Publications by authors named "Ruojun Wang"

33 Publications

Skin microbiome alterations in seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: A systematic review.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and dandruff (DF) are common chronic inflammatory skin diseases characterized by recurrent greasy scales, sometimes with erythema and itchiness. Although the exact pathophysiology of the disease is still unclear, current theories highlight the role of microbes on the skin surface in the pathogenesis of SD. Here, we conducted a systematic review to investigate the skin microbiome alterations in patients with SD/DF. We searched Medline/PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for research studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2020. A total of 12 studies with 706 SD/DF samples and 379 healthy samples were included in this study. The scalp and face were predominated by the fungi of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and the bacteria of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. In general, the included studies demonstrated an increased Malassezia restricta/Malassezia globosa ratio and a reduction in the Cutibaterium/Staphylococcus ratio in the setting of SD/DF. Staphylococcus was associated with epidermal barrier damage, including elevated levels of trans-epidermal water loss and pH, while Cutibacterium had a positive correlation with water content. Malassezia was also found to be related to an increased itching score and disease severity. Further studies focusing on the interactions between various microbes and the host and microbes can help us to better understand the pathogenesis of SD/DF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14450DOI Listing
August 2021

Human reliability analysis of high-temperature molten metal operation based on fuzzy CREAM and Bayesian network.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0254861. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, PR China.

Human errors are considered to be the main causation factors of high-temperature molten metal accidents in metallurgical enterprises. The complex working environment of high- temperature molten metal in metallurgical enterprises has an important influence on the reliability of human behavior. A review of current human reliability techniques confirms that there is a lack of quantitative analysis of human errors in high-temperature molten metal operating environments. In this paper, a model was proposed to support the human reliability analysis of high-temperature molten metal operation in the metallurgy industry based on cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM), fuzzy logic theory, and Bayesian network (BN). The comprehensive rules of common performance conditions in conventional CREAM approach were provided to evaluate various conditions for high-temperature molten metal operation in the metallurgy industry. This study adopted fuzzy CREAM to consider the uncertainties and used the BN to determine the control mode and calculate human error probability (HEP). The HEP for workers involved in high-temperature melting in steelmaking production process was calculated in a case with 13 operators being engaged in different high-temperature molten metal operations. The human error probability of two operators with different control modes was compared with the calculation result of basic CREAM, and the result showed that the method proposed in this paper is validated. This paper quantified point values of human error probability in high-temperature molten metal operation for the first time, which can be used as input in the risk evaluation of metallurgical industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254861PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328327PMC
August 2021

Free thyroxine, brain frailty and clock drawing test performance in patients with acute minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with an elevated risk of cognitive decline, but the mechanism underlying this relationship is elusive. In this study, we investigate the relationships between free thyroxine (FT4), brain frailty and clock drawing test (CDT) performance in patients with acute minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA).

Design, Patients And Measurements: A total of 204 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital within 72 h after the onset of acute minor stroke or TIA were prospectively enroled and categorized in terms of quartiles of FT4 between March 2018 and August 2019. Brain frailty on magnetic resonance imaging was rated according to previously published criteria. Cognitive performance was assessed with the CDT.

Results: Generalized linear analysis revealed that FT4 was independently associated with higher brain frailty score after adjusting potential confounders (β, 0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00-0.06; p = 0.0205), which is consistent with the result of FT4 (quartile) as a categorical variable (β, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.01-0.68; p = 0.0059; p  = 0.0807). A nonlinear relationship was detected between FT4 and brain frailty score, which had an inflection point of 1.19. FT4 was also associated with poor CDT performance (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.26; p = 0.0051). And mediation analysis found that brain frailty partially mediated the positive relationship between FT4 and poor CDT performance (indirect effect = 0.0024; 95% CI, 0.0003-0.01, p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that a higher FT4 level was associated with a higher brain frailty score and poorer CDT performance, and brain frailty might play an important effect on the association between FT4 and cognitive decline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14564DOI Listing
July 2021

Realization of Supersymmetry and Its Spontaneous Breaking in Quantum Hall Edges.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(20):206801

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA.

Supersymmetry (SUSY) relating bosons and fermions plays an important role in unifying different fundamental interactions in particle physics. Since no superpartners of elementary particles have been observed, SUSY, if present, must be broken at low-energy. This makes it important to understand how SUSY is realized and broken, and study their consequences. We show that an N=(1,0) SUSY, arguably the simplest type, can be realized at the edge of the Moore-Read quantum Hall state. Depending on the absence or presence of edge reconstruction, both SUSY-preserving and SUSY broken phases can be realized in the same system, allowing for their unified description. The significance of the gapless fermionic Goldstino mode in the SUSY broken phase is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.206801DOI Listing
May 2021

Rv0954 Is a Member of the Mycobacterial Cell Division Complex.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:626461. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States.

Proper control of cell division in the intracellular pathogen is central to its growth, survival, pathogenesis, and resistance to antibiotics. Nevertheless, the divisome components and mechanisms by which mycobacteria regulate their cell cycle are not entirely understood. Here we demonstrate that the previously uncharacterized Rv0954 protein localizes to the mid-cell during cell division and interacts with the division-related proteins LamA, PbpA, and PknH. Deletion of did not result in alterations in cell morphology or sensitivity to cell wall-targeting antibiotics but transposon mutagenesis demonstrated genetic interactions with genes related to cell division. This work suggests that Rv0954 participates in cell division and reveals potential components of the mycobacterial divisome for future investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.626461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093794PMC
April 2021

Discovery of Antibiofilm Activity of Elasnin against Marine Biofilms and Its Application in the Marine Antifouling Coatings.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jan 5;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Ocean Science and Hong Kong Branch of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Biofilms are surface-attached multicellular communities that play critical roles in inducing biofouling and biocorrosion in the marine environment. Given the serious economic losses and problems caused by biofouling and biocorrosion, effective biofilm control strategies are highly sought after. In a screening program of antibiofilm compounds against marine biofilms, we discovered the potent biofilm inhibitory activity of elasnin. Elasnin effectively inhibited the biofilm formation of seven strains of bacteria isolated from marine biofilms. With high productivity, elasnin-based coatings were prepared in an easy and cost-effective way, which exhibited great performance in inhibiting the formation of multi-species biofilms and the attachment of large biofouling organisms in the marine environment. The 16S amplicon analysis and anti-larvae assay revealed that elasnin could prevent biofouling by the indirect impact of changed microbial composition of biofilms and direct inhibitory effect on larval settlement with low toxic effects. These findings indicated the potential application of elasnin in biofilm and biofouling control in the marine environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824865PMC
January 2021

A child with multiple hypopigmented lesions.

BMJ 2021 01 6;372:m4844. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, China

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4844DOI Listing
January 2021

Exploring the Influence of Signal Molecules on Marine Biofilms Development.

Front Microbiol 2020 13;11:571400. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Ocean Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Microbes respond to environmental stimuli through complicated signal transduction systems. In microbial biofilms, because of complex multiple species interactions, signals transduction systems are of an even higher complexity. Here, we performed a signal-molecule-treatment experiment to study the role of different signal molecules, including N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL), quinolone signal (PQS), and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), in the development of marine biofilms. Comparative metagenomics suggested a distinctive influence of these molecules on the microbial structure and function of multi-species biofilm communities in its developing stage. The PQS-treated biofilms shared the least similarity with the control and initial biofilms. The role of PQS in biofilm development was further explored experimentally with the strain sp. HKB8 isolated from marine biofilms. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that 314 genes, such as those related to signal transduction and biofilm formation, were differentially expressed in the untreated and PQS-treated sp. HKB8 biofilms. Our study demonstrated the different roles of signal molecules in marine biofilm development. In particular, the PQS-based signal transduction system, which is frequently detected in marine biofilms, may play an important role in regulating microbe-microbe interactions and the assemblage of biofilm communities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.571400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691533PMC
November 2020

Invasive dermatophyte infection: A systematic review.

Mycoses 2021 Apr 9;64(4):340-348. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Dermatophyte infections usually present as various types of superficial cutaneous mycoses; on very rare occasions, dermatophytes enter deep into the dermis and cause invasive infections. In this study, we aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported invasive dermatophytosis cases over the past 20 years. We performed systematic searches in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science and identified 123 papers reporting 160 individual cases of invasive dermatophytosis between 2000 and 2020. Our study included 103 (64.4%) males, and the mean age at diagnosis was 43.0 years (range: 3-87 years). The most common predisposing factor was superficial dermatophytosis (56.9%), followed by solid organ transplantation (26.9%), the use of topical immunosuppressants (15.6%), gene mutations (14.4%), diabetes (14.4%) and trauma (6.9%). Trichophyton (T.) rubrum was the most prevalent pathogen (53.1%) responsible for invasive dermatophytosis, followed by T. mentagrophytes (7.5%), Microsporum canis (6.9%), T. tonsurans (5.6%), T. interdigitale (5.0%) and T. violaceum (3.8%). Patients with CARD9 or STAT3 mutations were prone to have mixed infection of two or more dermatophytes, present with eosinophilia and high IgE, and develop disseminated infections. Overall mortality was 7.9%, and the mortality in patients with and without gene mutations was 17.4% and 5.5%, respectively. Most of the normal host patients responded well to oral antifungal agents, while gene-deficient patients usually required lifelong treatment to stabilise their infection status. Our review indicated the importance of preventive treatment of superficial tinea in patients with immunosuppression and gene deficiencies to avoid the development of invasive dermatophytosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13212DOI Listing
April 2021

Depletion of the DarG antitoxin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers the DNA-damage response and leads to cell death.

Mol Microbiol 2020 10 28;114(4):641-652. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Of the ~80 putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules encoded by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), three contain antitoxins essential for bacterial viability. One of these, Rv0060 (DNA ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolase, DarG ), functions along with its cognate toxin Rv0059 (DNA ADP-ribosyl transferase, DarT ), to mediate reversible DNA ADP-ribosylation (Jankevicius et al., 2016). We demonstrate that DarT -DarG form a functional TA pair and essentiality of darG is dependent on the presence of darT , but simultaneous deletion of both darT -darG does not alter viability of Mtb in vitro or in mice. The antitoxin, DarG , forms a cytosolic complex with DNA-repair proteins that assembles independently of either DarT or interaction with DNA. Depletion of DarG alone is bactericidal, a phenotype that is rescued by expression of an orthologous antitoxin, DarG , from Thermus aquaticus. Partial depletion of DarG triggers a DNA-damage response and sensitizes Mtb to drugs targeting DNA metabolism and respiration. Induction of the DNA-damage response is essential for Mtb to survive partial DarG -depletion and leads to a hypermutable phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689832PMC
October 2020

Necrolytic migratory erythema: an important sign of glucagonoma.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Mar 11;97(1145):199. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137587DOI Listing
March 2021

Natural polyphenol assisted delivery of single-strand oligonucleotides by cationic polymers.

Gene Ther 2020 08 4;27(7-8):383-391. Epub 2020 May 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Single-strand oligonucleotides provide promising potential as new therapeutics towards various diseases. However, the efficient delivery of oligonucleotide therapeutics is still challenging due to their susceptibility to nuclease degradation and the lack of effective carriers for condensation. In this study, we reported the use of natural polyphenol to facilitate the condensation of single-strand oligonucleotides by cationic polymers. Green tea catechin complexed with single-strand oligonucleotides to form anionic nanoparticles, which were further coated by low molecular weight cationic polymers to increase their cell internalization. The resulting core-shell structured nanoparticles, so-called green nanoparticles (GNPs), showed improved cargo stability, and achieved high efficiency in the delivery of several types of single-strand oligonucleotides including antisense oligonucleotides, anti-miRNA, and DNAzyme. This study provides a facile strategy for the efficient delivery of single-strand oligonucleotides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41434-020-0151-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445782PMC
August 2020

Terbium-based metal-organic frameworks: highly selective and fast respond sensor for styrene detection and construction of molecular logic gate.

J Hazard Mater 2020 04 3;388:121816. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610068, China.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are extremely harmful to the human body and environment, thus it is greatly meaningful and urgent to detect VOCs. In this work, terbium-based metal-organic frameworks (Tb-MOFs) have been prepared successfully via a facile and efficient route. These well-constructed Tb-MOFs architectures exhibit characteristic green emission of Tb ion upon excitation of UV light. It is noteworthy that the Tb-MOFs can act as a convenient and efficient luminescent sensor for VOCs. Especially, the Tb-MOFs displayed high selectivity and superior sensitivity towards the sensing of styrene solution and vapor through fluorescence quenching mechanism. The Tb-MOFs can realize fast detection for styrene vapor with a response time of 30 s. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching of Tb-MOFs induced by styrene was also discussed. More importantly, we have designed a logic gate operation with the combination of the sensor for the intelligent detection of styrene. This developed type of lanthanide luminescent metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) based on the combination of fluorescence sensor and logic gate has a great application prospect in the detection of VOCs in daily life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121816DOI Listing
April 2020

Persistent infection in mice requires PerM for successful cell division.

Elife 2019 11 21;8. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, United States.

The ability of (Mtb) to persist in its host is central to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely defined. PerM, an integral membrane protein, is required for persistence of Mtb in mice. Here, we show that deletion caused a cell division defect specifically during the chronic phase of mouse infection, but did not affect Mtb's cell replication during acute infection. We further demonstrate that PerM is required for cell division in chronically infected mice and in vitro under host-relevant stresses because it is part of the mycobacterial divisome and stabilizes the essential divisome protein FtsB. These data highlight the importance of sustained cell division for Mtb persistence, define condition-specific requirements for cell division and reveal that survival of Mtb during chronic infection depends on a persistence divisome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.49570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872210PMC
November 2019

Baseline Neutrophil Counts and Neutrophil Ratio May Predict a Poor Clinical Outcome in Minor Stroke Patients with intravenous Thrombolysis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Nov 26;28(11):104340. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence about whether neutrophil counts, neutrophil ratio linked with clinical outcome in patients with minor stroke after thrombolysis is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the association of neutrophil counts, neutrophil ratio with the 90-day clinical outcome in patients with minor stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 163 patients with minor stroke treated with thrombolysis within window time were recruited from 2013 to 2017. Their total neutrophil and leukocyte counts on admission were measured. Disability or death (defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≥2) at 90-day were captured. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between neutrophil counts, and neutrophil ratio to clinical outcome. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the predictive value of neutrophil counts or neutrophil ratio.

Results: At the 90-day follow-up, 36 patients (21%) had disability or death after stroke onset. Compared to the first tertile, the higher neutrophil counts increased the risk of 90-day disability or death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for third tertile: 2.93 (1.08-7.96); P for trend = .03). Similarly, higher neutrophil ratio also increased the risk of disability or death (aOR for third tertile: 5.81 (1.7-19.88); P for trend = .005). The comparison of area under the curve for neutrophil ratio versus neutrophils was .1 (P = .04). Thus, neutrophil ratio with the cutoff point of .74 had a better discriminative ability to the outcome (6.11, 2.36-15.86).

Conclusions: Baseline higher neutrophil counts and neutrophil ratio were associated with an increased risk of 90-day disability or death in patients with minor stroke who received thrombolytic therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.104340DOI Listing
November 2019

The neural correlate of mid-value offers in ultimatum game.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(8):e0220622. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

In the ultimatum game (UG), mid-value offers are unfair but not so unreasonable as to be rejected immediately. As a consequence, they are difficult for responders to evaluate because of the conflict that arises between two key processes, namely inequity aversion and self-interests. Since there is no clear consensus in the literature on event-related potential (ERP) as to how mid-value offers are processed, we designed an experiment to explore how the ability to reject offers influences key ERP signatures. By manipulating the right to reject offers based on game type (ultimatum game, UG or dictator game, DG), our study explored how ERPs were influenced by three types of offers available to participants (fair, unfair and mid-value). We recorded the electroencephalogram results of 28 participants while they responded to the three kinds of offers in the UG and the DG. We observed that mid-value offers in the UG elicited more negative feedback-related negativity and N400 than did the unfair offers. However, these ERP patterns were specific to the UG. Furthermore, we interpreted these results as further electrophysiological evidence of the interaction between the two processing systems during the UG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220622PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701805PMC
March 2020

Dry Scaly Patches and Nodules in a Middle-aged Man.

JAMA Dermatol 2019 Oct;155(10):1185-1186

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.1987DOI Listing
October 2019

Distribution, diversity and functional dissociation of the mac genes in marine biofilms.

Biofouling 2019 02 5;35(2):230-243. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

a Department of Ocean Science and Division of Life Science , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology , Hong Kong , PR China.

Bacteria produce metamorphosis-associated contractile (MAC) structures to induce larval metamorphosis in Hydroides elegans. The distribution and diversity of mac gene homologs in marine environments are largely unexplored. In the present study mac genes were examined in marine environments by analyzing 101 biofilm and 91 seawater metagenomes. There were more mac genes in biofilms than in seawater, and substratum type, location, or sampling time did not affect the mac genes in biofilms. The mac gene clusters were highly diverse and often incomplete while the three MAC components co-occurred with other genes of different functions. Genomic analysis of four Pseudoalteromonas and two Streptomyces strains revealed the mac genes transfers among different microbial taxa. It is proposed that mac genes are more specific to biofilms; gene transfer among different microbial taxa has led to highly diverse mac gene clusters; and in most cases, the three MAC components function individually rather than forming a complex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2019.1593384DOI Listing
February 2019

Mycetoma in China: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Mycopathologia 2019 Apr 18;184(2):327-334. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that can affect the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia and bone. It can be caused by filamentous bacteria or fungi and usually involves the legs and feet. Mycetoma is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and is easily misdiagnosed in clinical practice because of its nonspecific clinical features and lack of awareness of the disease. Although mycetoma is very rare in mainland China, an increasing number of cases have been reported in recent years. Here, we report a case of mycetoma in a patient who was misdiagnosed many years before receiving the correct treatment, leading to disease progression and motion limitation. The grains that represent microorganismal colonies were important clues for diagnosis. We also reviewed reported cases of mycetoma in mainland China. The majority of cases were reported from southern regions. Actinomycetoma was more commonly reported than was eumycetoma. The causative agents of actinomycetoma included Nocardia brasiliensis, N. asteroides, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. ninae and Gordonia terrae, and the causative fungi of eumycetoma were identified as Madurella mycetomatis, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Acremonium falciforme. Notably, the diagnosis of mycetoma was delayed from months to decades in all of the patients, likely due to a lack of clinical experience. Our literature review suggests the importance of increased awareness of mycetoma in clinical practice, especially in non-endemic regions. Further investigative studies are needed to determine the real incidence of the disease in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-019-00324-zDOI Listing
April 2019

Marine biofilms constitute a bank of hidden microbial diversity and functional potential.

Nat Commun 2019 01 31;10(1):517. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Ocean Science and Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Recent big data analyses have illuminated marine microbial diversity from a global perspective, focusing on planktonic microorganisms. Here, we analyze 2.5 terabases of newly sequenced datasets and the Tara Oceans metagenomes to study the diversity of biofilm-forming marine microorganisms. We identify more than 7,300 biofilm-forming 'species' that are undetected in seawater analyses, increasing the known microbial diversity in the oceans by more than 20%, and provide evidence for differentiation across oceanic niches. Generation of a gene distribution profile reveals a functional core across the biofilms, comprised of genes from a variety of microbial phyla that may play roles in stress responses and microbe-microbe interactions. Analysis of 479 genomes reconstructed from the biofilm metagenomes reveals novel biosynthetic gene clusters and CRISPR-Cas systems. Our data highlight the previously underestimated ocean microbial diversity, and allow mining novel microbial lineages and gene resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08463-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355793PMC
January 2019

Rapid remission of Stevens-Johnson syndrome by combination therapy using etanercept and intravenous immunoglobulin and a review of the literature.

Dermatol Ther 2019 07 21;32(4):e12832. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are spectrum of rare, acute, and life-threatening delayed-type drug hypersensitivity reactions that are associated with high mortality rates. However, no therapeutic standard has been proposed for SJS/TEN. Here, we report a case of a patient diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome whose disease progression was halted by a single dose of etanercept and was treated successfully. In addition, we reviewed the literature reporting patients with SJS/TEN treated with similar regimens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.12832DOI Listing
July 2019

Metagenomic Analysis of Zinc Surface-Associated Marine Biofilms.

Microb Ecol 2019 Feb 5;77(2):406-416. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Biofilms are a significant source of marine biofouling. Marine biofilm communities are established when microorganisms adhere to immersed surfaces. Despite the microbe-inhibiting effect of zinc surfaces, microbes can still attach to the surface and form biofilms. However, the diversity of biofilm-forming microbes that can attach to zinc surfaces and their common functional features remain elusive. Here, by analyzing 9,000,000 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences and 270 Gb of metagenomic data, we comprehensively explored the taxa and functions related to biofilm formation in subtidal zones of the Red Sea. A clear difference was observed between the biofilm and adjacent seawater microbial communities in terms of the taxonomic structure at phylum and genus levels, and a huge number of genera were only present in the biofilms. Saturated alpha-diversity curves suggested the existence of more than 14,000 operational taxonomic units in one biofilm sample, which is much higher than previous estimates. Remarkably, the biofilms contained abundant and diverse transposase genes, which were localized along microbial chromosomal segments and co-existed with genes related to metal ion transport and resistance. Genomic analyses of two cyanobacterial strains that were abundant in the biofilms revealed a variety of metal ion transporters and transposases. Our analyses revealed the high diversity of biofilm-forming microbes that can attach to zinc surfaces and the ubiquitous role of transposase genes in microbial adaptation to toxic metal surfaces.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-01313-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Disseminated Asymptomatic Papules Over the Body.

JAMA Dermatol 2018 07;154(7):835-836

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.6054DOI Listing
July 2018

Chemical Genetic Interaction Profiling Reveals Determinants of Intrinsic Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 12 22;61(12). Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA

Chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy and could benefit from synergistic adjuvant therapeutics that enhance current and novel drug regimens. To identify genetic determinants of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility in , we applied a chemical genetic interaction (CGI) profiling approach. We screened a saturated transposon mutant library and identified mutants that exhibit altered fitness in the presence of partially inhibitory concentrations of rifampin, ethambutol, isoniazid, vancomycin, and meropenem, antibiotics with diverse mechanisms of action. This screen identified the cell envelope to be a major determinant of antibiotic susceptibility but did not yield mutants whose increase in susceptibility was due to transposon insertions in genes encoding efflux pumps. Intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants affecting resistance to multiple antibiotics included the peptidoglycan-arabinogalactan ligase Lcp1, the mycolic acid synthase MmaA4, the protein translocase SecA2, the mannosyltransferase PimE, the cell envelope-associated protease CaeA/Hip1, and FecB, a putative iron dicitrate-binding protein. Characterization of a deletion mutant confirmed FecB to be involved in the intrinsic resistance to every antibiotic analyzed. In contrast to its predicted function, FecB was dispensable for growth in low-iron medium and instead functioned as a critical mediator of envelope integrity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01334-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700314PMC
December 2017

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Essential for Thiol Redox Homeostasis but Plays a Minor Role in Antioxidant Defense.

PLoS Pathog 2016 06 1;12(6):e1005675. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must cope with exogenous oxidative stress imposed by the host. Unlike other antioxidant enzymes, Mtb's thioredoxin reductase TrxB2 has been predicted to be essential not only to fight host defenses but also for in vitro growth. However, the specific physiological role of TrxB2 and its importance for Mtb pathogenesis remain undefined. Here we show that genetic inactivation of thioredoxin reductase perturbed several growth-essential processes, including sulfur and DNA metabolism and rapidly killed and lysed Mtb. Death was due to cidal thiol-specific oxidizing stress and prevented by a disulfide reductant. In contrast, thioredoxin reductase deficiency did not significantly increase susceptibility to oxidative and nitrosative stress. In vivo targeting TrxB2 eradicated Mtb during both acute and chronic phases of mouse infection. Deliberately leaky knockdown mutants identified the specificity of TrxB2 inhibitors and showed that partial inactivation of TrxB2 increased Mtb's susceptibility to rifampicin. These studies reveal TrxB2 as essential thiol-reducing enzyme in Mtb in vitro and during infection, establish the value of targeting TrxB2, and provide tools to accelerate the development of TrxB2 inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889078PMC
June 2016

Anthocyanins-rich extract of wild Chinese blueberry protects glucolipotoxicity-induced INS832/13 β-cell against dysfunction and death.

J Food Sci Technol 2015 May 26;52(5):3022-9. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

As commonly observed events in diabetic patients, glucolipotoxicity induces oxidative stress, apoptosis and functional defects in β-cells. Anthocyanins are well investigated as strong antioxidants and modulators for metabolic syndromes. Therefore, this study examined the protective effects of anthocyanins-rich extracts (BAE) from wild Chinese blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) against glucolipotoxicity in β-cells. Results showed that INS832/13 β-cells subjected to glucolipotoxicity were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in cell survival rate, which were alleviated by BAE and metformin treatments. Both BAE and metformin reduced reactive oxidative species and improved the antioxidant defense system. Moreover, BAE were effective in reducing intracellular triglycerides (TG) level, restoring intracellular insulin content, lowering basal insulin secretion (BIS) and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion which in turn resulted in an elevated insulin secretion index. However, metformin only demonstrated marginal effect on secretion dysfunction and had no effect (p > 0.05) on BIS or TG. Additionally, TG levels reduced by BAE treatment were correlated with BIS (p < 0.01, r = 0.9755). This study has for the first time demonstrated that anthocyanin enriched extract of wild Chinese blueberry could effectively protect β-cells against glucolipotoxicity in vitro. These results implied the potential efficacy of BAE as a complementary measure for diabetes intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1379-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4397289PMC
May 2015

In vitro antioxidant and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of isolated fractions from water extract of Qingzhuan tea.

J Food Sci Technol 2015 Feb 18;52(2):928-35. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, No.1, Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430070 China.

In the present work, Qingzhuan tea, a unique dark tea produced by post-fermentation technology, was selected to investigate its antioxidant and pancreatic α-amylase inhibiting activities. Water extract of Qingzhuan tea was successively isolated by solvent partitioning procedures to obtain chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, sediment and residual aqua fractions. Of different fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction (QEF) had the highest total polyphenols and catechins contents, demonstrated the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity and exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity in vitro. Further separation of QEF by a Sephadex LH-20 column generated eight subfractions (QEF1-QEF8), with QEF8 being the most active subfraction based on the assays above mentioned. The major active components in QEF8 were identified as catechins EGCG and ECG by LC-MS analysis, with contents of 22.29 % and 11.11 % respectively. Inhibitory effects of catechin standards EGCG and ECG on porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity were also observed. In conclusion, Qingzhuan tea or its water extract could be potentially used as complementary therapy ingredients for diabetes treatment through lowering postprandial blood glucose, and catechins EGCG and ECG may be the most efficient components in the water extract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-013-1059-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325029PMC
February 2015

Disruption of an M. tuberculosis membrane protein causes a magnesium-dependent cell division defect and failure to persist in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Feb 6;11(2):e1004645. Epub 2015 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America.

The identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes necessary for persistence in vivo provides insight into bacterial biology as well as host defense strategies. We show that disruption of M. tuberculosis membrane protein PerM (Rv0955) resulted in an IFN-γ-dependent persistence defect in chronic mouse infection despite the mutant's near normal growth during acute infection. The perM mutant required increased magnesium for replication and survival; incubation in low magnesium media resulted in cell elongation and lysis. Transcriptome analysis of the perM mutant grown in reduced magnesium revealed upregulation of cell division and cell wall biosynthesis genes, and live cell imaging showed PerM accumulation at the division septa in M. smegmatis. The mutant was acutely sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics, including specific inhibitors of cell division-associated peptidoglycan transpeptidase FtsI. Together, these data implicate PerM as a novel player in mycobacterial cell division and pathogenesis, and are consistent with the hypothesis that immune activation deprives M. tuberculosis of magnesium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450064PMC
February 2015

Anti-diabetic effects of the ethanol extract of a functional formula diet in mice fed with a fructose/fat-rich combination diet.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Jan 24;95(2):401-8. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083, China.

Background: Rhizoma dioscorea, Lycium barbarum, Prunella vulgaris and hawthorn are well known in both traditional food and folk medicine. Each of these plants reportedly possesses beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes. In this study an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet was formulated by mixing the herbs in a ratio of 6:4:2:3, and the anti-diabetic effect and underlying mechanism were elucidated in vivo.

Results: Compared with the model control group, the formula, especially its ethanol extract (EF), could improve glucose intolerance and normalize the lipid profile. The mechanisms responsible for the amelioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in mice were an increase in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, a decrease in serum free fatty acid level, enhanced hepatic glucokinase activity and glycogen content and improved serum antioxidant activity. Hepatic histopathological examination also showed that EF administration markedly decreased fatty deposits in the liver of mice.

Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that the prepared functional formula diet is a potent alternative as an anti-diabetic health-promoting diet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6737DOI Listing
January 2015

A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells.

Food Funct 2014 May;5(5):1038-49

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, PO Box 294, No. 17 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

According to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal and edible herbs exhibit holistic effects through their actions on multiple target organs. Four herbs, Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma, were selected and combined to create a new herbal formula (PLCP). The protective effects of both the aqueous extract (AE) and ethanol extract (EE) of PLCP against insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated in both high fat and high fructose diet-fed mice. Active fractions and constituents were screened in HepG2 cells with IR or an over-accumulation of triglycerides, and were further identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the AE did not improve (p > 0.05) glucose tolerance after three weeks, whereas EE showed a promising effect throughout the experiment. Medium and high doses of EE were found to reduce fasting blood glucose at week 9 by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively. In addition, their efficacies for alleviating IR were comparable with that of metformin. Compared with AE, EE effectively improved hyperlipidemia, antioxidant status, and NAFLD. In contrast, metformin did not alleviate hyperlipidemia (p > 0.05) or NAFLD in the mice model. Results from the cell-based study indicate that the protective effects of EE were possibly due to the actions from puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3fo60524hDOI Listing
May 2014
-->