Publications by authors named "Ruilin Ding"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel therapies for malignant pleural effusion: Anti‑angiogenic therapy and immunotherapy (Review).

Int J Oncol 2021 Mar 22;58(3):359-370. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Drug Clinical Trial/GCP Center, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, P.R. China.

Patients with a variety of malignancies can develop malignant pleural effusion (MPE). MPE can cause significant symptoms and result in a marked decrease in quality of life and a poor prognosis. MPE is primarily considered as an immune and vascular manifestation of pleural metastases. In the present review, the existing evidence supporting the applicability of anti‑angiogenic therapy and immunotherapy for the treatment of MPE was summarized. Patients with MPE have benefited from anti‑angiogenic agents, including bevacizumab and endostar; however, no relevant prospective phase III trial has, thus far, specifically analyzed the benefit of anti‑angiogenic therapy in MPE. Immunotherapy for MPE may be sufficient to turn a dire clinical situation into a therapeutic advantage. Similar to anti‑angiogenic therapy, more clinical data on the efficiency and safety of immunotherapy for controlling MPE are urgently required. The combined use of anti‑angiogenic therapy and immunotherapy may be a promising strategy for MPE, which requires to be further understood.
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March 2021

Effect of Irisin on Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling.

Arch Med Res 2021 02 14;52(2):182-190. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Irisin has been considered a prognostic factor in several cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, no data are available on the role of irisin in cardiac remodeling.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to determine the potential role of irisin in cardiac remodeling and explore potential mechanisms.

Methods: A total of 40 rats that underwent transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAC) surgery or sham operation were divided into four groups: sham + saline (NS), sham + irisin, TAC + NS, and TAC + irisin. After 6 weeks of treatment, echocardiography was performed to assess in vivo cardiac morphology. The left ventricular myocardium was prepared and observed by pathological examination. The effect of irisin on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of oxidative stress and cardiac hypertrophy markers were observed. Then, the effect of irisin on the Akt signaling system was also detected.

Results: The rats in the TAC group displayed obvious signs of cardiac dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy, and irisin treatment could reverse these changes. Irisin could inhibit the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 and xanthine oxidase in TAC rats and increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) was much higher in the cardiac remodeling groups (p <0.05 vs. sham rats). Irisin could relieve the inhibition effect and reduce the expression level of these three proteins.

Conclusions: Irisin treatment could significantly improve cardiac remodeling by inhibiting oxidative stress via attenuating the Akt signaling activation.
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February 2021

Development of immunotherapy for brain metastasis (Review).

Int J Oncol 2020 Sep 29;57(3):665-677. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, P.R. China.

Brain metastasis (BM) is associated with a poor prognosis, with the typical overall survival rate ranging from weeks to months in the absence of treatment. Although the concept of immune privilege in the central nervous system has eroded over time, the advent of immunotherapy has opened a new set of potential therapeutic options for patients with BM. Recently, immunotherapy has been demonstrated to confer survival advantages to patients with multiple malignancies commonly associated with BMs. Data from a number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective for patients with BM. In addition, cellular therapies, including the application of chimeric antigen receptors T‑cell therapy and dendritic cell vaccine, have also been utilized in the treatment of BM. In the present review, preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the applicability of immunotherapy for the treatment of BMs from melanoma, non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were examined, where the challenges and safety of this treatment modality were also discussed.
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September 2020

Anlotinib Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Proliferation and Angiogenesis via Inhibition of AKT/ERK Signaling Cascade.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 24;12:4937-4948. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Anlotinib is a highly potent multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with very good anti-tumor activity against a variety of solid tumors. However, its effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet clearly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect and underlying mechanism of anlotinib in the pathogenesis of CRC.

Materials And Methods: Effects of anlotinib on CT26 cells proliferation and microvessel formation in endothelial cells were determined by MTT assay and tube formation assay. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed by using the wound healing assay and transwell assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. A CRC xenograft mouse model was used for conducting in-vivo studies to verify the effect of anlotinib. The expression of Ki-67 and CD31 in the tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry and protein expression was measured by Western blot.

Results: In-vitro studies revealed that anlotinib inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CT26 cells and the tube formation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Anlotinib also significantly induced cell apoptosis and G2/M arrest. It effectively inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival time in the CRC xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor tissue revealed that anlotinib downregulated CD31 and Ki-67 which are the biomarkers of microvessel density and proliferation. Furthermore, anlotinib was able to inhibit the activation of VEGFR-2/AKT and FGFR, PDGFRβ and their downstream signaling ERK.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggested that anlotinib suppressed cell proliferation and angiogenesis via inhibition of AKT/ERK signaling pathway in colorectal cancer and could be a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of CRC.
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June 2020