Publications by authors named "Rune Jemtland"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular disease map of bone characterizing the postmenopausal osteoporosis phenotype.

J Bone Miner Res 2011 Aug;26(8):1793-801

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Genome-wide gene expressions in bone biopsies from patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy controls were profiled, to identify osteoporosis candidate genes. All osteoporotic patients (n = 27) in an unbiased cohort of Norwegian women presented with bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores of less than -2.5 SD and one or more confirmed low-energy fracture(s). A validation group (n = 18) had clinical and laboratory parameters intermediate to the control (n = 39) and osteoporosis groups. RNA from iliac crest bone biopsies were analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Differentially expressed genes in osteoporosis versus control groups were identified using the Bayesian ANOVA for microarrays (BAMarray) method, whereas the R-package Limma (Linear Models for Microarray Data) was used to determine whether these transcripts were explained by disease, age, body mass index (BMI), or combinations thereof. Laboratory tests showed normal ranges for the cohort. A total of 609 transcripts were differentially expressed in osteoporotic patients relative to controls; 256 transcripts were confirmed for disease when controlling for age or BMI. Most of the osteoporosis susceptibility genes (80%) also were confirmed to be regulated in the same direction in the validation group. Furthermore, 217 of 256 transcripts were correlated with BMD (adjusted for age and BMI) at various skeletal sites (|r| > 0.2, p < .05). Among the most distinctly expressed genes were Wnt antagonists DKK1 and SOST, the transcription factor SOX4, and the bone matrix proteins MMP13 and MEPE, all reduced in osteoporosis versus control groups. Our results identify potential osteoporosis susceptibility candidate genes adjusted for confounding factors (ie, age and BMI) with or without a significant correlation with BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.396DOI Listing
August 2011

Eight genes are highly associated with BMD variation in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

Bone 2010 Mar 14;46(3):604-12. Epub 2009 Nov 14.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for skeletal fractures which occur in about 40% of women >/=50 years in the western world. We describe the transcriptional changes in 84 trans-iliacal bone biopsies associated with BMD variations in postmenopausal females (50 to 86 years), aiming to identify genetic determinants of bone structure. The women were healthy or having a primary osteopenic or osteoporotic status with or without low energy fractures. The total cohort of 91 unrelated women representing a wide range of BMDs, were consecutively registered and submitted to global gene Affymetrix microarray expression analysis or histomorphometry. Among almost 23,000 expressed transcripts, a set represented by ACSL3 (acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3), NIPSNAP3B (nipsnap homolog 3B), DLEU2 (Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 2), C1ORF61 (Chromosome 1 open reading frame 61), DKK1 (Dickkopf homolog 1), SOST (Sclerostin), ABCA8, (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 8), and uncharacterized (AFFX-M27830-M-at), was significantly correlated to total hip BMD (5% false discovery rate) explaining 62% of the BMD variation expressed as T-score, 53% when adjusting for the influence of age (Z-score) and 44% when further adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Only SOST was previously associated to BMD, and the majority of the genes have previously not been associated with a bone phenotype. In molecular network analyses, SOST shows a strong, positive correlation with DKK1, both being members of the Wnt signaling pathway. The results provide novel insight in the underlying biology of bone metabolism and osteoporosis which is the ultimate consequence of low BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2009.11.007DOI Listing
March 2010

The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper gene (GILZ) expression decreases after successful treatment of patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome and may play a role in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010 Jan 29;95(1):246-55. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, N-0027 Oslo, Norway.

Context: Glucocorticoid-induced bone loss is a serious complication in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome. However, the mechanism(s) by which excess glucocorticoids influence bone metabolism is not completely understood.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the functional role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in bone remodeling with special focus on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO).

Patients: Nine patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome participated in the study.

Research Design And Methods: We analyzed bone biopsies from Cushing's patients before and after treatment to screen for expressional candidate genes with putative roles in GIO. Microarray analysis combined with real-time RT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding GILZ ranked among the topmost regulated genes and was selected for functional characterization in vitro.

Results: GILZ mRNA was expressed by human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), osteoblasts differentiated from hMSC, and osteoclasts. GILZ was increased by dexamethasone in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hFOB. Inhibition of GILZ in hFOB cells by small interfering RNA decreased typical osteoblast-related genes, suggesting a physiological role in promoting osteoblast maturation. Our data further support a functional role for GILZ in normal bone remodeling by modulating expression of TNF-(ligand) receptor superfamily/osteoprotegerin in favor of increased ratio in hFOB. Finally, osteoclasts exposed to conditioned media from GILZ-silenced hFOB indicated effects on osteoclast activity.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results implicate the transcription factor GILZ in the pathophysiology of GIO by regulating osteoblast maturation and bone turnover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-0595DOI Listing
January 2010

Calmodulin-dependent kinase 1beta is expressed in the epiphyseal growth plate and regulates proliferation of mouse calvarial osteoblasts in vitro.

Bone 2008 Oct 20;43(4):700-7. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family is activated in response to elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and includes CaMK1 (as well as CaMK2 and CaMK4), which exists as different isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). CaMK1 is present in several cell types and may be involved in various cellular processes, but its role in bone is unknown. In situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial and temporal expression of CaMK1beta during endochondral bone development in mouse embryos and newborn pups. The cellular and subcellular distribution of CaMK1 was assessed by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy (EM). The role of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence its expression, while in parallel monitoring cell proliferation and levels of skeletogenic transcripts. cRNA in situ hybridization and EM studies show that CaMK1beta is mainly located in developing long bones and vertebrae (from ED14.5 until day 10 after birth), with highest expression in epiphyseal growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes. By RT-PCR, we show that CaMK1beta2 (but not beta1) is expressed in mouse hind limbs (in vivo) and mouse calvarial osteoblasts (in vitro), and also in primary human articular chondrocyte cultures. Silencing of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts by siRNA significantly decreases osteoblast proliferation and c-Fos gene expression (approx. 50%), without affecting skeletogenic markers for more differentiated osteoblasts (i.e. Cbfa1/Runx2, Osterix (Osx), Osteocalcin (Oc), Alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and Osteopontin (Opn)). These results identify CaMK1beta as a novel regulator of osteoblast proliferation, via mechanisms that may at least in part involve c-Fos, thus implicating CaMK1beta in the regulation of bone and cartilage development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.06.006DOI Listing
October 2008

Reduced bone mass and increased bone turnover in postmenopausal women with epilepsy using antiepileptic drug monotherapy.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2008 ;68(8):759-66

Department of Neurology, Division for Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Adult Epileptology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the occurrence of osteoporosis and fracture rate in Norwegian postmenopausal women with epilepsy using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and to investigate how AEDs may affect bone health.

Material And Methods: Twenty-six female patients receiving AED monotherapy and 26 individually matched healthy controls answered questions about their general health, lifestyle and previous fractures. For both groups, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA, and serum samples were analysed for biochemical bone turnover markers and haematological parameters.

Results: The patients, particularly those treated with enzyme-inducing AEDs, had significantly lower BMD than the controls. Additionally, 62 % of the women with epilepsy had osteoporotic T-values in one or more regions, compared with 27 % in the control group. There was a non-significant tendency towards an increased fracture rate among the patients. Markers for bone formation (ALP, bALP, osteocalcin) and bone resorption (Crosslaps) were elevated in the patient group compared with the controls.

Conclusions: Compared with the healthy controls, we found an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, probably due to increased bone turnover, among Norwegian postmenopausal women with epilepsy undergoing AED monotherapy, which may render these women especially vulnerable to fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365510802233442DOI Listing
January 2009

How can antiepileptic drugs affect bone mass, structure and metabolism? Lessons from animal studies.

Seizure 2008 Mar 3;17(2):187-91. Epub 2008 Jan 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

Patients with epilepsy, treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk of fractures. Although several commonly used AEDs reduce bone mass in patients, the mechanisms are only scarcely known. In this review, we focus on the usefulness of animal models to explore the skeletal effects of AEDs. Moreover, we report our findings from a recent study comparing the effect of levetiracetam (LEV), phenytoin (PHT) and valproate (VPA) on various aspects of bone health in actively growing female rats. Our data indicate that these AEDs act differently on bone mass, structure and metabolism. A novel finding is that LEV reduces bone strength and bone formation without altering bone mass. Based on these results we propose that epidemiological fracture studies of patients treated with LEV are needed, and that these patients should be evaluated regularly to identify possible bone-related side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2007.11.024DOI Listing
March 2008

Osteopenia, decreased bone formation and impaired osteoblast development in Sox4 heterozygous mice.

J Cell Sci 2007 Aug 24;120(Pt 16):2785-95. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

The transcription factor Sox4 is vital for fetal development, as Sox4(-/-) homozygotes die in utero. Sox4 mRNA is expressed in the early embryonic growth plate and is regulated by parathyroid hormone, but its function in bone modeling/remodeling is unknown. We report that Sox4(+/-) mice exhibit significantly lower bone mass (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) from an early age, and fail to obtain the peak bone mass of wild-type (WT) animals. Microcomputed tomography (muCT), histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of Sox4(+/-) bones show reduced trabecular and cortical thickness, growth plate width, ultimate force and stiffness compared with WT. Bone formation rate (BFR) in 3-month-old Sox4(+/-) mice is 64% lower than in WT. Primary calvarial osteoblasts from Sox4(+/-) mice demonstrate markedly inhibited proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. In these cultures, osterix (Osx) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA expression was reduced, whereas Runx2 mRNA was unaffected. No functional defects were found in osteoclasts. Silencing of Sox4 by siRNA in WT osteoblasts replicated the defects observed in Sox4(+/-) cells. We demonstrate inhibited formation and altered microarchitecture of bone in Sox4(+/-) mice versus WT, without apparent defects in bone resorption. Our results implicate the transcription factor Sox4 in regulation of bone formation, by acting upstream of Osx and independent of Runx2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.003855DOI Listing
August 2007

Levetiracetam, phenytoin, and valproate act differently on rat bone mass, structure, and metabolism.

Epilepsia 2007 Oct 18;48(10):1850-60. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is associated with increased risk of fractures. Phenytoin (PHT) and valproate (VPA) have both been suggested to influence bone health, whereas levetiracetam (LEV) is scarcely studied. The present study compares the effect of these AEDs on bone mass, biomechanical strength, and bone turnover in rats.

Methods: Female rats received PHT (50 mg/kg), VPA (300 mg/kg), or LEV (50 and 150 mg/kg) for 90 days. Dissected femurs were analyzed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), three-point cantilever bending, and histomorphological evaluation. Serum levels of biochemical bone turnover markers were monitored using immunoassay quantification.

Results: PHT and VPA reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in one or more bone compartments, whereas LEV did not. VPA induced increased bone turnover, whereas modest changes were observed for PHT. Interestingly, low-dose LEV was associated with reduced biomechanical strength of the femoral neck (mainly trabecular bone). In addition, low-dose LEV treatment resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation. Histomorphological analyses indicated increased retention of cartilage remnants at the growth plate metaphysis of rats treated with low-dose LEV vs. controls.

Conclusions: PHT, VPA, and LEV exert differential effects on bone mass and strength, suggesting different mechanisms of action. The weakening effect of low-dose LEV on the femoral neck, despite a constant BMD, suggests a primary effect on bone quality. These findings warrant further human studies of possible adverse effects of LEV on bone development and growth, particularly in children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01176.xDOI Listing
October 2007

Restoration of the coupling process and normalization of bone mass following successful treatment of endogenous Cushing's syndrome: a prospective, long-term study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2006 Jan;154(1):109-18

Section of Endocrinology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. However, the long-term outcome of treatment on bone health has not been adequately clarified.

Design: We followed 33 patients with active CS prospectively before and twice after treatment (mean follow-up 33 (n = 25) and 71 months (n = 18), respectively). The patients were compared to age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls, also followed longitudinally.

Methods: Bone mineral indices (bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area) were evaluated in the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total body (TB) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Biochemical markers of bone turnover were assessed by serum levels of osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptides of Type-1 collagen (CTX-1).

Results: Mann-Whitney rank sum tests showed that BMD of the LS, FN and TB was reduced by 14.8% (P < 0.001), 15.7% (P < 0.001), and 9.2% (P < 0.001) in CS vs. controls at baseline, with markedly reduced serum osteocalcin (P = 0.014) and increased CTX-1 (P = 0.012) levels, but no correlation between markers. At first follow-up, BMD was increased in LS (7.9%, P < 0.001) and FN (3.5%, P = 0.003) compared to baseline. The time-dependent rise in BMD (LS (r = 0.59; P = 0.002) and FN (r = 0.52; P = 0.007); Spearman's rank correlation), in CS was paralleled by increased osteocalcin (275%, P < 0.001) and correlation between biochemical markers (r = 0.92, P < 0.001; Pearson's correlation). TB BMD did not increase significantly before the second follow-up, when BMD Z-scores were normalized in all three compartments.

Conclusion: Our observations demonstrate restoration of coupled bone remodeling and normalization of bone mineral density in all measured skeletal compartments of treated CS patients after prolonged recovery, first significant in predominantly trabecular bone (i.e. lumbar spine).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/eje.1.02067DOI Listing
January 2006

Osteoclasts from patients with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type I caused by a T253I mutation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 are normal in vitro, but have decreased resorption capacity in vivo.

Am J Pathol 2005 Nov;167(5):1341-8

Pharmos Bioscience A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, Herlev, DK-2730, Ribe County Hospital, Esbjerg, and the University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type I (ADOI) is presumably caused by gain-of-function mutations in the LRP5 gene. Patients with a T253I mutation in LRP5 have a high bone mass phenotype, characterized by increased mineralizing surface index but abnormally low numbers of small osteoclasts. To investigate the effect of the T253I mutation in LRP5 on osteoclasts, we isolated CD14+ monocytes from ADOI patients and assessed their ability to generate osteoclasts when treated with RANKL and M-CSF compared to that of age- and sex-matched control osteoclasts. We found normal osteoclastogenesis, expression of osteoclast markers, morphology, and localization of proteins involved in bone resorption, such as ClC-7 and cathepsin K. The ability to resorb bone was also normal. In vivo, we compared the bone resorption and bone formation response to T3 in ADOI patients and age- and sex-matched controls. We found attenuated resorptive response to T3 stimulation, despite a normal bone formation response, in alignment with the reduced number of osteoclasts in vivo. These data demonstrate that ADOI osteoclasts are normal with respect to all aspects investigated in vitro. We speculate that the mutations causing ADOI alter the osteoblastic phenotype toward a smaller potential for supporting osteoclastogenesis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1603785PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61221-7DOI Listing
November 2005

Prognostic value of osteoprotegerin in heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2004 Nov;44(10):1970-6

Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, National University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: We sought to determine the relationship between osteoprotegerin (OPG) and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Background: Arterial calcification is a prominent feature of arterial atherosclerosis and is associated with the occurrence of AMI. Osteoprotegerin is a recently discovered member of the tumor necrosis superfamily that may link the skeletal with the vascular system.

Methods: We assayed plasma OPG levels in 234 patients with AMI complicated with HF and their relation to adverse outcomes during follow-up in patients randomly assigned to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II antagonism. Blood was sampled at baseline (median three days after AMI), one month, and at one and two years.

Results: Elevated plasma levels of OPG at baseline were associated with adverse outcomes during a median of 27 months follow-up; OPG remained an independent prognostic indicator also after adjustment for other known predictors of mortality and cardiovascular events after AMI (e.g., creatinine clearance, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). In non-survivors, plasma OPG levels were persistently elevated during longitudinal testing, suggesting that OPG may be of value for monitoring patients at risk.

Conclusions: Osteoprotegerin is a novel marker for cardiovascular mortality and clinical events in patients with AMI complicated with HF. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis suggesting a possible association between mediators of bone homeostasis and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.06.076DOI Listing
November 2004

Butyrate response factor 1 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in osteoblastic cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Nov;324(1):218-23

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts potent and diverse effects in bone and cartilage through activation of type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) capable of coupling to protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC. We have used macroarrays to identify zinc finger protein butyrate response factor-1 (BRF1) as a novel PTH regulated gene in clonal and normal osteoblasts of human and rodent origin. We further demonstrate that in human osteoblast-like OHS cells, biologically active hPTH(1-84) and hPTH(1-34) stimulate BRF1 mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the amino-terminally truncated hPTH(3-84) which does not activate PTH1R has no effect. Moreover, using specific stimulators or inhibitors of PKA and PKC activity, the PTH-elicited BRF1 mRNA expression is mediated through the PKA signaling pathway. In mouse calvarial osteoblasts, BRF1 mRNA levels are upregulated by PTH(1-84) and reduced in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Hence, our data showing that BRF1 is expressed in osteoblastic cells and regulated by PTH and BMP-2, suggest an important role for BRF1 in osteoblasts within the molecular network of PTH-dependent bone remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.030DOI Listing
November 2004

Molecular heterogeneity in human osteosarcoma demonstrated by enriched mRNAs isolated by directional tag PCR subtraction cloning.

Anticancer Res 2003 May-Jun;23(3B):2201-16

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 N-Oslo, Norway.

Directional tag PCR subtractive hybridization was applied to construct a cDNA library generated from three different human osteosarcoma (OS) target cell lines (OHS, SaOS-2 and KPDXM) from which normal osteoblast (NO) sequences were subtracted. After two consecutive subtractive steps more than 98% of the common mRNAs species were depleted, leading to effective enrichment of the remaining target sequences. After differential screening of 960 clones, 81 candidates were further studied by Northern blot analysis and 73 represented separate mRNA species. Fifty-three of these showed enriched mRNA levels, of which 36 represented known and 17 not previously published cDNAs or EST sequences. The mRNAs showed a 1.4- to 504-fold enrichment compared to the mRNA levels in NO cells. The known mRNAs are: Ribosomal protein S11, KSP-37, Tethering factor SEC34, FXYD6, Alpha enolase, G-s-alpha, GPR85, DAF, RPL35A, GIF, TAPA-1, ANAPC11, DCI, hsp27, MRPS7 homolog, eIF p110 subunit, DPH2L, HMG-14, FB1 protein, chondroitin-6-sulphonase, calgizzarin, RNA polymerase II subunit, RPL13A, DHS, gp96, HHP2, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P2, ANT-2, ARF1, AFG3L2, SKD3, phosphoglucoisomerase, GST pi, CKI gamma 2, DNA polymerase delta small subunit and TRAP delta. Sections of human osteosarcoma biopsies and a xenograft were studied by in situ analysis. Seven cDNAs highly expressed in Northern blot analysis were tested. Their in situ expression differed between the xenograft and human sections as did that of collagen I. In the xenograft made from one of the target cell lines (OHS), a fair to strong representation of 3 cloned mRNAs was observed while collagen I mRNA was not detectable. We conclude that the molecular heterogeneity of these tumors is considerable. These results ought to have implications for future work to describe phenotypic subtypes with the aim of improving the diagnosis of human osteosarcomas.
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August 2003