Publications by authors named "Rukshana Shroff"

137 Publications

Peritoneal dialysis in children: Reaching milestones but room for growth.

Authors:
Rukshana Shroff

Perit Dial Int 2021 Mar;41(2):137-138

4919University College London Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860821995385DOI Listing
March 2021

Hemodiafiltration maintains a sustained improvement in blood pressure compared to conventional hemodialysis in children-the HDF, heart and height (3H) study.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

University College London Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Hypertension is prevalent in children on dialysis and associated with cardiovascular disease. We studied the blood pressure (BP) trends and the evolution of BP over 1 year in children on conventional hemodialysis (HD) vs. hemodiafiltration (HDF).

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the "3H - HDF-Hearts-Height" dataset, a multicenter, parallel-arm observational study. Seventy-eight children on HD and 55 on HDF who had three 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) measures over 1 year were included. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated and hypertension defined as 24-h MAP standard deviation score (SDS) ≥95th percentile.

Results: Poor agreement between pre-dialysis systolic BP-SDS and 24-h MAP was found (mean difference - 0.6; 95% limits of agreement -4.9-3.8). At baseline, 82% on HD and 44% on HDF were hypertensive, with uncontrolled hypertension in 88% vs. 25% respectively; p < 0.001. At 12 months, children on HDF had consistently lower MAP-SDS compared to those on HD (p < 0.001). Over 1-year follow-up, the HD group had mean MAP-SDS increase of +0.98 (95%CI 0.77-1.20; p < 0.0001), whereas the HDF group had a non-significant increase of +0.15 (95%CI -0.10-0.40; p = 0.23). Significant predictors of MAP-SDS were dialysis modality (β = +0.83 [95%CI +0.51 - +1.15] HD vs. HDF, p < 0.0001) and higher inter-dialytic-weight-gain (IDWG)% (β = 0.13 [95%CI 0.06-0.19]; p = 0.0003).

Conclusions: Children on HD had a significant and sustained increase in BP over 1 year compared to a stable BP in those on HDF, despite an equivalent dialysis dose. Higher IDWG% was associated with higher 24-h MAP-SDS in both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-04930-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Countermeasures against COVID-19: how to navigate medical practice through a nascent, evolving evidence base - a European multicentre mixed methods study.

BMJ Open 2021 02 17;11(2):e043015. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Objectives: In a previously published Delphi exercise the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) reported widely variable counteractive responses to COVID-19 during the first week of statutory public curfews in 12 European countries with case loads of 4-680 infected patients per million. To better understand these wide variations, we assessed different factors affecting countermeasure implementation rates and applied the capability, opportunity, motivation model of behaviour to describe their determinants.

Design: We undertook this international mixed methods study of increased depth and breadth to obtain more complete data and to better understand the resulting complex evidence.

Setting: This study was conducted in 14 paediatric nephrology centres across 12 European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Participants: The 14 participants were paediatric nephrologists and EPDWG members from 12 European centres.

Main Outcome Measures: 52 countermeasures clustered into eight response domains (access control, patient testing, personnel testing, personal protective equipment policy, patient cohorting, personnel cohorting, suspension of routine care, remote work) were categorised by implementation status, drivers (expert opinion, hospital regulations) and resource dependency. Governmental strictness and media attitude were independently assessed for each country and correlated with relevant countermeasure implementation factors.

Results: Implementation rates varied widely among response domains (median 49.5%, range 20%-71%) and centres (median 46%, range 31%-62%). Case loads were insufficient to explain response rate variability. Increasing case loads resulted in shifts from expert opinion-based to hospital regulation-based decisions to implement additional countermeasures despite increased resource dependency. Higher governmental strictness and positive media attitude towards countermeasure implementation were associated with higher implementation rates.

Conclusions: COVID-19 countermeasure implementation by paediatric tertiary care centres did not reflect case loads but rather reflected heterogeneity of local rules and of perceived resources. These data highlight the need of ongoing reassessment of current practices, facilitating rapid change in 'institutional behavior' in response to emerging evidence of countermeasure efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893209PMC
February 2021

Influenza and pneumococcus vaccination rates in pediatric dialysis patients in Europe: Recommendations vs reality A European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group and European Society for Pediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group Study.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Background: Children on dialysis are under increased risk of influenza and invasive pneumococcal disease. Although, vaccination against these microorganisms are recommended in dialysis patients and despite the fact that these vaccines can reduce disease burden and rates of hospitalization due to infection, vaccination rates are below expected and desired. We aimed to evaluate influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and infection rates in European pediatric dialysis centers.

Methods: In 16 centers from 11 countries, 357 pediatric dialysis patients were evaluated retrospectively during one year of observation period between 01.01.2014 and 01.01.2015.

Results: In all centers, vaccination policy included immunization of dialysis patients with inactive influenza vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). 50% of centers recommended pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine following routine PCV series. Significantly higher pneumococcal vaccination rate (43.9 %) was seen in PD patients compared to those on HD (32.9 %) (p=0.035), while the rates for influenza were similar (42.4 % and 46.1 respectively, p=0.496). Among all dialysis patients, 2,2 % (n=8) developed pneumonia and 6.4 % (n=23) infected by influenza. Pneumococcic pneumonia rate was 5 % for 140 patients who received anti-pneumococcal vaccine, while only one pneumonia episode was recorded out of 217 unvaccinated patients (p=0.007). The influenza virus infection rates were similar for patients vaccinated and non-vaccinated (7 % and 6 %, respectively).

Conclusions: Although influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are highly recommended in pediatric dialysis patients, vaccination rates were lower than expected. Pneumococcal vaccination rates were higher in PD compared to the patients on HD. The rate of children with influenza infection was higher than pneumonia. The efficacy of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines was highlighted by the low infection rates. Higher pneumonia rates in patients vaccinated against pneumococcus compared to unvaccinated ones might be due to coexisting risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2012-26DOI Listing
February 2021

At least 156 reasons to prioritise COVID-19 vaccination in patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Division of Nephrology, Miulli General Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab007DOI Listing
January 2021

Determining the optimal cholecalciferol dosing regimen in children with CKD: a randomized controlled trial.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Renal Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background And Objectives: The optimal treatment regimen for correcting 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not known. We compared cholecalciferol dosing regimens for achieving and maintaining 25OHD concentrations ≥30ng/ml in children with CKD stages 2-4.

Design: An open-label multicenter randomized controlled trial randomized children with 25OHD concentrations<30ng/ml in 1:1:1 to oral cholecalciferol 3,000 IU daily, 25,000 IU weekly, or 100,000 IU monthly for 3-months (maximum 3 intensive courses).In those with 25OHD ≥30ng/ml 1,000IU cholecalciferol daily (maintenance course) was given for up to 9 months. Primary outcome was achieving 25OHD≥30 ng/ml at end of intensive phase treatment.

Results: 90 children were randomized to daily(n = 30), weekly(n = 29) or monthly(n = 31) treatment groups. At end of intensive phase, 70/90(77.8%) achieved 25OHD ≥30ng/ml; 25OHD concentrations were comparable between groups (median 44.3, 39.4, and 39.3 ng/ml for daily, weekly, and monthly groups respectively; p = 0.24) with no difference between groups for time to achieve 25OHD ≥30ng/ml (p = 0.28). There was no change in calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone, but fibroblast growth factor 23(p = 0.002) and klotho(p = 0.001) concentrations significantly increased and were comparable in all treatment groups. Irrespective of dosing regimen, children with glomerular disease had 25OHD concentrations lower than non-glomerular disease (25.8 vs 41.8 ng/ml; p = 0.007). One child had 25OHD concentration of 134 ng/ml and 5.5% had hypercalcemia without symptoms of toxicity.

Conclusion: Intensive treatment with oral cholecalciferol as daily, weekly or monthly regimens achieved similar 25OHD concentrations between treatment groups without toxicity. Children with glomerular disease required higher doses of cholecalciferol compared to those with non-glomerular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa369DOI Listing
December 2020

Assessment of nutritional status in children with kidney diseases-clinical practice recommendations from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Apr 14;36(4):995-1010. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA.

In children with kidney diseases, an assessment of the child's growth and nutritional status is important to guide the dietary prescription. No single metric can comprehensively describe the nutrition status; therefore, a series of indices and tools are required for evaluation. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT) is an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists who develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) for the nutritional management of children with kidney diseases. Herein, we present CPRs for nutritional assessment, including measurement of anthropometric and biochemical parameters and evaluation of dietary intake. The statements have been graded using the American Academy of Pediatrics grading matrix. Statements with a low grade or those that are opinion-based must be carefully considered and adapted to individual patient needs based on the clinical judgment of the treating physician and dietitian. Audit and research recommendations are provided. The CPRs will be periodically audited and updated by the PRNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04852-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Bone evaluation in paediatric chronic kidney disease: clinical practice points from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology CKD-MBD and Dialysis working groups and CKD-MBD working group of the ERA-EDTA.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Feb;36(3):413-425

Department of Paediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School Children's Hospital, Hannover, Germany.

Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is widely prevalent in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with significant morbidity. CKD may cause disturbances in bone remodelling/modelling, which are more pronounced in the growing skeleton, manifesting as short stature, bone pain and deformities, fractures, slipped epiphyses and ectopic calcifications. Although assessment of bone health is a key element in the clinical care of children with CKD, it remains a major challenge for physicians. On the one hand, bone biopsy with histomorphometry is the gold standard for assessing bone health, but it is expensive, invasive and requires expertise in the interpretation of bone histology. On the other hand, currently available non-invasive measures, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and biomarkers of bone formation/resorption, are affected by growth and pubertal status and have limited sensitivity and specificity in predicting changes in bone turnover and mineralization. In the absence of high-quality evidence, there are wide variations in clinical practice in the diagnosis and management of CKD-MBD in childhood. We present clinical practice points (CPPs) on the assessment of bone disease in children with CKD Stages 2-5 and on dialysis based on the best available evidence and consensus of experts from the CKD-MBD and Dialysis working groups of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology and the CKD-MBD working group of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association. These CPPs should be carefully considered by treating physicians and adapted to individual patients' needs as appropriate. Further areas for research are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa210DOI Listing
February 2021

Active vitamin D is cardioprotective in experimental uraemia but not in children with CKD Stages 3-5.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Feb;36(3):442-451

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School Children's Hospital, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Uraemic cardiac remodelling is associated with vitamin D and Klotho deficiency, elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The cardioprotective properties of active vitamin D analogues in this setting are unclear.

Methods: In rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) treated with calcitriol, the cardiac phenotype and local RAS activation were investigated compared with controls. A nested case-control study was performed within the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) study, including children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 3-5 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25 mL/min/1.73 m2] treated with and without active vitamin D. Echocardiograms, plasma FGF23 and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were assessed at baseline and after 9 months.

Results: In rats with 5/6Nx, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV fibrosis and upregulated cardiac RAS were dose-dependently attenuated by calcitriol. Calcitriol further stimulated FGF23 synthesis in bone but not in the heart, and normalized suppressed renal Klotho expression. In the 4C study cohort, treatment over a mean period of 9 months with active vitamin D was associated with increased FGF23 and phosphate and decreased sKlotho and eGFR compared with vitamin D naïve controls, whereas LV mass index did not differ between groups.

Conclusions: Active vitamin D ameliorates cardiac remodelling and normalizes renal Klotho expression in 5/6Nx rats but does not improve the cardiac phenotype in children with CKD Stages 3-5. This discrepancy may be due to further enhancement of circulating FGF23 and faster progression of CKD associated with reduced sKlotho and higher serum phosphate in vitamin D-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa227DOI Listing
February 2021

Serum indoxyl sulfate concentrations associate with progression of chronic kidney disease in children.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(10):e0240446. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a consequence of altered gut microbiota metabolism and a decline in renal excretion. Despite of solid experimental evidence for nephrotoxic effects, the impact of uremic toxins on the progression of CKD has not been investigated in representative patient cohorts. In this analysis, IS and pCS serum concentrations were measured in 604 pediatric participants (mean eGFR of 27 ± 11 ml/min/1.73m2) at enrolment into the prospective Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study. Associations with progression of CKD were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazard models. During a median follow up time of 2.2 years (IQR 4.3-0.8 years), the composite renal survival endpoint, defined as 50% loss of eGFR, or eGFR <10ml/min/1.73m2 or start of renal replacement therapy, was reached by 360 patients (60%). Median survival time was shorter in patients with IS and pCS levels in the highest versus lowest quartile for both IS (1.5 years, 95%CI [1.1,2.0] versus 6.0 years, 95%CI [5.0,8.4]) and pCS (1.8 years, 95%CI [1.5,2.8] versus 4.4 years, 95%CI [3.4,6.0]). Multivariable Cox regression disclosed a significant association of IS, but not pCS, with renal survival, which was independent of other risk factors including baseline eGFR, proteinuria and blood pressure. In this exploratory analysis we provide the first data showing a significant association of IS, but not pCS serum concentrations with the progression of CKD in children, independent of other known risk factors. In the absence of comorbidities, which interfere with serum levels of uremic toxins, such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, these results highlight the important role of uremic toxins and accentuate the unmet need of effective elimination strategies to lower the uremic toxin burden and abate progression of CKD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240446PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591021PMC
December 2020

Routine serum biomarkers, but not dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, correlate with cortical bone mineral density in children and young adults with chronic kidney disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Great Ormond St Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Biomarkers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are thought to be poor predictors of bone mineral density (BMD). The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines suggest using DXA if the results will affect patient management, but this has not been studied in children or young adults in whom bone mineral accretion continues to 30 years of age. We studied the clinical utility of DXA and serum biomarkers against tibial cortical BMD (CortBMD) measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, expressed as Z-score CortBMD, which predicts fracture risk.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicentre study in 26 patients with CKD4 and 5 and 77 on dialysis.

Results: Significant bone pain that hindered activities of daily living was present in 58%, and 10% had at least one low-trauma fracture. CortBMD and cortical mineral content Z-scores were lower in dialysis compared with CKD patients (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02). DXA BMD hip and lumbar spine Z-scores did not correlate with CortBMD or biomarkers. CortBMD was negatively associated with parathyroid hormone (PTH; r = -0.44, P < 0.0001) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; r = -0.22, P = 0.03) and positively with calcium (Ca; r = 0.33, P = 0.001). At PTH <3 times upper limit of normal, none of the patients had a CortBMD below -2 SD (odds ratio 95% confidence interval 7.331 to infinity). On multivariable linear regression PTH (β = -0.43 , P < 0.0001), ALP (β = -0.36, P < 0.0001) and Ca (β = 0.21, P = 0.005) together predicted 57% of variability in CortBMD. DXA measures did not improve this model.

Conclusions: Taken together, routinely used biomarkers, PTH, ALP and Ca, but not DXA, are moderate predictors of cortical BMD. DXA is not clinically useful and should not be routinely performed in children and young adults with CKD 4-5D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa199DOI Listing
October 2020

Update on the creation and maintenance of arteriovenous fistulas for haemodialysis in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 Oct 15. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

"Mitera" Children's Hospital, Maroussi, Athens, Greece.

Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are widely used for haemodialysis (HD) in adults with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD 5) and are generally considered the best form of vascular access (VA). The 'Fistula First' initiative in 2003 helped to change the culture of VA in adults. However, this cultural change has not yet been adopted in children despite the fact that a functioning AVF is associated with lower complication rates and longer access survival than a central venous line (CVL). For children with CKD 5, especially when kidney failure starts early in life, there is a risk that all VA options will be exhausted. Therefore, it is essential to develop long-term strategies for optimal VA creation and maintenance. Whilst AVFs are the preferred VA in the paediatric population on chronic HD, they may not be suitable for every child. Recent guidelines and observational data in the paediatric CKD 5 population recommend switching from a 'Catheter First' to 'Catheter Last' approach. In this review, recent evidence is summarized in order to promote change in current practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04746-6DOI Listing
October 2020

Severe neurological outcomes after very early bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD).

Sci Rep 2020 09 29;10(1):16025. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Cologne and University of Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

To test the association between bilateral nephrectomies in patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and long-term clinical outcome and to identify risk factors for severe outcomes, a dataset comprising 504 patients from the international registry study ARegPKD was analyzed for characteristics and complications of patients with very early (≤ 3 months; VEBNE) and early (4-15 months; EBNE) bilateral nephrectomies. Patients with very early dialysis (VED, onset ≤ 3 months) without bilateral nephrectomies and patients with total kidney volumes (TKV) comparable to VEBNE infants served as additional control groups. We identified 19 children with VEBNE, 9 with EBNE, 12 with VED and 11 in the TKV control group. VEBNE patients suffered more frequently from severe neurological complications in comparison to all control patients. Very early bilateral nephrectomies and documentation of severe hypotensive episodes were independent risk factors for severe neurological complications. Bilateral nephrectomies within the first 3 months of life are associated with a risk of severe neurological complications later in life. Our data support a very cautious indication of very early bilateral nephrectomies in ARPKD, especially in patients with residual kidney function, and emphasize the importance of avoiding severe hypotensive episodes in this at-risk cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71956-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525474PMC
September 2020

Pathophysiology and consequences of arterial stiffness in children with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 Sep 7. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Changes in arterial structure and function are seen early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have been causally associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity. Numerous potential injuries encompassing both traditional and uremia-specific CV risk factors can induce structural arterial changes and accelerate arterial stiffening. When the buffering capacity of the normally elastic arteries is reduced, damage to vulnerable microcirculatory beds can occur. Moreover, the resultant increase to cardiac afterload contributes to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Adult studies have linked arterial stiffness with increased risk of mortality, CV events, cognitive decline, and CKD progression. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is currently the gold standard of arterial stiffness assessment but its measurement in children is challenging due to technical difficulties and physiologic aspects related to growth and poor standardization between algorithms for calculating PWV. Nevertheless, studies in pediatric CKD have reported increased arterial stiffness in children with advanced CKD, on dialysis, and after kidney transplantation. Development of arterial stiffness in children with CKD is closely related to mineral-bone disease and hypertension, but other factors may also play a significant role. The clinical relevance of accelerated arterial stiffness in childhood on cardiovascular outcomes in adult life remains unclear, and prospective studies are needed. In this review we discuss mechanisms leading to arterial stiffness in CKD and its clinical implications, along with issues surrounding the technical aspects of arterial stiffness assessment in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04732-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Quality and use of unlicensed vitamin D preparations in primary care in England: Retrospective review of national prescription data and laboratory analysis.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Aug 16. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Renal Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aim: To evaluate the type (licensed vs unlicensed) and cost of preparations used to fulfil vitamin D prescriptions in England over time, and to compare measured vitamin D content of selected vitamin D preparations against labelled claim.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of vitamin D prescription data in primary care in England (2008-2018). Laboratory analysis of 13 selected vitamin D preparations.

Results: Alongside a rise in the number of oral licensed colecalciferol preparations from 0 to 27 between 2012 and 2018, the proportion of vitamin D prescriptions in which licensed vitamin D preparations were supplied increased from 11.8 to 54.2%. However, the use of unlicensed food supplements (dose strength 400-50 000 IU) remained high, accounting for 39.7% of vitamin D prescriptions in 2018. The two licensed preparations showed mean (±SD) vitamin D content of 90.9 ± 0.7% and 90.5 ± 3.9% of the labelled claimed amount, meeting the British Pharmacopeia specification for licensed medicines (90-125% of labelled claim). The 11 food supplements showed vitamin D content ranging from 41.2 ± 10.6% to 165.3 ± 17.8% of the labelled claim, with eight of the preparations failing to comply with the food supplement specification (80-150% of labelled claim).

Conclusions: Despite the increasing availability of quality assured licensed preparations, food supplements continued to be used interchangeably with licensed preparations to fulfil vitamin D prescriptions. Food supplements, manufactured under less stringent quality standards, showed wide variations between measured and declared vitamin D content, which could lead to the risk of under- and over-dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14521DOI Listing
August 2020

Naturally Occurring Stable Calcium Isotope Ratios in Body Compartments Provide a Novel Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance in Children and Young Adults.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Jan 11;36(1):133-142. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Serum calcium (Ca), bone biomarkers, and radiological imaging do not allow accurate evaluation of bone mineral balance (BMB), a key determinant of bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. We studied naturally occurring stable (non-radioactive) Ca isotopes in different body pools as a potential biomarker of BMB. Ca and Ca are absorbed from our diet and sequestered into different body compartments following kinetic principles of isotope fractionation; isotopically light Ca is preferentially incorporated into bone, whereas heavier Ca preferentially remains in blood and is excreted in urine and feces. Their ratio (δ Ca) in serum and urine increases during bone formation and decreases with bone resorption. In 117 healthy participants, we measured Ca isotopes, biomarkers, and BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and tibial peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Ca and Ca were measured by multi-collector ionization-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry in serum, urine, and feces. The relationship between bone Ca gain and loss was calculated using a compartment model. δ Ca and δ Ca were higher in children (n = 66, median age 13 years) compared with adults (n = 51, median age 28 years; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.008, respectively). δ Ca increased with height in boys (p < 0.001, R = 0.65) and was greatest at Tanner stage 4. δ Ca correlated positively with biomarkers of bone formation (25-hydroxyvitaminD [p < 0.0001, R = 0.37] and alkaline phosphatase [p = 0.009, R = 0.18]) and negatively with bone resorption marker parathyroid hormone (PTH; p = 0.03, R = 0.13). δ Ca strongly positively correlated with tibial cortical BMD Z-score (n = 62; p < 0.001, R = 0.39) but not DXA. Independent predictors of tibial cortical BMD Z-score were δ Ca (p = 0.004, β = 0.37), 25-hydroxyvitaminD (p = 0.04, β = 0.19) and PTH (p = 0.03, β = -0.13), together predicting 76% of variability. In conclusion, naturally occurring Ca isotope ratios in different body compartments may provide a novel, non-invasive method of assessing bone mineralization. Defining an accurate biomarker of BMB could form the basis of future studies investigating Ca dynamics in disease states and the impact of treatments that affect bone homeostasis. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4158DOI Listing
January 2021

Delivery of a nutritional prescription by enteral tube feeding in children with chronic kidney disease stages 2-5 and on dialysis-clinical practice recommendations from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jan 29;36(1):187-204. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

The Biomedical Research Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Child Health, University College Londonfig, WC1N 3JH, London, UK.

The nutritional prescription (whether in the form of food or liquid formulas) may be taken orally when a child has the capacity for spontaneous intake by mouth, but may need to be administered partially or completely by nasogastric tube or gastrostomy device ("enteral tube feeding"). The relative use of each of these methods varies both within and between countries. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT), an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, has developed clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) based on evidence where available, or on the expert opinion of the Taskforce members, using a Delphi process to seek consensus from the wider community of experts in the field. We present CPRs for delivery of the nutritional prescription via enteral tube feeding to children with chronic kidney disease stages 2-5 and on dialysis. We address the types of enteral feeding tubes, when they should be used, placement techniques, recommendations and contraindications for their use, and evidence for their effects on growth parameters. Statements with a low grade of evidence, or based on opinion, must be considered and adapted for the individual patient by the treating physician and dietitian according to their clinical judgement. Research recommendations have been suggested. The CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04623-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701061PMC
January 2021

Rapid response in the COVID-19 pandemic: a Delphi study from the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 09 17;35(9):1669-1678. Epub 2020 May 17.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Gastroenterology, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: COVID-19 was declared a global health emergency. Since children are less than 1% of reported cases, there is limited information to develop evidence-based practice recommendations. The objective of this study was to rapidly gather expert knowledge and experience to guide the care of children with chronic kidney disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A four-round multi-center Delphi exercise was conducted among 13 centers in 11 European countries of the European Pediatric Dialysis Working Group (EPDWG) between March, 16th and 20th 2020. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods qualitative approach and descriptive statistics.

Results: Thirteen COVID-19 specific topics of particular need for guidance were identified. Main themes encompassed testing strategies and results (n = 4), changes in use of current therapeutics (n = 3), preventive measurements of transmission and management of COVID-19 (n = 3), and changes in standard clinical care (n = 3). Patterns of center-specific responses varied according to regulations and to availability of guidelines.

Conclusions: As limited quantitative evidence is available in real time during the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, qualitative expert knowledge and experience represent the best evidence available. This Delphi exercise demonstrates that use of mixed methodologies embedded in an established network of experts allowed prompt analysis of pediatric nephrologists' response to COVID-19 during this fast-emerging public health crisis. Such rapid sharing of knowledge and local practices is essential to timely and optimal guidance for medical management of specific patient groups in multi-country health care systems such as those of Europe and the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04584-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230035PMC
September 2020

Dietary calcium intake does not meet the nutritional requirements of children with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 10 8;35(10):1915-1923. Epub 2020 May 8.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, WC1N 3JH, UK.

Background: Adequate calcium (Ca) intake is required for bone mineralization in children. We assessed Ca intake from diet and medications in children with CKD stages 4-5 and on dialysis (CKD4-5D) and age-matched controls, comparing with the UK Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI) and international recommendations.

Methods: Three-day prospective diet diaries were recorded in 23 children with CKD4-5, 23 with CKD5D, and 27 controls. Doses of phosphate (P) binders and Ca supplements were recorded.

Results: Median dietary Ca intake in CKD4-5D was 480 (interquartile range (IQR) 300-621) vs 724 (IQR 575-852) mg/day in controls (p = 0.00002), providing 81% vs 108% RNI (p = 0.002). Seventy-six percent of patients received < 100% RNI. In CKD4-5D, 40% dietary Ca was provided from dairy foods vs 56% in controls. Eighty percent of CKD4-5D children were prescribed Ca-based P-binders, 15% Ca supplements, and 9% both medications, increasing median daily Ca intake to 1145 (IQR 665-1649) mg/day; 177% RNI. Considering the total daily Ca intake from diet and medications, 15% received < 100% RNI, 44% 100-200% RNI, and 41% > 200% RNI. Three children (6%) exceeded the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) upper limit of 2500 mg/day. None with a total Ca intake < RNI was hypocalcemic, and only one having > 2 × RNI was hypercalcemic.

Conclusions: Seventy-six percent of children with CKD4-5D had a dietary Ca intake < 100% RNI. Restriction of dairy foods as part of a P-controlled diet limits Ca intake. Additional Ca from medications is required to meet the KDOQI guideline of 100-200% normal recommended Ca intake. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04571-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501104PMC
October 2020

Discontinuation of RAAS Inhibition in Children with Advanced CKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 05 6;15(5):625-632. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Although renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition (RAASi) is a cornerstone in the treatment of children with CKD, it is sometimes discontinued when kidney function declines. We studied the reasons of RAASi discontinuation and associations between RAASi discontinuation and important risk markers of CKD progression and on eGFR decline in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this study, 69 children with CKD (67% male, mean age 13.7 years, mean eGFR 27 ml/min per 1.73 m) who discontinued RAASi during prospective follow-up were included. Initial change in BP, albuminuria, and potassium after discontinuation were assessed (median time 6 months). Rate of eGFR decline (eGFR slope) during a median of 1.9 years before and 1.2 years after discontinuation were estimated using linear mixed effects modeling.

Results: Physician-reported reasons for RAASi discontinuation were increase in serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, and symptomatic hypotension. After discontinuation of RAASi, BP and albuminuria increased, whereas potassium decreased. eGFR declined more rapidly after discontinuation of RAASi (-3.9 ml/min per 1.73 m per year; 95% confidence interval, -5.1 to -2.6) compared with the slope during RAASi treatment (-1.5 ml/min per 1.73 m per year; 95% confidence interval, -2.4 to -0.6; =0.005). In contrast, no change in eGFR slope was observed in a matched control cohort of patients in whom RAASi was continued.

Conclusions: Discontinuation of RAASi in children with CKD is associated with an acceleration of kidney function decline, even in advanced CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.09750819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269205PMC
May 2020

Prescribing peritoneal dialysis for high-quality care in children.

Perit Dial Int 2020 05 17;40(3):333-340. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) remains the most widely used modality for chronic dialysis in children, particularly in younger children and in lower and middle income countries (LMICs). We present guidelines for dialysis initiation, modality selection, small solute clearance, and fluid removal in children on PD. A review of the literature and key studies that support these statements are presented.

Methods: An extensive Medline search for all publications on PD in children was performed using predefined search criteria.

Results: High-quality randomized trials in children are scarce and current clinical practice largely relies on data extrapolated from adult studies or drawn from observational cohort studies in children. The evidence and strength of the recommendation is GRADE-ed, but in the absence of high-quality evidence, the opinion of the authors is provided and must be carefully considered by the treating physician, and adapted to local expertise and individual patient needs as appropriate. We discuss the timing of dialysis initiation, factors to be considered when selecting a dialysis modality, the assessment and management of volume status on PD, achieving optimal small solute clearance, and the importance of preserving residual kidney function. While optimal dialysis must remain the goal for every patient, a careful discussion with fully informed patients and caregivers is important to understand the patient and family's expectations of dialysis and reasonable adjustments to the dialysis program may be considered in accordance with a philosophy of shared decision-making.

Conclusions: There continues to be very poor evidence in the field of chronic PD in children and these recommendations can at best serve to guide clinical decision-making. In LMICs, every effort should be made to conform to the framework of these statements, taking into account resource limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0896860819893805DOI Listing
May 2020

Free 25-hydroxyvitamin-D concentrations are lower in children with renal transplant compared with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 06 22;35(6):1069-1079. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Renal Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is considered the best marker of vitamin D status and used routinely in clinical practice. However, 25(OH)D is predominantly bound to vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), and it has been reported that the free-25(OH)D and 25(OH)D loosely bound to albumin fraction correlates better with clinical outcomes.

Methods: We assessed total-25(OH)D, measured free-25(OH)D, and calculated free-25(OH)D and their relationship with VDBP and biomarkers of mineral metabolism in 61 children (22 CKD 2-3, 18 dialysis, and 21 post-transplant).

Results: Total-25(OH)D concentrations were comparable across the three groups (p = 0.09), but free- and bioavailable-25(OH)D (free- and albumin-25(OH)D) were significantly lower in the transplant group (both: p = 0.01). Compared to CKD and dialysis patients, the transplant group had significantly higher VDBP concentrations (p = 0.03). In all three groups, total-25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with measured free-, calculated free-, and bioavailable-25(OH)D. Multivariable regression analysis showed that total-25(OH)D was the only predictor of measured free-25(OH)D concentrations in the dialysis group (β = 0.9; R = 90%). In the transplant group, measured free-25(OH)D concentrations were predicted by both total-25(OH)D and VDBP concentrations (β = 0.6, - 0.6, respectively; R = 80%). Correlations between parathyroid hormone with total-25(OH)D and measured and calculated free-25(OH)D were only observed in the transplant group (all: p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In transplanted patients, VDBP concentrations were significantly higher compared to CKD and dialysis patients, and consequently, free-25(OH)D concentrations were lower, despite a comparable total-25(OH)D concentration. We suggest that free-25(OH)D measures may be required in children with CKD, dialysis, and transplant, with further research required to understand its association with markers of mineral metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04472-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184055PMC
June 2020

Energy and protein requirements for children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis-clinical practice recommendations from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 03 16;35(3):519-531. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Dietary management in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an area fraught with uncertainties and wide variations in practice. Even in tertiary pediatric nephrology centers, expert dietetic input is often lacking. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT), an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, was established to develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) to address these challenges and to serve as a resource for nutritional care. We present CPRs for energy and protein requirements for children with CKD stages 2-5 and those on dialysis (CKD2-5D). We address energy requirements in the context of poor growth, obesity, and different levels of physical activity, together with the additional protein needs to compensate for dialysate losses. We describe how to achieve the dietary prescription for energy and protein using breastmilk, formulas, food, and dietary supplements, which can be incorporated into everyday practice. Statements with a low grade of evidence, or based on opinion, must be considered and adapted for the individual patient by the treating physician and dietitian according to their clinical judgment. Research recommendations have been suggested. The CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04426-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968982PMC
March 2020

Vitamin D prescribing in children in UK primary care practices: a population-based cohort study.

BMJ Open 2019 12 3;9(12):e031870. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: To examine temporal changes in the incidence and patterns of vitamin D supplementation prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) between 2008 and 2016.

Design: Population-based cohort study.

Setting: UK general practice health records from The Health Improvement Network.

Participants: Children aged 0 to 17 years who were registered with their general practices for at least 3 months.

Outcome Measures: Annual incidence rates of vitamin D prescriptions were calculated, and rate ratios were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression to explore differences by sociodemographic factors. Data on the type of supplementation, dose, dosing schedule, linked 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) laboratory test results and clinical symptoms suggestive of vitamin D deficiency were analysed.

Results: Among 2 million children, the crude annual incidence of vitamin D prescribing increased by 26-fold between 2008 and 2016 rising from 10.8 (95% CI: 8.9 to 13.1) to 276.8 (95% CI: 264.3 to 289.9) per 100 000 person-years. Older children, non-white ethnicity and general practices in England (compared with Wales/Scotland/Northern Ireland) were independently associated with higher rates of prescribing. Analyses of incident prescriptions showed inconsistent supplementation regimens with an absence of pre-supplementation 25(OH)D concentrations in 28.7% to 56.4% of prescriptions annually. There was an increasing trend in prescribing at pharmacological doses irrespective of 25(OH)D concentrations, deviating in part from UK recommendations. Prescribing at pharmacological doses for children with deficient status increased from 3.8% to 79.4%, but the rise was also observed in children for whom guidelines recommended prevention doses (0% to 53%). Vitamin D supplementation at pharmacological doses was also prescribed in at least 40% of children with no pre-supplementation 25(OH)D concentrations annually.

Conclusions: There has been a marked and sustained increase in vitamin D supplementation prescribing in children in UK primary care. Our data suggests that national guidelines on vitamin D supplementation for children are not consistently followed by GPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937102PMC
December 2019

The dietary management of calcium and phosphate in children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis-clinical practice recommendation from the Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 03 30;35(3):501-518. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, and University College London, Institute of Child Health, WC1N 3JH, London, UK.

In children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), optimal control of bone and mineral homeostasis is essential, not only for the prevention of debilitating skeletal complications and achieving adequate growth but also for preventing vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Complications of mineral bone disease (MBD) are common and contribute to the high morbidity and mortality seen in children with CKD. Although several studies describe the prevalence of abnormal calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels as well as associated clinical and radiological complications and their medical management, little is known about the dietary requirements and management of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in children with CKD. The Pediatric Renal Nutrition Taskforce (PRNT) is an international team of pediatric renal dietitians and pediatric nephrologists, who develop clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) for the nutritional management of various aspects of renal disease management in children. We present CPRs for the dietary intake of Ca and P in children with CKD stages 2-5 and on dialysis (CKD2-5D), describing the common Ca- and P-containing foods, the assessment of dietary Ca and P intake, requirements for Ca and P in healthy children and necessary modifications for children with CKD2-5D, and dietary management of hypo- and hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. The statements have been graded, and statements with a low grade or those that are opinion-based must be carefully considered and adapted to individual patient needs based on the clinical judgment of the treating physician and dietitian. These CPRs will be regularly audited and updated by the PRNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04370-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969014PMC
March 2020

The European Society for Paediatric Nephrology study of pediatric renal care in Europe: comparative analysis 1998-2017.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 01 29;35(1):103-111. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

University Hospitals Leuven & KU Leuven, Oude Markt 13, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: In 1998, a survey of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN) revealed substantial disparities in pediatric renal care among European countries. Therefore, ESPN aimed at harmonizing renal care in all European countries in the following 20 years. In 2017, we conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of renal health policies for children in Europe.

Methods: A 33-question web-based survey was designed and sent to presidents or representatives of national societies of pediatric nephrology in 44 European countries.

Results: Data was reported from 42 (95.5%) countries. The number of pediatric nephrologists per million child population increased from 1998 to 2017 in 70% of countries. Pediatric dialysis facilities for acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease were available in 95% of countries. The availability of pediatric kidney transplantation increased from 55 to 93% of countries. Considerable variation was found in the current availability of allied health professionals, including psychosocial and nutritional support, high-tech diagnostic methods, and treatment with expensive drugs for children with kidney diseases between different European countries.

Conclusions: The 20-year follow-up analysis of pediatric renal care services in European countries revealed that pediatric nephrology has become a well-established subspecialty in pediatrics and nephrology in 2017. The ESPN will continue its efforts to further improve pediatric renal care for European children by harmonizing remaining disparities of renal care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04378-5DOI Listing
January 2020

Cinacalcet use in paediatric dialysis: a position statement from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology and the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders Working Group of the ERA-EDTA.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 01;35(1):47-64

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Children's Hospital, Hannover, Germany.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is an important complication of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, which is often difficult to treat with conventional therapy. The calcimimetic cinacalcet is an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor. It has proven to be effective and safe in adults to suppress parathyroid hormone (PTH), but data on its use in children are limited. To date, studies in children only consist of two randomized controlled trials, nine uncontrolled interventional or observational studies, and case reports that report the efficacy of cinacalcet as a PTH-lowering compound. In 2017, the European Medical Agency approved the use of cinacalcet for the treatment of SHPT in children on dialysis in whom SHPT is not adequately controlled with standard therapy. Since evidence-based guidelines are so far lacking, we present a position statement on the use of cinacalcet in paediatric dialysis patients based on the available evidence and opinion of experts from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology, Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder and Dialysis Working Groups, and the ERA-EDTA. Given the limited available evidence the strength of these statements are weak to moderate, and must be carefully considered by the treating physician and adapted to individual patient needs as appropriate. Audit and research recommendations to study key outcome measures in paediatric dialysis patients receiving cinacalcet are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfz159DOI Listing
January 2020

Determinants of Intima-Media Thickness in the Young: The ALSPAC Study.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Feb 11;14(2):468-478. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Vascular Physiology Unit, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study characterized the determinants of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in a large (n > 4,000) longitudinal cohort of healthy young people age 9 to 21 years.

Background: Greater cIMT is commonly used in the young as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, but its evolution at this age is still poorly understood.

Methods: Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT were investigated in both longitudinal (ages 9 to 17 years) and cross-sectional (ages 17 and 21 years) analyses, with the latter also related to other measures of carotid structure and stress. Additional use of ultra-high frequency ultrasound in the radial artery at age 21 years allowed investigation of the distinct layers (i.e., intima or media) that may underlie observed differences.

Results: Fat-free mass (FFM) and systolic blood pressure were the only modifiable risk factors positively associated with cIMT (e.g., mean difference in cIMT per 1-SD increase in FFM at age 17: 0.007 mm: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.004 to 0.010; p < 0.001), whereas fat mass was negatively associated with cIMT (difference: -0.0032; 95% CI: 0.004 to -0.001; p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained when investigating cumulative exposure to these factors throughout adolescence. An increase in cIMT maintained circumferential wall stress in the face of increased mean arterial pressure when increases in body mass were attributable to increased FFM, but not fat mass. Risk factor-associated differences in the radial artery occurred in the media alone, and there was little evidence of a relationship between intimal thickness and any risk factor.

Conclusions: Subtle changes in cIMT in the young may predominantly involve the media and represent physiological adaptations as opposed to subclinical atherosclerosis. Other vascular measures may be more appropriate for the identification of arterial disease before adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.08.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851110PMC
February 2021

Indoxyl sulfate associates with cardiovascular phenotype in children with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 12 19;34(12):2571-2582. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Children's Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins increase with deterioration of kidney function and are associated with cardiac comorbidities in adult CKD patients.

Methods: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum of children participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) Study. Results were correlated with measurements of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children aged 6-17 years with initial eGFR of 10-60 ml/min per 1.73 m.

Results: The median serum levels of total IS and of pCS, measured in 609 patients, were 5.3 μmol/l (8.7) and 17.0 μmol/l (21.6), respectively. In a multivariable regression model, IS and pCS showed significant positive associations with urea and negative associations with eGFR and uric acid. Furthermore, positive associations of pCS with age, serum albumin, and non-Mediterranean residency and a negative association with glomerular disease were observed. By multivariable regression analysis, only IS was significantly associated with a higher cIMT SDS at baseline and progression of PWV SDS within 12 months, independent of other risk factors.

Conclusions: Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins IS and pCS correlated inversely with eGFR in children. Only IS was significantly associated with surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in this large pediatric CKD cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04331-6DOI Listing
December 2019