Publications by authors named "Rula N Khoury"

4 Publications

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Prevalence and determinants of current and secondhand smoking in Greece: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) study.

BMJ Open 2017 01 19;7(1):e013150. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Objectives: Greece is one of the leading tobacco-producing countries in European Union, and every year over 19 000 Greeks die from tobacco-attributable diseases. The aim of the present study was to provide nationally representative estimates on current and secondhand smoking prevalence in Greece and their determinants.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Greece.

Participants: A total of 4359 individuals participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a household survey of adults ≥15 years old (overall response rate 69%). They were selected through a multistage geographically clustered sampling design with face-to-face interview.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: In 2013, we investigated the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking and their determinants. Univariate and logistic regression analysis was used in order to identify possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of current and secondhand smoking.

Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 38.2% (95% CI 35.7% to 40.8%), and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 19.8. Multivariate analysis confirmed that male gender (OR=3.24; 95% CI 2.62 to 4.00), age groups (25-39, OR=4.49; 95% CI 3.09 to 8.46 and 40-54, OR=3.51; 95% CI 1.88 to 5.87) and high school education (OR=1.97; 95% CI 1.41 to 2.74) were independently associated with the current smoking. Remarkably, responders with primary or less education had the lowest prevalence of current smoking (p<0.001). The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at work, home and restaurants, was 52.3%, 65.7% and 72.2%. In total, 90.0% (95% CI 87.8% to 91.9%) of Greek population is exposed to tobacco smoke (current smoking and secondhand smoke).

Conclusions: Our results revealed an extremely high prevalence of current smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke among the adult population and a positive gradient between education and current smoking. These findings are alarming and implementation of comprehensive tobacco control and prevention strategies could be impactful in fighting the tobacco epidemic in Greece.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253573PMC
January 2017

Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

Nicotine Tob Res 2016 Apr 20;18(4):501-7. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Global Tobacco Control Branch, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA;

Introduction: Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries.

Methods: Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users.

Results: Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers.

Conclusions: E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100820PMC
April 2016

Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):3-23. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499800DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to anti- and pro-tobacco advertising, promotions or sponsorships: Turkey, 2008.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):58-67. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey.

Methods: We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis.

Results: Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was seen by slightly more cigarette smokers (91.6%) than nonsmokers (87.6%). Persons with less than a primary education were less likely to notice anti-cigarette information than those with a higher level of education, in all examined media channels.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a low prevalence of noticing cigarette marketing, which indicates high compliance with the Turkish law banning such marketing. GATS data provide an in-depth understanding of the level of exposure to pro- and anti-cigarette information in 2008 and they are of practical assistance to those who implement policies to reduce the demand for tobacco. The challenge now is to maintain rigorous enforcement. To do so requires ongoing surveillance to produce data on the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913502369DOI Listing
June 2016