DXI and DTI (p-values between 0.3334 and 1.000), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity values for DXI were 0.968 (  = 0.1290, I 47.1%) and 0.979 (  = 0.1965, I 35.9%), and for DTI 0.993 (  = 0.1870, I 37.5%) and 0.993 (  = 0.7380, I 0%), respectively. Prototype and commercial DOAC test strips did not differ in their ability to detect DXI and DTI in patient urine samples. This supports the confidence in use of the DOAC Dipstick test, although it needs to be validated in specific patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1732437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463133PMC
July 2021

[Superficial Vein Thrombosis].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 Oct 22;146(19):1237-1242. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Klinik für Gefäßmedizin - Angiologie, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH.

Epidemiology And Risk Factors:  A large German registry on superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) documents that risk profiles, clinical presentation and treatment patterns are highly variable in patients with SVT, including a large variation in anticoagulation treatment modalities, intensities and durations. Inspite of a high percentage of initial anticoagulation there is a substantial risk of subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE), recurrences or extension after three months. Inspite of current guideline recommendations, one third of the patients receives heparins, oral anticoagulants or no anticoagulation at all. At initial presentation about one quarter of the patients with SVT have a concomitant, frequently asymptomatic VTE. Risk factors for this complication include prior hospitalization, immobilization, prior VTE, autoimmune disorders, higher age, cancer and SVT occurring in a non-varicose veins or SVT-extension into the perforator veins. These risk factors are also associated with thromboembolic complications during follow-up.

Treatment:  Based on a large placebo-controlled trial with clinical endpoints (The CALISTO-Study), guidelines recommend Fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily administered over 4 to 6 weeks. Alternatively, an intermediate dose of low molecular weight heparin can be considered. In high-risk patients, rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily was noninferior compared to Fondaparinux. A rebound of VTE recurrences was observed in both study arms after treatment had been discontinued after 45 days. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment needs to be extended beyond 45 days in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1286-2153DOI Listing
October 2021

Apixaban and Dalteparin for the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Different Sites of Cancer.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Internal Vascular and Emergency Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) may vary in patients with different cancer sites. We evaluated the rates of VTE recurrence and major bleeding and the relative efficacy and safety of 6-month treatment with oral apixaban or subcutaneous dalteparin in patients with different cancer sites randomized in the Caravaggio study. Primary cancer was located at gastrointestinal sites in 375 patients (32.5%), lung in 200 (17.3%), breast in 155 (13.4%), genitourinary sites in 139 (12%), gynecological sites in 119 (10.3%), and was hematological in 85 patients (7.4%). Rates of VTE recurrence were 10.9% in patients with gynecological, 8.8% with gastrointestinal, 6.5% with genitourinary, and 5.5% with lung cancer with lower rates in the other sites of cancer. Rates of major bleeding were 7.2% in patients with genitourinary and 4.8% with gastrointestinal cancer, with lower rates in patients with other sites of cancer. The observed absolute risk difference in VTE recurrence in favor of apixaban was 11.9% in patients with gynecological, 5.5% with lung, 3.7% with genitourinary cancer, and 0.6% with gastrointestinal cancer. None of the risk differences was statistically significant. The rates of major bleeding in patients treated with apixaban or dalteparin was similar across patients with different cancer sites. In conclusion, recurrences appear to be more common in patients with gastrointestinal and gynecological cancer and major bleedings in patients with genitourinary and gastrointestinal cancer. Oral apixaban is a valid oral alternative to subcutaneous dalteparin for the treatment of a large spectrum of patients with cancer-associated VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1735194DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban Compared with Other Therapies Used in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization: A Systematic Literature Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Cardiovasc Ther 2021 24;2021:8561350. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The guidelines on antithrombotic treatment in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing peripheral revascularization of the lower extremities were developed based on heterogeneous trials, assessing various dose regimens and recruiting patients who were subjected to different revascularization procedures.

Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of treatments used in patients with PAD undergoing peripheral revascularization accounting for between-trial heterogeneity and large dispersion of the quality of evidence.

Methods: A systematic literature review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adult patients with PAD receiving antithrombotics was conducted until January 2020. Hazard ratios (HR) were pooled using Bayesian network meta-analysis. The estimated between-treatment effects were presented as HR together with 95% credible intervals. The base case analysis included studies recruiting patients following recent peripheral revascularization, who received treatment regimens administered within the recommended therapeutic window, while a sensitivity scenario included all identified trials.

Results: Thirteen RCTs were identified (8 RCTs enrolled patients following peripheral revascularization and 5 RCTs regardless of the previous revascularization). Five trials, recruiting an overall of 8349 patients, were considered for the base case analysis. Of those, 6564 patients were recruited in the VOYAGER PAD trial comparing rivaroxaban plus aspirin (RIV plus ASA) versus ASA. RIV plus ASA was associated with a lower risk of repeated peripheral revascularization versus ASA monotherapy (HR = 0.88 [0.79, 0.99]), however having a trend towards an increased rate of major bleeding (HR = 1.43 [0.98, 2.11]). There was no evidence for differences between RIV plus ASA and dual antiplatelet therapy and vitamin K antagonists plus ASA. Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: RIV plus ASA is associated with reduced risk of revascularization compared with ASA monotherapy, but the evidence for other comparators, in particular antiplatelet regimens, was insufficient to guide treatment decisions and highlights the challenge in establishing the magnitude of comparative efficacy using existing RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8561350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407972PMC
November 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with peripheral artery disease: a meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER trials.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13001 E 17th Pl, Boulder, Colorado 80045, USA.

Aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients suffer a high risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events, with athero-thrombo-embolism as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. Recently, two large randomized clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose rivaroxaban twice daily plus aspirin in stable PAD outpatients and those immediately after peripheral revascularization. We sought to determine if the effects of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone are consistent across this broad spectrum of PAD patients.

Methods And Results: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER randomized trials among 11 560 PAD patients (4996 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) in the primary analysis and 9332 (2768 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) with lower extremity (LE)-PAD in the secondary analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or major vascular amputation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.95) comparing low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin to aspirin alone. While the risk of major bleeding was increased with low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared to aspirin alone [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)], there was no significant increase in severe bleeding [HR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.76)]. Similar effects were observed in the subset with symptomatic LE-PAD.

Conclusions: Among PAD patients, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in reducing CV and limb outcomes including acute limb ischaemia and major vascular amputation. This reduction is offset by a relative increase in major bleeding, but not by an excess of fatal or critical organ bleeding. The consistency of findings of these trials supports the use of combination low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in PAD patients across a broad spectrum of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab128DOI Listing
August 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Renal function and clinical outcome of patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism randomized to receive apixaban or dalteparin. Results from the Caravaggio trial.

Haematologica 2021 08 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Internal, Vascular and Emergency Medicine - Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia.

The effect of renal impairment (RI) on risk of bleeding and recurrent thrombosis in cancer patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is undefined. We run a prespecified analysis of the randomized Caravaggio study to evaluate the role of RI as risk factor for bleeding or recurrence in patients treated with dalteparin or apixaban for cancer-associated VTE. RI was graded as moderate (creatinine clearance between 30-59 ml/minute; 275 patients) and mild (between 60-89 ml/minute; 444 patients). In 1142 patients included in this analysis, the incidence of major bleeding was similar in patients with moderate vs. no or mild RI (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.53-2.11), with no difference in the relative safety of apixaban and dalteparin. Recurrent VTE was not different in moderate vs. no or mild RI (HR 0 .67, 95% CI 0.38-1.20); in moderate RI, apixaban reduced recurrent VTE compared to dalteparin (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.96; P for interaction 0.1085). At multivariate analysis, no association was found between variation of renal function over time and major bleeding or recurrent VTE. Advanced or metastatic cancer was the only independent predictor of major bleeding (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.20-6.71), with no effect of treatment with apixaban or dalteparin. In our study in cancer patients treated with apixaban or dalteparin, moderate RI was not associated with major bleeding or recurrent VTE. In patients with moderate renal failure, the safety profile of apixaban was confirmed with the potential for improved efficacy in comparison to dalteparin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.279072DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Antithrombotic therapies in aortic and peripheral arterial diseases in 2021: a consensus document from the ESC working group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases, the ESC working group on thrombosis, and the ESC working group on cardiovascular pharmacotherapy.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4013-4024

Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, Azienda OspedalieroUniversitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy.

The aim of this collaborative document is to provide an update for clinicians on best antithrombotic strategies in patients with aortic and/or peripheral arterial diseases. Antithrombotic therapy is a pillar of optimal medical treatment for these patients at very high cardiovascular risk. While the number of trials on antithrombotic therapies in patients with aortic or peripheral arterial diseases is substantially smaller than for those with coronary artery disease, recent evidence deserves to be incorporated into clinical practice. In the absence of specific indications for chronic oral anticoagulation due to concomitant cardiovascular disease, a single antiplatelet agent is the basis for long-term antithrombotic treatment in patients with aortic or peripheral arterial diseases. Its association with another antiplatelet agent or low-dose anticoagulants will be discussed, based on patient's ischaemic and bleeding risk as well therapeutic paths (e.g. endovascular therapy). This consensus document aims to provide a guidance for antithrombotic therapy according to arterial disease localizations and clinical presentation. However, it cannot substitute multidisciplinary team discussions, which are particularly important in patients with uncertain ischaemic/bleeding balance. Importantly, since this balance evolves over time in an individual patient, a regular reassessment of the antithrombotic therapy is of paramount importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab390DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of incidental venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: Insights from the Caravaggio study.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 11 29;19(11):2751-2759. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Internal Vascular and Emergency Medicine - Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background: Clinical guidelines advise similar anticoagulant treatment for symptomatic and incidental cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). We investigated clinical features and outcomes of cancer patients with incidental or symptomatic VTE randomized in the Caravaggio study.

Objectives: We performed a predefined sub-analysis of the Caravaggio study in order to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of incidental and symptomatic VTE in patients with cancer. The relative efficacy and safety of apixaban and dalteparin in patients with incidental and symptomatic VTE was also assessed.

Methods: The Caravaggio study compared apixaban to dalteparin for the 6-month treatment of cancer-associated VTE. The primary efficacy and safety outcomes were recurrent VTE and major bleeding.

Results: Two hundred thirty patients (20%) had incidental and 925 (80%) symptomatic VTE. Pulmonary embolism with or without deep vein thrombosis as index event, colorectal cancer, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score of 0, and locally advanced or metastatic cancer were more frequent in patients with incidental VTE. Deep vein thrombosis as index event, hematological cancer, and ECOG score of 2 were more frequent in patients with symptomatic VTE. Ten patients (4.3%) with incidental and 68 (7.4%) with symptomatic VTE had recurrent VTE (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-1.10). Major bleeding occurred in 12 (5.2%) patients with incidental VTE and in 33 (3.6%) patients with symptomatic VTE (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.74-2.77). When comparing apixaban to dalteparin in patients with symptomatic and incidental VTE, the HR for recurrence was 0.73 (95% CI 0.45-1.19) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.11-1.56), respectively, and the HR for major bleeding 0.93 (95% CI 0.47-1.83) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.31-2.96), respectively.

Conclusions: Compared to cancer patients with symptomatic VTE, those with incidental VTE have different clinical features at presentation, with a numerically lower incidence of recurrent VTE and a numerically higher incidence of major bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15461DOI Listing
November 2021

Second consensus document on diagnosis and management of acute deep vein thrombosis: updated document elaborated by the ESC Working Group on aorta and peripheral vascular diseases and the ESC Working Group on pulmonary circulation and right ventricular function.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiology, Dupuytren University Hospital and Inserm 1094, Tropical Neuroepidemiology, School of Medicine, 2 avenue martin Luther-King 87042 Limoges, France.

This consensus document is proposed to clinicians to provide the whole spectrum of deep vein thrombosis management as an update to the 2017 consensus document. New data guiding clinicians in indicating extended anticoagulation, management of patients with cancer, and prevention and management of post-thrombotic syndrome are presented. More data on benefit and safety of non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants are highlighted, along with the arrival of new antidotes for severe bleeding management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab088DOI Listing
July 2021

Management and Outcomes of Patients with Isolated Superficial Vein Thrombosis under Real Life Conditions (INSIGHTS-SVT).

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 08 29;62(2):241-249. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Objective: Management and outcomes of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are highly variable and not well described. Therefore, the INvestigating SIGnificant Health TrendS in the management of SVT (INSIGHTS-SVT) study collected prospective data under real life conditions.

Methods: Prospective observational study of objectively confirmed acute isolated SVT. The primary outcome was a composite of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and extension or recurrence of SVT at three months. The primary safety outcome was clinically relevant bleeding.

Results: A total of 1 150 patients were included (mean age 60.2 ± 14.7 years; 64.9% women; mean BMI 29.4 ± 6.3 kg/m). SVT was below the knee in 54.5%, above the knee in 26.7%, above and below the knee in 18.8%. At baseline, 93.6% received pharmacological treatment (65.7% fondaparinux, 23.2% heparins, 4.3% direct oral anticoagulants [DOACs], 14.5% analgesics), 77.0% compression treatment, and 1.9% surgery; 6.4% did not receive any anticoagulation. The primary outcome occurred in 5.8%; 4.7% had recurrent or extended SVT, 1.7% DVT, and 0.8% PE. Clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 1.2% and major bleeding in 0.3%. Complete clinical recovery of SVT was reported in 708 patients (62.4%). Primary outcome adjusted by propensity score and for treatment duration was lower with fondaparinux compared with low molecular weight heparin (4.4% vs. 9.6%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3 - 0.9; p = .017). On multivariable analysis, associated factors for primary outcome included another SVT prior to the present SVT event (HR 2.3), age per year (HR 0.97), duration of drug treatment per week (HR 0.92), and thrombus length (HR 1.03).

Conclusion: At three month follow up, patients with isolated SVT are at risk of thromboembolic complications (mainly recurrent or extended SVT), despite anticoagulation. In this real life study, about one third had received either heparins, oral anticoagulants, or no anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.04.015DOI Listing
August 2021

Direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of pulmonary embolism in patients with renal impairment.

Thromb Res 2021 08 19;204:101-107. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with adverse outcomes and substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with PE often have renal impairment because of shared risk factors and close links between the renal and cardiovascular systems. Furthermore, patients with PE and renal impairment are at increased risk of recurrent thrombosis. Therefore, anticoagulation is crucial to treat the acute event, prevent recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), and optimize patient outcomes. However, when treated with an anticoagulant, patients with renal impairment also have an elevated risk of bleeding. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the first-choice treatment for acute VTE in eligible patients. However, as all DOACs have a degree of renal excretion, the management of anticoagulation therapy can be more complicated in patients with renal impairment. This review provides an overview of the clinical challenges of managing anticoagulation in patients with PE and renal impairment and explores the optimal practice management of this special patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.06.011DOI Listing
August 2021

Total Ischemic Event Reduction With Rivaroxaban After Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul 16;78(4):317-326. Epub 2021 May 16.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities) trial demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the total burden of vascular events in patients with PAD after LER and the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or aspirin alone. The primary endpoint was time to first event of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The current analysis considered all events (first and subsequent) for components of the primary endpoint as well as additional vascular events including peripheral revascularizations and venous thromboembolism. HRs were estimated by marginal proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 6,564 randomized events, there were 4,714 total first and subsequent vascular events including 1,614 primary endpoint events and 3,100 other vascular events. Rivaroxaban reduced total primary endpoint events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.02) and total vascular events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; P = 0.003). An estimated 4.4 primary and 12.5 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with rivaroxaban over 3 years.

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic PAD who are undergoing LER have a high total event burden that is significantly reduced with rivaroxaban. Total event reduction may be a useful metric to quantify the efficacy of rivaroxaban in this setting. (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Re "Is Management of Major Bleeding in Patients Taking Anticoagulants Restricted to Reversal Strategies?"

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 07 6;62(1):142-143. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany; Centre for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, University Medical Centre Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.03.030DOI Listing
July 2021

The Role for Combined Antithrombotic Therapy With Platelet and Coagulation Inhibition After Lower Extremity Revascularization.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 04;14(7):796-802

Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Evidence for antithrombotic treatment following lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is limited, leading to weak and conflicting guideline recommendations and heterogeneous practice patterns. This variability in post-LER antithrombotic treatment raises quality-of-care issues that have long been under-studied. This Viewpoint reviews the most updated guidelines, currently-available evidence, and contemporary data about practice patterns and practitioner opinions in this area. Particular attention is paid to distinctions between antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulant therapy, and combination therapy in light of the recent VOYAGER-PAD (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) trial. The implications of VOYAGER-PAD pertaining to various subgroups of patients undergoing LER are explored. Overall, this Viewpoint argues for consideration of post-LER therapy targeted at both platelet function and the coagulation cascade, though further LER-specific analyses, including expected VOYAGER-PAD sub-analyses, are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.01.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Reply to "The VOYAGER PAD Trial in Surgical Perspective: A Debate".

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 05 1;61(5):723-724. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.02.051DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of concomitant administration of anticancer agents and apixaban or dalteparin on recurrence and bleeding in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism.

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 26;148:371-381. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Internal, Vascular and Emergency Medicine - Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background: Whether concomitant administration of anticancer agents influences the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants in patients treated for cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is undefined. The pharmacological interaction between anticancer agents and direct oral anticoagulants is perceived as a concern.

Methods: We evaluated the effects of concomitant administration of anticancer agents on recurrent VTE, major bleeding and death in patients with cancer-associated VTE randomised to receive apixaban or dalteparin in the Caravaggio study.

Results: Anticancer agents were concomitantly given to 336 patients (58.3%) treated with apixaban and to 332 patients (57.3%) treated with dalteparin. In patients treated with apixaban, recurrent VTE occurred in 20 (6.0%) and 12 (5.0%) among patients treated or not treated with anticancer agents, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 0.55-2.38); major bleeding occurred in 12 (3.6%) and 10 (4.2%) patients , respectively (HR = 0.79; 0.34-1.82), and death occurred in 74 (22.0%) and 61 (25.4%) patients , respectively (HR = 0.71; 0.51-1.00). In patients treated with dalteparin, recurrent VTE occurred in 24 (7.2%) and 22 (8.9%) among patients treated or not treated with anticancer agents, respectively (HR = 0.71; 0.40-1.28); major bleeding occurred in 16 (4.8%) and 7 (2.8%) patients, respectively (HR = 1.78; 0.66-4.79), and death occurred in 87 (26.2%) and 66 (26.7%) patients, respectively (HR = 0.85; 0.62-1.18). The comparative efficacy and safety of apixaban and dalteparin was not different in patients treated or not treated with anticancer agents. No effect on recurrent VTE, major bleeding or death was observed with inhibitors or inducers of P-glycoprotein and/or CYP3A4.

Conclusion: In our study, concomitant administration of anticancer agents had no effect on the risk of VTE recurrence or major bleeding in patients treated with apixaban or dalteparin for cancer-associated VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.026DOI Listing
May 2021

International public awareness of peripheral artery disease.

Vasa 2021 07 1;50(4):294-300. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Cardiology, Dupuytren University Hospital, Limoges, France.

: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) of the lower limbs is a common condition with considerable global burden. Some country-specific studies suggest low levels of public awareness. To our knowledge public awareness of PAD has never been assessed simultaneously in several countries worldwide. : This was an international, general public, internet-based quantitative survey assessing vascular health and disease understanding. Questionnaires included 23 closed-ended multiple-choice, Likert scale and binary choice questions. Data were collected from 9,098 survey respondents from nine countries in Europe, North and Latin America during May-June 2018. : Overall, familiarity with PAD was low (57% of respondents were "not at all familiar", and 9% were "moderately" or "very familiar"). Knowledge about PAD health consequences was limited, with 55% of all respondents not being aware of limb consequences of PAD. There were disparities in PAD familiarity levels between countries; highest levels of self-reported awareness were in Germany and Poland where 13% reported to be "very" or "moderately" familiar with PAD, and lowest in Scandinavian countries (5%, 3% and 2% of respondents in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, respectively). There were disparities in awareness according to age. Respondents aged 25-34 were most familiar with PAD, with 12% stating that they were "moderately" or "very" familiar with the condition, whereas those aged 18-24 were the least familiar with PAD (7% "moderately" or "very" familiar with PAD). In the 45-54, 55-64 and 65+ age groups, 9% said they were "moderately" or "very" familiar with the term. There was no important gender-based difference in PAD familiarity. : On an international level, public self-reported PAD awareness is low, even though PAD is a common condition with considerable burden. Campaigns to increase PAD awareness are needed to reduce delays in diagnosis and to motivate people to control PAD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000945DOI Listing
July 2021

Hormonal Contraception. Guideline of the DGGG, OEGGG and SGGG (S3 Level, AWMF Registry Number 015/015, January 2020).

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Feb 8;81(2):152-182. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie, Marienhaus Klinikum Eifel, Klinikstandort Bitburg, Bitburg, Germany.

This is an official interdisciplinary guideline published and coordinated by the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). The guideline was developed for use in German-speaking regions and is backed by numerous professional societies and organizations. The aim of this guideline is to provide an evidence- and consensus-based overview of the diagnostic approach and the management of hormonal contraception based on a systematic evaluation of the relevant literature. To compile this S3-guideline, a systematic search for evidence was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane Library to adapt existing guidelines and identify relevant reviews and meta-analyses. A structured evaluation of the evidence was subsequently carried out on behalf of the Guidelines Commission of the DGGG, and a structured consensus was achieved based on consensus conferences attended by representative members from the different specialist societies and professions. Evidence-based recommendations about the advice given to women requesting contraception were compiled. The guideline particularly focuses on prescribing contraceptives which are appropriate to women's individual needs, take account of her personal circumstances, and have few or no side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1259-1609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895491PMC
February 2021

High incidence of deep vein thrombosis during the treatment of pseudoaneurysms - a retrospective nonrandomized study.

Vasa 2021 Apr 13;50(3):231-239. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.

: Pseudoaneurysms (PSAs) are concerning complications after arterial invasive interventions. Therapeutic options include manual ultrasound-assisted compression, pressure dressings, surgical intervention and thrombin injection. Compression of neighboring veins is obvious. However, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with PSA has not previously been investigated. : In this retrospective, nonrandomized study 238 patients with PSA were analyzed from 2013 to 2018. In 149 patients, all of the parameters were complete for participating. PSAs were treated according to the local standard therapy with either ultrasound-guided compression followed by compression bandage or thrombin injection. Treatment success was evaluated 24 hours later, and the venous system was examined for the presence of DVT. : Peripheral DVT was found in 25.4% patients after ultrasound-assisted compression and subsequent pressure bandages, but only 6.4% of patients had DVT after thrombin injection (p = 0.013). Lower leg veins, particularly veins of the crural muscles, were primarily affected. Significantly more PSAs were successfully treated without the occurrence of DVT in the thrombin injection group compared to the compression group (93.6 vs. 69.0%; p = 0.001). : Our study revealed that the use of thrombin injections resulted in a significantly lower rate of postinterventional DVT and a higher total number of successfully treated PSAs compared to compression therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000935DOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis: The evolution of anticoagulant choice and clinical insights into practical management.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jan 20;157:103125. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Hull York Medical School and Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, United Kingdom.

Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is recommended over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) and extended therapy is recommended in those with active cancer to prevent recurrent thrombosis. However, the inconvenience of daily subcutaneous injections and the cost of LMWH therapy hinder long-term use. Observational data demonstrate that persistence with LMWH therapy is low in clinical practice and that many patients are switched to oral alternatives - namely VKAs and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Recently, the efficacy and safety of apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban versus LMWH therapy for the treatment of CAT have been demonstrated in randomized trials. This review provides a critical evaluation of studies with DOACs in this setting and an update on the guidance regarding anticoagulant use for the treatment of CAT. In recognition of the heterogeneity of patients with cancer and the challenges of CAT, patient cases with expert clinical perspectives are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103125DOI Listing
January 2021

Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 11;383(21):2090-2091

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2030413DOI Listing
November 2020

Bleeding with Apixaban and Dalteparin in Patients with Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: Results from the Caravaggio Study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 May 17;121(5):616-624. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Internal, Vascular and Emergency Medicine-Stroke Unit, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background:  Direct oral anticoagulants are recommended for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) as an alternative to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), but an increased bleeding risk in patients with gastrointestinal cancer was reported. The Caravaggio study compared apixaban and dalteparin for the treatment of patients with CAT. Here we describe sites of bleeding, associated cancer sites, clinical presentation, and course of major bleeding in patients included in the Caravaggio study.

Methods:  The Caravaggio study was a multinational, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study. Bleeding events and the severity of major bleedings were adjudicated by a committee unaware of treatment allocation using predefined criteria; for the purpose of this analysis, data were analyzed in the safety population.

Results:  Major bleeding occurred in 22 of 576 patients on apixaban (3.8%) and in 23 of 579 patients on dalteparin (4.0%). The sites of major bleeding and their distribution according to the type of cancer were similar between the two treatment groups. Major bleeding occurred in nine patients with gastrointestinal cancer in each treatment group. The clinical presentation of major bleeding was severe or fatal in 6 patients on apixaban and in 5 patients on dalteparin, while the clinical course was severe in 5 patients on apixaban and in 7 patients on dalteparin.

Conclusion:  Apixaban is a safe alternative to LMWH for the treatment in patients with CAT. No excess in gastrointestinal bleeding was observed in patients who received apixaban, including those with gastrointestinal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1720975DOI Listing
May 2021

Country-based Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation Patients' Preferences for Oral Anticoagulation: An Evaluation of Discrete Choice Experiments in Five Different Countries.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 01;77(1):100-106

Ingress-Health, Wismar, Germany.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine atrial fibrillation (AF) patients' preferences regarding oral anticoagulation (OAC) characteristics and to investigate differences across 5 different countries. A multicenter discrete choice experiment was conducted in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, and Taiwan. Study sites enrolled patients with nonvalvular AF who received continuous OAC therapy. The discrete choice experiment design considered the following 4 attributes with 2 attribute levels each: need for bridging (yes/no), interactions with food/alcohol (yes/no), need for regular international normalized ratio (INR) assessments, and frequency of intake (once/twice daily). Generally, patients (n = 1391) preferred treatment alternatives that were characterized by "no need of bridging," "no need for regular INR controls," "no interactions with food/alcohol," and "once daily intake." For this desired treatment regimen, patients were willing to accept a substantially higher travel distance/time. German patients with AF were strongly impacted in their hypothetical treatment decision by the frequency of intake (37.5%). Swedish patients on the other hand gave little importance to intake frequency (12.6%). In Switzerland, patients were especially concerned with food/alcohol interactions of the medication (34.7%), whereas this was the least important attribute for Taiwanese patients (18.9%), who ascribed the most homogenous importance to the different treatment attributes overall. In Spain, the need for regular INR assessments especially impacted the patient's treatment decision (31.9%). Patients of all countries attributed a moderate importance to the need for bridging (25.9%-34.2%). These findings may facilitate country-specific consideration of patients' preferences regarding OAC therapy, potentially increasing treatment acceptance on the patient's side with the ultimate goal of improving treatment adherence and persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000000936DOI Listing
January 2021
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