Publications by authors named "Ruichang Gao"

32 Publications

Effect of glutamic acid on the preparation and characterization of Pickering emulsions stabilized by zein.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 15;366:130598. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China. Electronic address:

In this study, glutamic acid and zein were utilized to prepare colloidal nanoparticles as stabilizers for Pickering emulsions. The effect of the ratio of glutamic acid to zein on the stability, zeta potential, particle size, morphology, and structure of colloidal nanoparticles was studied. The results showed that zein and glutamic acid combined in the form of noncovalent bonds, which changed the characteristics of the zein. In addition, colloidal particles aggregation was induced by glutamic acid, which altered the distribution of droplets in the emulsion, and increased the adsorption of proteins on the surface of the oil droplets, as reflected by the analysis of the size, microstructure, rheological behaviours, and driving force of the Pickering emulsion. Hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic interactions were the main driving forces for the formation of colloidal particles, which was determined by driving force analysis and the change of the zeta potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130598DOI Listing
January 2022

Characterization of chondroitin sulfates isolated from large hybrid sturgeon cartilage and their gastroprotective activity against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 20;363:130436. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Sturgeon cartilage, which is rich in chondroitin sulfate (CS), is usually discarded during sturgeon utilization. In this paper, CS was isolated from large hybrid sturgeon skull and backbone and named SCS and BCS, respectively. Their structures were investigated via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The average molecular weights of SCS and BCS were ~ 30-44 kDa. Disaccharide analysis indicated that SCS and BCS had similar chemical structures and were composed of ΔUA-[1 → 3]-GalNAc (ΔDi0S, 14.71%, 16.04%), ΔUA-[1 → 3]-GalNAc-4 s (ΔDi4S, 32.01%, 37.78%) and ΔUA-[1 → 3]-GalNAc-6 s (ΔDi6S, 53.27%, 46.18%). The gastroprotective effect of SCS and BCS were studied using a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Both SCS and BCS had apparent gastroprotective activity and their ulcer inhibition rate reached ~ 35%-45%, which was similar to that of omeprazole (~41%). These results provide useful strategies for the high-value utilization of sturgeon cartilage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130436DOI Listing
November 2021

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Peptides From Ethanol-Soluble Hydrolysates of Sturgeon () Cartilage.

Front Nutr 2021 11;8:689648. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Research has shown that cartilage containing chondroitin sulfate and protein presents versatile bioactivities. Chondroitin sulfate in cartilage is beneficial to activate the immune system while the protein/peptide has not been fully understood. The current study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of ethanol-soluble hydrolysates of sturgeon cartilage (ESCH) prepared through hot-pressure, enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol extraction. UV spectrum, IR and agarose gel electrophoresis results suggested the successful exclusion of chondroitin sulfate from peptides. Nitric oxide (NO) floods in cells activated by inflammation. It was inhibited when administrated with ESCH. To further explain the observed anti-inflammatory activity, ESCH was separated with Sephadex G-15 into 3 components, among which F3 showed a higher NO inhibition rate and significantly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. In addition, the yield of IL-10 increased. Western blotting suggested that F3 downregulated the NO content and IL-6 level by suppressing Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) channels. Moreover, both ESCH and F3 showed DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging abilities which was possibly related to the anti-inflammatory property. These results indicated that ESCH behaved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Cartilage may be a good source to produce anti-inflammatory peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.689648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225940PMC
June 2021

Recent developments in maintaining gel properties of surimi products under reduced salt conditions and use of additives.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 28:1-16. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Salt is a necessary condition to produce a surimi product that is based on the gelation of salt-soluble myofibrillar proteins. Recently, there has been a growing concern among consumers to consume healthy foods due to the threat of several chronic diseases caused by an unhealthy diet. Methods of reducing salt content out of concern for health issues caused by excessive sodium intake may affect the gel properties of surimi, as can many health-oriented food additives. Several studies have investigated different strategies to improve the health characteristics of surimi products without decreasing gel properties. This review reports recent developments in this area and how the gel properties were successfully maintained under reduced-salt conditions and the use of additives. This review of recent studies presents a great deal of progress made in the health benefits of surimi and can be used as a reference for further development in the surimi product processing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1931024DOI Listing
May 2021

Ameliorative effects of L-arginine? On heat-induced phase separation of Aristichthys nobilis myosin are associated with the absence of ordered secondary structures of myosin.

Food Res Int 2021 03 18;141:110154. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province 212013, China; Bio-resources Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province, School of Biological Science and Engineering, Sha'anxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province 723001, China. Electronic address:

This investigation aimed to study the potential mechanism of L-arginine (L-Arg) on the heat-induced phase separation phenomenon of myosin from the perspective of conformational changes of myosin. L-Arg ameliorated the phase separation of myosin after a two-step heating procedure via suppression of heat-induced aggregation of myosin. The effect of L-Arg on the heating of myosin at high temperatures (75-85 °C) was more pronounced than that in the setting stage (35-45 °C), suggesting that the ameliorative effects of L-Arg on the heat-induced phase separation of myosin are mainly attributed to the inhibition of rod-rod cross-linking between denatured myosin molecules. Additionally, L-Arg without pH modification exhibited an increased ability to suppress the gelation of myosin compared with pH modification, indicating that both pH effects and the particular structure of L-Arg play noticeable roles in the suppression of myosin gelation. Far-UV circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that L-Arg induced the absence of ordered secondary structures of myosin molecules, especially β-sheets, and thus generated a looser protein structure, which may represent the dominant suppression mechanisms of L-Arg on the heat-induced aggregation of myosin. This work provided support for the use of L-Arg as a food additive, and the results of this study will be attractive to the meat and beverage products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110154DOI Listing
March 2021

Staple food and health: a comparative study of physiology and gut microbiota of mice fed with potato and traditional staple foods (corn, wheat and rice).

Food Funct 2021 Feb;12(3):1232-1240

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China.

The effects of potato and traditional staple foods (corn, wheat and rice) on physiology and gut microbiota were investigated by feeding ICR mice for 12 months. Compared with traditional staple foods, potato significantly improved the food and water intake and survival rate, and inhibited the swelling of viscera of mice, accompanied by a decreased white blood cell count and urine bilirubin content. Furthermore, potato significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, which are short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria and play very important roles in the maintenance of human health. Meanwhile, potato significantly decreased the relative abundance of spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus. Analysis of putative metagenomes indicated that the potato diet upregulated the gene abundance of glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, digestive system and immune system. These findings indicated that potato has the potential to be an excellent substitute for traditional staple foods owing to its good physiological function and favorable gut microbiota modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02264kDOI Listing
February 2021

Genome sequencing of cold-adapted Planococcus bacterium isolated from traditional shrimp paste and protease identification.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 5;101(8):3225-3236. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Background: Psychrophiles have evolved to adapt to freezing environments, and cold-adapted enzymes from these organisms can maintain high catalytic activity at low temperature. The use of cold-adapted enzymes has great potential for the revolution of food and molecular biology industries.

Results: In this study, four different strains producing protease were isolated from traditional fermented shrimp paste, one of which, named Planococcus maritimus XJ11 by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis, exhibited the largest protein hydrolysis clear zone surrounding the colonies. Meanwhile, the strain P. maritimus XJ11 was selected for further investigation because of its great adaptation to low temperature, low salinity and alkaline environment. The enzyme activity assay of P. maritimus XJ11 indicated that the optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 10.0 and 40 °C. Moreover, the enzyme also showed an increasing activity with temperatures from 10 to 40 °C and retained more than 67% activity of the maximum over a broad range of salinity (50-150 g L ). Genome sequencing analysis revealed that strain XJ11 possessed one circular chromosome of 3 282 604 bp and one circular plasmid of 67 339 bp, with a total number of 3293 open reading frames (ORFs). Besides, 21 genes encoding protease, including three serine proteases, were identified through the NR database.

Conclusion: Cold-adapted bacterium P. maritimus XJ11 was capable of producing alkaline proteases with high catalytic efficiency at low or moderate temperatures. Furthermore, the favorable psychrophilic and enzymatic characters of strain P. maritimus XJ11 seem to have a promising potential for industrial application. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10952DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel extraction approach and unique physicochemical properties of gelatin from the swim bladder of sturgeon.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 22;101(7):2912-2919. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Background: Gelatin is traditionally produced from mammals and widely applied in the food industry. The production is tedious, time-consuming and environment-unfriendly, while the application is restricted because of zoonosis risk and religious sentiment.

Results: Gelatin was extracted by hot water from sturgeon swim bladder after defatting with alcohol and hexane. The yield reached to 94.15% under the optimized conditions of 50 °C, 30 min and 10 mL g . Its amino acid and subunit profiles were similar to type I collagen. Compared to commercial porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins, it exhibited higher whiteness (3.38), emulsion activity (171.76 m g ), gel strength (853.23 g), water-holding capacity (92.37%) and viscoelasticity (0.03). But the transmittance (40.56% at 450 nm and 59.07% at 620 nm), emulsion stability (30.09 min), foam expansion (203.00) and stability (26.92), gelling (16.88 °C) and melting temperature (21.80 °C) were lower. While the pH (6.87) and viscosity (28.60 mPa s) were moderate. Moreover, it made better hydrogels and nanofibers.

Conclusion: Gelatin was extracted from sturgeon swim bladder using a clean and efficient approach, and exhibited unique properties and great potential for the food industry. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10923DOI Listing
May 2021

Use of l-arginine-assisted ultrasonic treatment to change the molecular and interfacial characteristics of fish myosin and enhance the physical stability of the emulsion.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 7;342:128314. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province 212013, China; Bio-resources Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province, School of Biological Science and Engineering, Sha'anxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001, China. Electronic address:

The effects of l-arginine (Arg)-assisted ultrasonic treatment on the molecular and interfacial characteristics of myosin and emulsifying properties of the emulsion were evaluated to ascertain the underlying mechanism in improving the emulsion stability. Ultrasonication induced the exposure of residues of native myosin, which was increased by the addition of Arg (40 mM). Furthermore, in terms of emulsions containing Arg, the higher the ultrasonication intensity was, the greater the increase in adsorbed protein (from 15.43 ± 0.28% to 50.49 ± 1.65%) and π value, and the decrease in droplet sizes (from 4098 nm to 2324 nm) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the increase in the ordered structures of interfacial myosin induced by Arg and ultrasonication favoured the formation of a protein gelation network. In summary, Arg-assisted ultrasonic treatment improved the stability of the emulsion by inducing the exposure of native myosin and facilitating the formation of ordered structures of interfacial myosin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128314DOI Listing
April 2021

Sturgeon hydrolysates alleviate DSS-induced colon colitis in mice by modulating NF-κB, MAPK, and microbiota composition.

Food Funct 2020 Aug 23;11(8):6987-6999. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China.

Sturgeon muscle byproduct collected after caviar production is usually not fully utilized, and sometimes may be discarded, thus causing a lot of waste. Yet dietary protein hydrolysates, which may be derived from sturgeon muscle, have been reported to have versatile beneficial biological activities. Studying the biological activities of sturgeon muscle-derived hydrolysates holds much promise for adding value to sturgeon. The current study aimed to study the therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of sturgeon muscle-derived hydrolysates and the underlying mechanisms. The administration of sturgeon hydrolysates (SH) significantly decreased the severity of DSS-induced damage, evidenced by increased body weight, colon length, and decreased disease activity index (DAI) and histological scores. SH also inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reduced the serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Western blotting results revealed that SH suppressed DSS-induced activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the colon. Furthermore, SH partially restored the alteration of the gut microbiota in colitic mice. SH increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Bacteroidetes S24-7, while decreased the abundance of potentially harmful bacteria Erysipelotrichaceae and Enterococcaceae. These results suggest that SH inhibited DSS-induced colitis by regulating the NF-κB and MAPK pathways and modulating microbiota composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02772fDOI Listing
August 2020

Inactivation of specific spoilage organism (Pseudomonas) of sturgeon by curcumin-mediated photodynamic inactivation.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Sep 21;31:101827. Epub 2020 May 21.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Shinan District, 266003 Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to measure the inactivation effect and mechanism of curcumin-mediated photodynamic inactivation (PDI) on the specific spoilage organism (Pseudomonas) of the sturgeon. The conditions of PDI used were as follows: 30 μM curcumin, 15 W LED light (470 nm) power and 90 s irradiation time. Under these conditions, the high-throughput sequencing was used to study the microbiota of sturgeon. The method of aerobic plate colony count (APC) was used to determine the viability of Pseudomonas after PDI. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the propidium iodide (PI) single staining method, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to study the inactivation mechanism of PDI on Pseudomonas. The results showed that Pseudomonas was the specific spoilage organism of sturgeon, and PDI significantly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas. The in-vitro inactivation rate of Pseudomonas was 99.9% with counts decreased by 3.19 ± 0.15 log CFU/mL. The mechanism of PDI to inactivate Pseudomonas is as follows. Firstly, the high-level structure of membrane protein was destroyed, and the cell membrane permeability was increased, which caused leakage of cellular content. Then the nucleic acid inside the cell was destroyed, which eventually caused the death of bacteria. These findings demonstrate that curcumin-mediated PDI can be utilized as an effective way to inactivate the specific spoilage organism (Pseudomonas) of the sturgeon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101827DOI Listing
September 2020

Uptake and toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in Brassica chinensis L.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 30;252:126640. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

College of Oceanology and Food Science, Quanzhou Normal University/Key Laboratory of Inshore Resources Biotechnology, Quanzhou, 362000, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Ministry of Science and Technology, 50 Zhongling Street, Nanjing, 210014, China. Electronic address:

This work focuses on the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the leafy vegetable Shanghaiqing (SHQ) (Brassica chinensis L.). The accumulated DEHP amount in the edible part and roots of SHQ increased as the DEHP concentration in the soil increased. DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the edible part of the plant. The root concentration factors and bioaccumulation factors for DEHP in SHQ were 0.13-2.49 and 0.03-2.00, respectively. The DEHP translocation factors were below 1.0, indicating that DEHP preferentially accumulated in plant roots. The DEHP risk index in the edible part of SHQ in relation to the human body and in terms of dietary exposure risk assessment was also below 1.0, indicating a low health risk. High DEHP concentrations caused 1) inhibition of SHQ growth, 2) an increase in SHQ chlorophyll and malondialdehyde contents and 3) a decrease in soluble sugar and vitamin contents. Low DEHP concentrations stimulated total superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities, while high DEHP levels showed an inhibitory effect. DEHP presence in soil affected not only SHQ growth but also quality. Our results provide the data needed for the proper assessment of food safety and the ecological impact of DEHP contamination in agricultural soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126640DOI Listing
August 2020

Absorption, metabolism, and bioactivity of vitexin: recent advances in understanding the efficacy of an important nutraceutical.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 15;61(6):1049-1064. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

vitexin, an apigenin-8-C-glucoside, is widely present in numerous edible and medicinal plants. vitexin possesses a variety of bioactive properties, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, neuron-protection, and cardio-protection. Other beneficial health effects, such as fat reduction, glucose metabolism, and hepatoprotection, have also been reported in recent studies. This review briefly discusses the absorption and metabolism of vitexin, as well as its influence on gut microbiota. Recent advances in understanding the pharmacological and biological effects of vitexin are then reviewed. Improved knowledge of the absorption, metabolism, bioactivity, and molecular targets of vitexin is crucial for the better utilization of this emerging nutraceutical as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1753165DOI Listing
March 2021

Assessing gel properties of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) surimi prepared by high-temperature setting (40 °C) for different durations.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 May 6;100(7):3147-3156. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, P.R. China.

Background: Setting effects are different for each fish species tested. There is no published literature on the response of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) to increased setting times. This study investigated the effects of high-temperature setting (40 °C) for different durations on the gel properties of A. schrenckii surimi. As A. schrenckii is a new surimi material, it is also necessary to conduct a sensory evaluation and to report the surimi yields.

Results: Increasing setting durations (0.5-1.5 h) significantly improved the gel properties. The best results in terms of molecular forces, gel strength, texture profile analysis (TPA), water holding capacity (WHC), and whiteness were obtained by the gels with setting durations of 1 and 1.5 h. The protein degradation detected as a result of extended setting durations (>2 h) significantly decreased the gel properties. The most inferior gel properties were shown by the gel with setting for 3 h. Protein degradation also resulted in higher cooking loss and poor microstructures. The sensory evaluation indicated that A. schrenckii surimi was generally accepted by the panelists in terms of color, texture, and aroma. The surimi yield obtained in this study was 32.4%, which was similar to commercial surimi and higher than several surimi yields in recent studies.

Conclusion: Setting durations from 0.5 to 1.5 h can be implemented to improve the properties of A. schrenckii surimi. Extended durations (>2 h) must be avoided. Overall, this work provided some necessary information about setting response, gel properties, sensory evaluation, and surimi yield in A. schrenckii, which will be useful for further studies. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10349DOI Listing
May 2020

Chlorantraniliprole induces adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the AMPKα pathway but not the ER stress pathway.

Food Chem 2020 May 3;311:125953. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Flubendiamide, a ryanoid family insecticide, has been linked to elevated adipogenesis. However, the influence on adipogenesis of chlorantraniliprole, another widely-used ryanoid-class insecticide in agriculture, remains unknown. Therefore, the influence of chlorantraniliprole on adipogenesis was studied in 3T3-L1 cells. Chlorantraniliprole enhanced TG content and upregulated the expression of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and ACC, three key adipogenic regulators. Chlorantraniliprole decreased the phosphorylation of AMPK, while it had no influence on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress regulators. The influence of chlorantraniliprole on adipogenesis was abolished by AMPKα activation. Collectively, the results indicate that chlorantraniliprole enhances adipogenesis through the AMPKα pathway, but not the ER stress-mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125953DOI Listing
May 2020

Thermal Gel Degradation (Modori) in Sturgeon (Acipenseridae) Surimi Gels.

J Food Sci 2019 Dec 15;84(12):3601-3607. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Sturgeon meat has been found to be suitable as surimi raw materials. The present study determined the modori phenomenon in sturgeon surimi gels and identified its relationship with cathepsins. In all heat-treated gels (25 to 90 °C, at 5 °C intervals), the 40 °C-incubated sturgeon surimi gel showed the weakest gel properties and water-holding capacity (P < 0.05), a rough protein gel network under SEM, and the highest protein solubility and trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides content (P < 0.05). SDS-PAGE indicated that the myosin heavy chain band of sturgeon surimi gels was almost completely degraded at 40 °C. Moreover, the highest cathepsin L activity was observed in 40 °C-treated sturgeon surimi gels (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that the modori phenomenon in sturgeon surimi gels occurred at 40 °C, which was partially attributed to cathepsin L, thereby allowing for the better exploitation and utilization of sturgeon surimi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14919DOI Listing
December 2019

Deltamethrin promotes adipogenesis via AMPKα and ER stress-mediated pathway in 3T3- L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Dec 30;134:110791. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, 212013, China. Electronic address:

Previous research has shown that deltamethrin, a Type-II pyrethroid, increases fat accumulation in adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans. The underlying mechanisms on how deltamethrin promotes fat accumulation, however, are unknown. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine the possible mechanisms through which deltamethrin increases fat accumulation in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C. elegans. Deltamethrin (10 μM) significantly increased fat accumulation, and the expression of adipogenic regulators, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Deltamethrin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase α (AMPKα), while it increased protein expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C. elegans. The activation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) or the inhibition of ER stress with 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) abolished the effects of deltamethrin on adipogenesis. Further study reveals that 4-PBA recovered the decreased AMPK phosphorylation induced by deltamethrin. These results suggest that deltamethrin promotes adipogenesis through an ER stress-AMPKα mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.110791DOI Listing
December 2019

Di--butyl phthalate degrading endophytic bacterium strain JR20 isolated from garlic chive and its colonization in a leafy vegetable.

J Environ Sci Health B 2019 4;54(8):693-701. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

College of Oceanology and Food Science, Quanzhou Normal University/Key Laboratory of Inshore Resources Biotechnology , Quanzhou , China .

Di--butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the primary PAEs (phthalate acid esters) pollutants. DBP can be absorbed by plants and threaten human health via the food chain. Some DBP-degrading bacteria have been successfully isolated from the environment (water, soil, etc.). However, only a few DBP-degrading plant endophytes have been isolated. In this study, an endophytic bacterium, subsp. strain JR20, which was found capable of degrading DBP, was isolated from garlic chive. We found that strain JR20 metabolized 89.74% of DBP at a 5 mg/L concentration within 4 d in liquid mineral salts medium (MSM). The optimized conditions for maximum removal of DBP were as follows: DBP concentration, 5 mg/L; pH, 7-8; temperature, 30-40 °C. The colonization of strain JR20 significantly improved the degradation rate of DBP in the roots, stems and leaves of leafy vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2019.1633211DOI Listing
November 2019

The anti-skin-aging effect of oral administration of gelatin from the swim bladder of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

Food Funct 2019 Jul;10(7):3890-3897

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China.

Gelatin was extracted from the swim bladder of Amur sturgeon with hot water at 50 °C with acceptable yield (76.54%) and it showed type I collagen features. The degree of hydrolysis reached 70.42%, and 26.55% of collagen peptides (380.76 Da) survived, after simulating digestion, absorption and peripheral blood circulation in vitro. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion showed that the AMW of the collagen peptides was about 1100 Da in the intestine and they were mainly absorbed in the jejunum (61.11%). A 12-month feeding experiment using rats demonstrated that gelatin improved the histological structure, increased the thickness of the dermis (18.45%) and the density of collagen fibers (22.17%), and decreased the ratio of type III to type I collagen (43.44%) of chronologically aged skin at 3.85 g per kg bw per d. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities in skin were significantly enhanced, while the malondialdehyde content was reduced by 31.99%. These results provided new insights into the development of new nutraceuticals and functional foods for the anti-skin-aging effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00661cDOI Listing
July 2019

Oyster-Derived Zinc-Binding Peptide Modified by Plastein Reaction via Zinc Chelation Promotes the Intestinal Absorption of Zinc.

Mar Drugs 2019 Jun 8;17(6). Epub 2019 Jun 8.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Zinc-binding peptides from oyster ( ) have potential effects on zinc supplementation. The aim of this study was to prepare efficient zinc-binding peptides from oyster-modified hydrolysates by adding exogenous glutamate according to the plastein reaction and to further explore the zinc absorption mechanism of the peptide-zinc complex (MZ). The optimum conditions for the plastein reaction were as follows: pH 5.0, 40 °C, substrate concentration of 40%, pepsin dosage of 500 U/g, reaction time of 3 h and l-[1-C]glutamate concentration of 10 mg/mL. The results of C isotope labelling suggested that the addition of l-[1-C]glutamate contributed to the increase in the zinc-binding capacity of the peptide. The hydrophobic interaction was the main mechanism of action of the plastein reaction. Ultraviolet spectra and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) revealed that the zinc-binding peptide could bind with zinc and form MZ. Furthermore, MZ could significantly enhance zinc bioavailability in the presence of phytic acid, compared to the commonly used ZnSO. Additionally, MZ significantly promoted the intestinal absorption of zinc mainly through two pathways, the zinc ion channel and the small peptide transport pathway. Our work attempted to increase the understanding of the zinc absorption mechanism of MZ and to support the potential application of MZ as a supplementary medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md17060341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627379PMC
June 2019

Effects of l-arginine and l-histidine on heat-induced aggregation of fish myosin: Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

Food Chem 2019 Oct 13;295:320-326. Epub 2019 May 13.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province 212013, China. Electronic address:

This research focused on the effects of l-arginine (l-Arg) and l-histidine (l-His) on the heat-induced aggregation of fish myosin. l-Arg/l-His increased the pH of the myosin solution from 6.82 to 8.74 and 7.24, respectively, and decreased the turbidity, aggregate size, shear modulus, and breaking force. The incorporation of l-Arg/l-His decreased the surface hydrophobicity during setting, but increased it during the two-step heating. The heat-induced aggregation of myosin was suppressed by both amino acids, with the inhibitory effect being greater for l-Arg than l-His. On one hand, the change in the pH played a critical role in suppressing the heat-induced aggregation of myosin. On the other hand, the characteristics of l-Arg/l-His themselves, such as net charges and particular R-groups, were another main contributor to aggregation suppression. Particularly, l-Arg/l-His could interact with exposed aromatic residues of myosin, and the interactions may dominate and overwhelm the burial of aromatic residues during two-step heating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.095DOI Listing
October 2019

Vitexin ameliorates high fat diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice via the AMPKα-mediated pathway.

Food Funct 2019 Apr 15;10(4):1940-1947. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China. and Bio-resources Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province, School of Biological Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province, China.

Vitexin, a bioactive compound isolated from hawthorn leaf extracts, has been reported to exhibit many biological activities, such as anticancer, antioxidation, and adipogenesis inhibition activities. The current study explored the effects of vitexin on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/adipogenesis in male C57BL/6J mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as the underlying mechanisms thereof. Vitexin significantly mitigated HFD-induced body weight gain and adiposity. Vitexin also partially normalized serum, hepatic lipid contents, and decreased adipocyte size induced by the HFD. Consistently, there were significant effects of vitexin on important regulators of lipid metabolism, including AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα), CAATT element binding protein-α (C/EBPα), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in white adipose tissue. Moreover, vitexin significantly inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and this was totally abolished by compound C (an AMPKα inhibitor). These results suggest that vitexin may prevent HFD-induced obesity/adipogenesis via the AMPKα mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00148dDOI Listing
April 2019

AAK-2 and SKN-1 Are Involved in Chicoric-Acid-Induced Lifespan Extension in .

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Aug 14;67(33):9178-9186. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Food Science , University of Massachusetts, Amherst , 102 Holdsworth Way , Amherst , Massachusetts 01003 , United States.

Chicoric acid is a dicaffeoyl ester with many bioactivities, including antioxidation, antidiabetes, and anti-inflammation. A previous study reported that chicoric acid extended the lifespan in ; however, the mechanism behind the effect of chicoric acid on the extended lifespan remains unknown. Consistent with the previous report, chicoric acid (25 and 50 μM) extended the maximum lifespan compared to the control (17.5 ± 3.3 and 15.6 ± 5%, respectively; < 0.001 for both). The declines of the pumping rate and locomotive activity, two indicators of aging, were delayed by chicoric acid. Moreover, chicoric acid enhanced resistance to oxidative stress in . It was further determined that the extended lifespan by chicoric acid was in part via [a homologue of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase] and (a homologue of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). The current findings suggest that chicoric acid has the potential to be used as an anti-aging bioactive compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00705DOI Listing
August 2019

Effect of α-Tocopherol on the Physicochemical Properties of Sturgeon Surimi during Frozen Storage.

Molecules 2019 Feb 15;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

This study investigated the effects of α-tocopherol (α-TOH) on the physicochemical properties of sturgeon surimi during 16-week storage at -18 °C. An aliquot of 0.1% (/) of α-TOH was added into the surimi and subjected to frozen storage, and 8% of a conventional cryoprotectant (4% sorbitol and 4% sucrose, /) was used as a positive control. Based on total viable count, pH and whiteness, α-TOH exhibited a better protection for frozen sturgeon surimi than cryoprotectant during frozen storage. According to soluble protein content, carbonyl content, total sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity, α-TOH and cryoprotectant showed the same effects on retarding changes of proteins. The results of breaking force, deformation, gel strength, water-holding capacity and microstructure of sturgeon surimi indicated that the gel properties of frozen sturgeon surimi were retained by α-TOH. Our results suggest that α-TOH is an attractive candidate to maintain the quality of sturgeon surimi during frozen storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413059PMC
February 2019

Flubendiamide Enhances Adipogenesis and Inhibits AMPKα in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

Molecules 2018 Nov 12;23(11). Epub 2018 Nov 12.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, China.

Flubendiamide, a ryanoid class insecticide, is widely used in agriculture. Several insecticides have been reported to promote adipogenesis. However, the potential influence of flubendiamide on adipogenesis is largely unknown. The current study was therefore to determine the effects of flubendiamide on adipogenesis utilizing the 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. Flubendiamide treatment not only enhanced triglyceride content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but also increased the expression of cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine (CCAAT)/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-γ, two important regulators of adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, the expression of the most important regulator of lipogenesis, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, was also increased after flubendiamide treatment. Further study revealed that 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) or A769662, two Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase α activators, subverted effects of flubendiamide on enhanced adipogenesis. Together, these results suggest that flubendiamide promotes adipogenesis via an AMPKα-mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278525PMC
November 2018

Preparation of a fermentation solution of grass fish bones and its calcium bioavailability in rats.

Food Funct 2018 Aug;9(8):4135-4142

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

In this study, with grass fish bones as the substrate, after flavourzyme treatment, and fermentation with Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a fermentation solution with a high content of soluble calcium was obtained. High performance liquid chromatography and GC-MS analysis indicated that free calcium (11.29 mmol L-1) in the fermentation solution was composed of calcium lactate (3.89 mmol L-1), calcium acetate (6.21 mmol L-1), calcium amino acids and small peptide calcium. Animal experiments show that the fermentation solution of grass fish bones could promote the growth and development of calcium-deficient rats. Complex organic calcium could be well absorbed and utilized by rats so that serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase levels, femur weight and other indicators in calcium-deficient rats could be returned to normal levels. The fermentation solution of grass fish bones can avoid the waste of aquatic proteins and fish bone calcium, and it exhibited high calcium bioavailability. Therefore, the fermentation solution of grass fish bones might be used as a new efficient calcium supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo00674aDOI Listing
August 2018

Development of Functional or Medical Foods for Oral Administration of Insulin for Diabetes Treatment: Gastroprotective Edible Microgels.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 May 2;66(19):4820-4826. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Food Science , University of Massachusetts Amherst , Amherst , Massachusetts 01003 , United States.

Insulin and an antacid [Mg(OH)] were co-encapsulated inside calcium alginate microgels (diameter = 280 μm) using a vibrating nozzle injector. Confocal microscopy indicated that insulin was successfully encapsulated inside the microgels and remained inside them after they were exposed to simulated gastric conditions. Localized fluorescence intensity measurements indicated that the internal pH of the antacid-loaded microgels was around pH 7.4 after incubation in acidic gastric fluids but below the limit of detection (pH < 4) in the antacid-free microgels. After incubation in small intestine conditions, around 30% of the insulin was released from the antacid-loaded microgels over a 2 h period. Encapsulation of insulin within the antacid-loaded microgels increased its biological activity after exposure to simulated gastric conditions. In particular, the encapsulated insulin significantly increased Akt phosphorylation at both Thr308 and Ser473 in L6 myotubes when compared to free insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00233DOI Listing
May 2018

Purification and characterisation of a salt-stable protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum.

J Sci Food Agric 2017 Mar 9;97(5):1412-1419. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, China.

Background: Because proteases play an important role in the fermentation of fish sauce, the purification and characterisation of an extracellular protease from the halophilic archaeon Halogranum rubrum was investigated.

Results: The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be approximately 47 kDa based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) and native-PAGE analysis. The optimum conditions for catalytic activity were pH 8.0 and 50°C. The protease showed alkaline stability (pH 7.0-10.0). The protease also exhibited novel catalytic ability over a broad range of salinity (NaCl 0-3 mol L ). Calcium ion enhanced the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The K and V values of the purified protease for casein were calculated to be 4.89 mg mL and 1111.11 U mL , respectively. The protease was strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Meanwhile, the protease was stable in the presence of Triton X-100, isopropanol, ethanol or dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic (DTNB), but was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or methanol. MALDI -TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that the protease shared some functional traits with protease produced by Halogranum salarium. Furthermore, it exhibited high hydrolytic activity on silver carp myosin protein.

Conclusion: The protease is an alkaline and salt-tolerant enzyme that hydrolyses silver carp myosin with high efficiency. These excellent characteristics make this protease an attractive candidate for industrial use in low-salt fish sauce fermentation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7879DOI Listing
March 2017

[Progress in Proteomic Study of the Penicillin Producer---Penicillium Chrysogenum].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2015 Dec;32(6):1354-8

Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression.
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December 2015

Changes in properties of white shrimp () protein during thermal denaturation.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2016 29;25(1):21-26. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

1South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, 510300 China.

Changes in white shrimp () protein during thermal denaturation were studied using Raman spectroscopy and isotopic H/D exchange. Denaturation of shrimp protein began after heating for 10 min at 50°C. A decrease in the percentage of α-helices accompanied by an increase in the percentage of β-sheets occurred while the total percentage of disordered structures increased. With extension of the exchange time, the relative intensity of the O-D bond increased, accompanied by a higher relative O-D bond intensity for heated shrimp, compared with unheated shrimp. H/D exchange revealed a higher rate of deuteration kinetics in heated shrimp than for unheated shrimp, especially during the first 2 h, consistent with water loss from denatured white shrimp protein. Physical property changes in muscle tissue can be caused by changes in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity during thermal processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-016-0003-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049370PMC
February 2016
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