Publications by authors named "Ruibin Zhang"

47 Publications

Anomalous static and dynamic functional connectivity of amygdala subregions in individuals with high trait anxiety.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Trait anxiety is considered a susceptible factor for stress-related disorders, and is characterized by abnormal brain activity and connectivity in the regions related to emotional processing (e.g., the amygdala). However, only a few studies have examined the static and dynamic changes of functional connectivity in trait anxiety.

Method: We compared the resting-state static and dynamic functional connectivity (sFC/dFC) in individuals with high trait anxiety (HTA, n = 257) and low trait anxiety (LTA, n = 264) using bilateral amygdala subregions as the seeds, that is, the centromedial amygdala (CMA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and superficial amygdala (SFA).

Results: The CMA, BLA, and SFA all showed reduced sFC with the executive control network (ECN) and anomalous dFC with the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with HTA. The CMA only showed reduced sFC with the ECN and reduced dFC with the DMN in individuals with HTA. The BLA showed reduced sFC with the salience network (mainly in the anterior and median cingulate), and increased dFC between the BLA and the DMN in individuals with HTA compared to those with LTA. Notably, HTA showed widespread anomalous functional connectivity in the SFA, including the visual network, mainly in the calcarine fissure, limbic system (olfactory cortex), and basal ganglia (putamen).

Conclusion: The anomalous sFC and dFC in individuals with HTA may reflect altered mechanisms in prefrontal control, salient stimuli processing, and amygdaloidal responsivity to potential threats, leading to alterations in associative, attentional, interpretative, and regulating processes that sustain a threat-related processing bias in HTA individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23195DOI Listing
July 2021

Human spatial navigation: Neural representations of spatial scales and reference frames obtained from an ALE meta-analysis.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 12;238:118264. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences (South China Normal University), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510631, China. Electronic address:

Humans use different spatial reference frames (allocentric or egocentric) to navigate successfully toward their destination in different spatial scale spaces (environmental or vista). However, it remains unclear how the brain represents different spatial scales and different spatial reference frames. Thus, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 47 fMRI articles involving human spatial navigation. We found that both the environmental and vista spaces activated the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area in the right hemisphere. The environmental space showed stronger activation than the vista space in the occipital and frontal regions. No brain region exhibited stronger activation for the vista than the environmental space. The allocentric and egocentric reference frames activated the bilateral PPA and right RSC. The allocentric frame showed more stronger activations than the egocentric frame in the right culmen, left middle frontal gyrus, and precuneus. No brain region displayed stronger activation for the egocentric than the allocentric navigation. Our findings suggest that navigation in different spatial scale spaces can evoke specific and common brain regions, and that the brain regions representing spatial reference frames are not absolutely separated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118264DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy and acceptability of transcranial direct current stimulation for treating depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 07 28;126:481-490. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Laboratory of Neuropsychology and Human Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao, Greater Bay Area, China. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising nonpharmacological intervention for treating depression. We aimed to provide an updated meta-analysis assessing the anti-depressant efficacy of tDCS.

Methods: We searched the literature from the first available date to 30 December 2020 to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Results: 27 RCTs (N = 1204 patients, 653 in active tDCS and 551 in sham tDCS) were included. Active tDCS was superior to sham tDCS (g = 0.46, 95 % CI 0.15-0.76) in modulating depressive symptoms measured by depression rating scales. Active tDCS was also superior to sham tDCS in reducing response and remission rates, but these differences did not reach statistically significant levels (OR = 1.75, 95 % CI 0.85-3.58; OR = 1.29, 95 % CI 0.59-2.83). The two groups had comparable dropout rates (OR = 1.28, 95 % CI 0.62-1.64).

Conclusion: For treatments of depressive episodes, tDCS may be efficacious. Specific tDCS parameters (e.g., a 2-mA stimulation current and 30-min sessions) and clinical characteristics (e.g., antidepressant-free) may augment the treatment efficacy of tDCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.03.026DOI Listing
July 2021

Quasi-continuous melting of model polymer monolayers prompts reinterpretation of polymer melting.

Nat Commun 2021 Mar 17;12(1):1710. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Shaanxi International Research Centre for Soft Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Condensed matter textbooks teach us that melting cannot be continuous and indeed experience, including with polymers and other long-chain compounds, tells us that it is a strongly first-order transition. However, here we report nearly continuous melting of monolayers of ultralong n-alkane CH on graphite, observed by AFM and reproduced by mean-field theory and MD simulation. On heating, the crystal-melt interface moves steadily and reversibly from chain ends inward. Remarkably, the final melting point is 80 K above that of the bulk, and equilibrium crystallinity decreases continuously from ~100% to <50% prior to final melting. We show that the similarity in melting behavior of polymers and non-polymers is coincidental. In the bulk, the intermediate melting stages of long-chain crystals are forbidden by steric overcrowding at the crystal-liquid interface. However, there is no crowding in a monolayer as chain segments can escape to the third dimension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21799-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969604PMC
March 2021

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Self-reported Psychological Distress Among Children and Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 01 4;4(1):e2035487. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Health Services Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Importance: Schools have been suspended nationwide in 188 countries, and classes have shifted to home-based distance learning models to control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Additional information is needed to determine mental health status among school-aged children and adolescents during this public health crisis and the risk factors associated with psychological distress during the pandemic.

Objective: To assess self-reported psychological distress among school-aged children and adolescents associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study using data from a survey on the mental health of school-aged children and adolescents in Guangdong province, China, conducted by using a stratified cluster random sampling method between March 8 to 30, 2020. To estimate outcomes associated with location of districts, only data from students with internet protocol addresses and current addresses in Guangdong were included. Data were analyzed from April 5 to July 20, 2020.

Exposure: Home-based distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Main Outcome And Measures: The main outcome was self-reported psychological distress, measured using the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire of 3 or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors associated with mental health status. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to analyze the associations of factors with psychological distress.

Results: Among 1 310 600 students who completed the survey, 1 199 320 students (mean [SD] age, 12.04 [3.01] years; 619 144 [51.6%] boys) were included in the final analysis. A total of 126 355 students (10.5%) self-reported psychological distress. Compared with students in primary school, high school students had increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.15-1.23]). Compared with students who wore a face mask frequently, students who never wore a face mask had increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 2.59 [95% CI, 2.41-2.79]). Additionally, students who spent less than 0.5 hours exercising had increased odds of self-reported psychological distress compared with students who spent more than 1 hour exercising (OR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.61-1.67]).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress among students during the COVID-19 pandemic was relatively high. Frequency of wearing a face mask and time spent exercising were factors associated with mental health. Therefore, it may be necessary for governments, schools, and families to pay attention to the mental health of school-aged children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and take corresponding countermeasures to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.35487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838937PMC
January 2021

Renoprotective effects of Tilianin in diabetic rats through modulation of oxidative stress via Nrf2-Keap1 pathway and inflammation via TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Nov 22;88:106967. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Nephrology, Jining First People's Hospital, Jining 272000, China. Electronic address:

The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of Tilianin (TN) on type-2 diabetes-induced renal dysfunction in experimental rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) by i.p. and then the rats were treated with TN (10 and 20 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for 28 days. TN treatment significantly decreases the BUN, creatinine, 24-hour urinary protein, urea, uric acid, and albumin protein levels. The protein of expression of Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1 was augmented while the expression of Keap-1 decreased significantly. TN also reduces the oxidative/nitrosative status by lowering MDA content, NO, and MPO levels. TN exerted anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK signaling cascades and inhibiting MyD88, TRAF6, IκBα, p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK2 in the diabetic rats. Histopathological findings supported the biochemical and molecular results. The results showed that TN modulated Nrf2-Keap1 and TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways and provided significant protection against diabetes-induced renal dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106967DOI Listing
November 2020

Association of Circulating Irisin Levels with Adiposity and Glucose Metabolic Profiles in a Middle-Aged Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 30;13:4105-4112. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong University Affiliated Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The myokine irisin has been proposed to affect obesity and metabolism disorders. However, data about the association of irisin with obesity and glucose metabolic status in humans remains controversial, and limited data are available concerning the Chinese population. This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum irisin concentrations and obesity, as well as glucose metabolic and cardiovascular factors in the middle-aged physical activity-matched Chinese Han race population.

Methods: A total of 740 participants were included in this cross-sectional study, who were divided into a normal weight (NW) group, overweight/obese (OB) group, normal weight type 2 diabetes (DM-NW) group and overweight/obese diabetes (DM-OB) group, and physical activity was evaluated and matched for the four groups. Circulating irisin levels were analyzed and compared among the groups with different adiposity and glucose status. Linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between serum irisin and adiposity indices, glucose metabolic and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: Circulating irisin levels were significantly correlated with higher levels of direct and indirect adiposity markers, including BMI, waist circumference and fat mass, and other cardiovascular risk factors, such as plasma triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (p < 0.01). Diabetes patients had lower irisin levels compared to non-diabetes participants, in either normal weight and obese group, resulting in a correlation of irisin with HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS (p < 0.01). Linear regression analysis demonstrated that irisin serum concentrations were independently associated with sex, BMI, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS (R = 0.465).

Conclusion: These data indicated that circulating irisin was affected by adiposity and glucose metabolism condition in the middle-aged Chinese population. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate its physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects, but this compensatory secretion of irisin seems likely to be progressing to a secretion failure once diabetes developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S275878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642586PMC
October 2020

Impaired left amygdala resting state functional connectivity in subthreshold depression individuals.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17207. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Cognitive and Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Subthreshold depression (StD) affects people who experience clinically relevant depressive symptoms, which does not meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). StD represents an ideal model for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression. Impaired emotion processing is a core feature of depression; careful investigation is required to better understand the neural correlates of emotion processing in depressed populations. In the current study, we explored whether the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala, a hub that taps a wide range of brain areas involved in emotion processing, is altered in individuals with StD when compared with healthy controls. Resting-state imaging data was collected from 59 individuals with StD and 59 age- and gender-matched controls. We found that the resting-state functional connectivity of the left amygdala with the cognitive control network and the left insula was significantly lower in people with StD than that in healthy controls. Such association was not observed in the right amygdala. Furthermore, functional connectivity strength between the left amygdala and the left precuneus was positively associated with depressive symptoms in individuals with StD. Our findings are in line with those reported in subjects with MDD, which may assist in further elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression, and contribute to the development of tailored treatments for individuals with StD who are at high risk of developing MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74166-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560839PMC
October 2020

Modeling Car-Following Behaviors and Driving Styles with Generative Adversarial Imitation Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 4;20(18). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

School of Automobile, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710064, China.

Building a human-like car-following model that can accurately simulate drivers' car-following behaviors is helpful to the development of driving assistance systems and autonomous driving. Recent studies have shown the advantages of applying reinforcement learning methods in car-following modeling. However, a problem has remained where it is difficult to manually determine the reward function. This paper proposes a novel car-following model based on generative adversarial imitation learning. The proposed model can learn the strategy from drivers' demonstrations without specifying the reward. Gated recurrent units was incorporated in the actor-critic network to enable the model to use historical information. Drivers' car-following data collected by a test vehicle equipped with a millimeter-wave radar and controller area network acquisition card was used. The participants were divided into two driving styles by K-means with time-headway and time-headway when braking used as input features. Adopting five-fold cross-validation for model evaluation, the results show that the proposed model can reproduce drivers' car-following trajectories and driving styles more accurately than the intelligent driver model and the recurrent neural network-based model, with the lowest average spacing error (19.40%) and speed validation error (5.57%), as well as the lowest Kullback-Leibler divergences of the two indicators used for driving style clustering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20185034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571238PMC
September 2020

Hypofunctional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in autism: Evidence from coordinate-based imaging meta-analysis.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 12 28;103:109986. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Department of Psychiatry, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China. Electronic address:

Background: Underconnectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) may be associated with a weakened ability to interpret social signals in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and result in cognitive inflexibility - a hallmark feature of ASD. However, previous neuroimaging studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in ASD reported inconsistent findings on functional connectivity of the PCC. This study investigated the aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC in ASD using multilevel kernel density analysis.

Methods: Online databases (MEDLINE/PubMed) were searched for PCC-based functional connectivity in ASD. Ten studies (501 subjects; 161 reported foci) met the inclusion criteria of this meta-analysis.

Results: We found one consistent and strong abnormal functional connectivity of ASD during the resting state, which was the hypoconnectivity between the PCC and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Importantly, the Jackknife sensitivity analysis revealed that the VMPFC cluster was stably hypoconnected with the PCC in ASD (maximum spatial overlap rate: 100%).

Conclusions: The reduced PCC-VMPFC functional coupling may provide an early insight into the effects of ASD on multiple dimensions of functioning, including higher-order cognitive and complex social functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.109986DOI Listing
December 2020

Taurine Supplementation Reverses Diabetes-Induced Podocytes Injury via Modulation of the CSE/TRPC6 Axis and Improvement of Mitochondrial Function.

Nephron 2020 19;144(2):84-95. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Nephrology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China,

Background: The protective effects of taurine supplementation on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have been defined, but the mechanisms are not quite clear yet. TRPC6 has been shown to function in the homeostasis of podocytes, but whether TRPC6-modulated mitochondrial dysfunctions participating in taurine-induced renal protection during diabetes are unclear.

Methods: A DKD model was constructed using streptozocin (STZ), and an immortalized mouse podocytes cell line MPC-5 was used. Renal histology and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of certain proteins. Cell proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, calcium influx, and mitochondrial functions were evaluated.

Results: In this study, taurine intervention improved STZ-induced DKD injuries, while it decreased both 24-h urinary protein and podocytes apoptosis. In detail, this study showed that taurine treatment decreased mitochondrial ROS productions by suppressing calcium overload and improving mitochondrial respiratory functions. Furthermore, the upregulation of TRPC6 is partially responsible for the calcium overload during high glucose treatment, whereas taurine treatment inhibited TRPC6 expression and partially attenuated high glucose-induced podocytes injuries. In addition, we demonstrated that taurine could upregulate CSE expression and inhibits TRPC6 expression via promoting the synthesis of H2S.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that taurine intervention could partially attenuate the lesions of DKD by modulating the CSE/TRPC6 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503832DOI Listing
February 2021

The stationary phase regulator CpcR activates cry gene expression in non-sporulating cells of Bacillus thuringiensis.

Mol Microbiol 2020 04 16;113(4):740-754. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Cell differentiation within an isogenic population allows the specialisation of subpopulations and a division of labour. Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore-forming bacterium that produces insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry proteins) in sporulating cells. We recently reported that strain B. thuringiensis LM1212 presents the unique ability to differentiate into two subpopulations during the stationary phase: spore-formers and crystal-producers. Here, we characterised the transcriptional regulator CpcR responsible for this differentiation and the expression of the cry genes. cpcR is located on a plasmid that also harbours cry genes. The alignment of LM1212 cry gene promoters revealed the presence of a conserved DNA sequence upstream from the -35 region. This presumed CpcR box was also found in the promoter of cpcR and we showed that cpcR transcription is positively autoregulated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that CpcR directly controls the transcription of its target genes by binding to the CpcR box. We showed that CpcR was able to direct the production of a crystal consisting of a heterologous insecticidal Cry protein in non-sporulating cells of a typical B. thuringiensis kurstaki strain. Moreover, the expression of cpcR induced a reduction in the sporulation of this B. thuringiensis strain, suggesting an interaction between CpcR and the sporulation regulatory networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14439DOI Listing
April 2020

Rumination network dysfunction in major depression: A brain connectome study.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 03 14;98:109819. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Emotion and Cognition, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China; The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Laboratory of Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, China. Electronic address:

Background: Rumination is a central feature of major depressive disorder (MDD). Knowledge of the neural structures that underpin rumination offers significant insight into depressive pathophysiology and may help to develop potential intervention strategies for MDD, a mental illness that has become the leading cause of disability worldwide.

Methods: Using resting-state fMRI and graph theory, this study adopted a connectome approach to examine the functional topological organization of the neural network associated with rumination in MDD. Data from 96 participants were analyzed, including 51 patients with MDD and 45 healthy controls.

Results: We found altered functional integration and segregation of neural networks associated with depressive rumination as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency in MDD patients compared with controls. Interestingly, these metrics correlated positively with depression severity, as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Moreover, mediation analysis indicated that the association between network metrics and depression severity was mediated by the ruminative tendency of patients. Disrupted nodal centralities were located in regions associated with emotional processing, visual mental imagery, and attentional control.

Conclusion: Our results highlight rumination as a two-edged sword that reflects a disease-specific neuropathology but also points to a functionality of depressive symptoms with evolutionary meaning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.109819DOI Listing
March 2020

Aberrant brain structural-functional connectivity coupling in euthymic bipolar disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2019 08 24;40(12):3452-3463. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Affective Disorders, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital), Guangzhou, China.

Aberrant structural (diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imagining connectivity are core features of bipolar disorder. However, few studies have explored the integrity agreement between structural and functional connectivity (SC-FC) in bipolar disorder. We examine SC connectivity coupling index whether could potentially provide additional clinical predictive value for bipolar disorder spectrum disorders besides the intramodality network measures. By examining the structural (DTI) and resting-state functional network properties, as well as their coupling index, among 57 euthymic bipolar disorder patients (age 13-28 years, 18 females) and 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (age 13-28 years, 16 females), we found that compared to controls, bipolar disorder patients showed increased structural rich-club connectivity as well as decreased functional modularity. Importantly, the coupling strength between structural and functional connectome was decreased in patients compared to controls, which emerged as the most powerful feature discriminating the two groups. Our findings suggest that structural-functional coupling strength could serve as a valuable biological trait-like feature for bipolar disorder over and above the intramodality network measures. Such measure can have important clinical implications for early identification of bipolar disorder individuals, and inform strategies for prevention of bipolar disorder onset and relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865442PMC
August 2019

Can fMRI discriminate between deception and false memory? A meta-analytic comparison between deception and false memory studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 09 26;104:43-55. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area Center for Brain Science and Brain-inspired Intelligence, China. Electronic address:

Previous research has highlighted the potential of fMRI in discriminating between truth and falsehood. However, falsehoods may not necessarily represent a deliberate intention to deceive; they can be a result of false memory too. It is important to show that fMRI can discriminate between deception and false memory, before it can be applied in legal contexts for deception detection. To this end, we performed a meta-analytic comparison of brain activation between deception and false memory. Activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were conducted separately on 49 deception (61 contrasts; N = 991) and 28 false memory (32 contrasts; N = 484) studies. The contrasts obtained from these meta-analyses were entered into subsequent conjunction and contrast analyses. Deception and false memory tasks activated several frontoparietal regions. Both tasks activated the left superior frontal gyrus. Deception, relative to false memory, was associated with increased activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, right insula, left inferior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus. These results provide some evidence to suggest that fMRI can discriminate between deception and false memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.027DOI Listing
September 2019

Functional Connectome from Phase Synchrony at Resting State is a Neural Fingerprint.

Brain Connect 2019 09 28;9(7):519-528. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Coherent oscillatory activity across brain regions provides a variety of individual-specific characteristics, sometimes referred to as a neural fingerprint. This information, however, may not be directly retrieved from raw functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series. In this study, we examined the data of 205 participants who completed two resting-state fMRI scanning sessions, separated by an average of 2.63 years. In the first step, we tested the long-term reliability of functional connectomes derived from amplitude-based functional connectivity (the conventional method) and found that they remained accurate markers (>85%,  < 0.001, permutation test) for identifying individuals, even after a period longer than 800 days. Using the same data set, we further expanded our exploration of the extent to which two analytic components of oscillatory activity (amplitude envelope and instantaneous phase) may function as reliable fingerprints. Both analytic signals-in particular, the instantaneous phase-were identified as useful indices in shaping functional connectivity fingerprints (86%,  < 0.001, permutation test). Connectivity profiles derived from the ventral attention, frontoparietal, and default mode networks were the largest contributing factors to identification. The current results suggest that neural synchronization tapped by analytical signal from a low-frequency resting-state fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent oscillation could be a reliable and useful fingerprint for identifying individuals and might provide an alternative method for characterizing dynamic functional connectivity profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2018.0657DOI Listing
September 2019

Direct AFM observation of individual micelles, tile decorations and tiling rules of a dodecagonal liquid quasicrystal.

J Phys Condens Matter 2017 Oct 24;29(41):414001. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, People's Republic of China. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom.

We performed an atomic force microscopy study of the dendron-based dodecagonal quasicrystal, the material that had been reported in 2004 as the first soft quasicrystal. We succeeded in orienting the 12-fold axis perpendicular to the substrate, which allowed the imaging of the quasiperiodic xy plane. Thus for the first time we have been able to obtain direct real-space information not only on the arrangement of the tiles, but also on their 'decorations' by the individual spherical micelles or 'nanoatoms'. The high-resolution patterns recorded confirm the square-triangle tiling, but the abundance of different nodes corresponds closely to random tiling rather than to any inflation rule. The previously proposed model of three types of decorated tiles, two triangular and one square, has been confirmed; the basic Frank-Kasper mode of alternating dense-sparse-dense-sparse layer stacking along z is confirmed too, each of the four sublayers being 2 nm thick. The consecutive dense layers are seen to be rotated by 90°, as expected. The 2 nm steps on the surface correspond to one layer of spheres, nonetheless with a dense layer always remaining on top, which implies a layer slip underneath and possibly the existence of screw dislocations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/aa818aDOI Listing
October 2017

Large-scale functional neural network correlates of response inhibition: an fMRI meta-analysis.

Brain Struct Funct 2017 Dec 27;222(9):3973-3990. Epub 2017 May 27.

Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Rm 656, Jockey Club Tower, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

An influential hypothesis from the last decade proposed that regions within the right inferior frontal cortex of the human brain were dedicated to supporting response inhibition. There is growing evidence, however, to support an alternative model, which proposes that neural areas associated with specific inhibitory control tasks co-exist as common network mechanisms, supporting diverse cognitive processes. This meta-analysis of 225 studies comprising 323 experiments examined the common and distinct neural correlates of cognitive processes for response inhibition, namely interference resolution, action withholding, and action cancellation. Activation coordinates for each subcategory were extracted using multilevel kernel density analysis (MKDA). The extracted activity patterns were then mapped onto the brain functional network atlas to derive the common (i.e., process-general) and distinct (i.e., domain-oriented) neural network correlates of these processes. Independent of the task types, activation of the right hemispheric regions (inferior frontal gyrus, insula, median cingulate, and paracingulate gyri) and superior parietal gyrus was common across the cognitive processes studied. Mapping the activation patterns to a brain functional network atlas revealed that the fronto-parietal and ventral attention networks were the core neural systems that were commonly engaged in different processes of response inhibition. Subtraction analyses elucidated the distinct neural substrates of interference resolution, action withholding, and action cancellation, revealing stronger activation in the ventral attention network for interference resolution than action inhibition. On the other hand, action withholding/cancellation primarily engaged the fronto-striatal circuit. Overall, our results suggest that response inhibition is a multidimensional cognitive process involving multiple neural regions and networks for coordinating optimal performance. This finding has significant implications for the understanding and assessment of response inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1443-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686258PMC
December 2017

A longitudinal study of the effect of short-term meditation training on functional network organization of the aging brain.

Sci Rep 2017 04 4;7(1):598. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong.

The beneficial effects of meditation on preserving age-related changes in cognitive functioning are well established. Yet, the neural underpinnings of these positive effects have not been fully unveiled. This study employed a prospective longitudinal design, and graph-based analysis, to study how an eight-week meditation training vs. relaxation training shaped network configuration at global, intermediate, and local levels using graph theory in the elderly. At the intermediate level, meditation training lead to decreased intra-connectivity in the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SAN) and somatomotor network (SMN) modules post training. Also, there was decreased connectivity strength between the DMN and other modules. At a local level, meditation training lowered nodal strength in the left posterior cingulate gryus, bilateral paracentral lobule, and middle cingulate gyrus. According to previous literature, the direction of these changes is consistent with a movement towards a more self-detached viewpoint, as well as more efficient processing. Furthermore, our findings highlight the importance of considering brain network changes across organizational levels, as well as the pace at which these changes may occur. Overall, this study provides further support for short-term meditation as a potentially beneficial method of mental training for the elderly that warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00678-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428857PMC
April 2017

Abnormal structural connectivity between the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex in patients with disorders of consciousness.

Cortex 2017 05 10;90:71-87. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, School of Psychology, Institute of Brain Science and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, PR China. Electronic address:

Consciousness loss in patients with severe brain injuries is associated with reduced functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network, and thalamo-cortical network. However, it is still unclear if the brain white matter connectivity between the above mentioned networks is changed in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In this study, we collected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 13 patients and 17 healthy controls, constructed whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks with probabilistic tractography. Afterward, we estimated and compared topological properties, and revealed an altered structural organization in the patients. We found a disturbance in the normal balance between segregation and integration in brain structural networks and detected significantly decreased nodal centralities primarily in the basal ganglia and thalamus in the patients. A network-based statistical analysis detected a subnetwork with uniformly significantly decreased structural connections between the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex in the patients. Further analysis indicated that along the WM fiber tracts linking the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex, the fractional anisotropy was decreased and the radial diffusivity was increased in the patients compared to the controls. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic method, we found that the structural connections within the NBS-derived component that showed differences between the groups demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity (>90%). Our results suggested that major consciousness deficits in DOC patients may be related to the altered WM connections between the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.02.011DOI Listing
May 2017

Working memory circuit as a function of increasing age in healthy adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

Neuroimage Clin 2016 11;12:940-948. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Department of Psychology, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years). Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6) bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40). Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8), left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40), and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31). These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2015.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5153561PMC
February 2018

Molecular Basis of Alarm Pheromone Detection in Aphids.

Curr Biol 2017 Jan 1;27(1):55-61. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the alarm pheromone for many species of aphids [1]. When released from aphids attacked by parasitoids or predators, it alerts nearby conspecifics to escape by walking away and dropping off the host plant [2, 3]. The reception of alarm pheromone in aphids is accomplished through a highly sensitive chemosensory system. Although olfaction-related gene families including odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have recently been identified from aphid genomes [4-6], the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EBF reception are still largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that ApisOR5, a member of the large superfamily of odorant receptors, is expressed in large placoid sensillum neurons on the sixth antennal segment and confers response to EBF when co-expressed with Orco, an obligate odorant receptor co-receptor, in parallel heterologous expression systems. In addition, the repellent behavior of Acyrthosiphon pisum to EBF disappears after knocking down ApisOR5 by RNAi as well as two A. pisum odorant-binding proteins known to bind EBF (ApisOBP3 and ApisOBP7). Furthermore, other odorants that can also activate ApisOR5, such as geranyl acetate, significantly repel A. pisum, as does EBF. Taken together, these data allow us to conclude that ApisOR5 is essential to EBF reception in A. pisum. The characterization of the EBF receptor allows high-throughput screening of aphid repellents, providing the necessary information to develop new strategies for aphid control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.013DOI Listing
January 2017

Comparison of the effect of bone marrow cells infusion through the portal vein and inferior vena cava combined with short-term rapamycin on allogeneic islet grafts in diabetic rats.

J Diabetes Investig 2016 Jul 23;7(4):476-84. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

Department of Nephrology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Aims/introduction: The study aimed to compare the impact of allogeneic bone marrow cells (BMCs) infusion through the inferior vena cava (IVC) and portal vein (PV) combined with rapamycin on allogeneic islet grafts in diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Recipient diabetic Wistar rats were infused with islets from Sprague-Dawley rats through the PV. PKH26-labeled BMCs of Sprague-Dawley rats were infused to recipients through the PV or IVC, followed by administration of rapamycin for 4 days. Blood glucose level was measured to evaluate the survival time of the islets. Lymphocytes separated from blood, BMCs, thymus, liver, spleen and lymph node were analyzed by flow cytometry. The peripheral blood smear, BMCs smear and frozen sections of tissues were observed by a fluorescence microscope.

Results: The survival time of the islets was significantly prolonged by the BMCs infusion combined with rapamycin. The rats receiving BMCs infusion through the PV induced a significantly longer survival time of the islets, and increased mixed chimeras of allogeneic BMCs in the thymus, liver, spleen and lymph node compared with the rats receiving BMCs infusion through the IVC. The amount of the mixed chimeras on day 14 was lower than that on day 7 after islet transplantation. Furthermore, PV transplantation had significantly more mixed chimera than IVC transplantation in all analyzed organs or tissues.

Conclusions: BMCs infusion combined with rapamycin prolongs the islets survival and induces mixed chimeras of BMCs. PV infusion of BMCs might be a more effective strategy than IVC infusion of BMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.12456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4931197PMC
July 2016

Impaired topological architecture of brain structural networks in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: a DTI study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2017 02;11(1):113-128

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, Brain Study Institute, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a neurodegenerative disorder of the brain central nervous system. But, to date, few studies adopted the network model to reveal topological changes in brain structural networks in PD patients. Additionally, although the concept of rich club organization has been widely used to study brain networks in various brain disorders, there is no study to report the changed rich club organization of brain networks in PD patients. Thus, we collected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls and adopted deterministic tractography to construct brain structural networks. During the network analysis, we calculated their topological properties, and built the rich club organization of brain structural networks for both subject groups. By comparing the between-group differences in topological properties and rich club organizations, we found that the connectivity strength of the feeder and local connections are lower in PD patients compared to those of the healthy controls. Furthermore, using a network-based statistic (NBS) approach, we identified uniformly significantly decreased connections in two modules, the limbic/paralimbic/subcortical module and the cognitive control/attention module, in patients compared to controls. In addition, for the topological properties of brain network topology in the PD patients, we found statistically increased shortest path length and decreased global efficiency. Statistical comparisons of nodal properties were also widespread in the frontal and parietal regions for the PD patients. These findings may provide useful information to better understand the abnormalities of brain structural networks in PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-015-9501-6DOI Listing
February 2017

[The system of health assistants in Shaanxi during the Republican period].

Authors:
Ruibin Zhang

Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi 2015 Jul;45(4):229-31

Xi'an Tranlation University, Xi'an, 710105, China.

To tackle plague, in the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), the government of Shaanxi province, established the "Shaanxi Department of Epidemic Prevention" and set up health assistant system at the grassroots level. As the main promoter and executor of rural epidemic prevention, the health assistants played a significant role in the formation of public health knowledge propaganda, the formation of public health idea, public environmental hygiene investigation and popularization of health and epidemic prevention work. Health assistant system, as the initiation of modern Shaanxi health, marking the gradual moving forward to its modernization, exerting a positive role and, at the same time, demonstrating that the development of modern public health needs the improvement of comprehensive national strength and the simultaneous construction of political civilization.
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July 2015

Working Memory in Unaffected Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies.

Schizophr Bull 2016 07 5;42(4):1068-77. Epub 2016 Jan 5.

Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Psychology, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK

Working memory deficits, a core cognitive feature of schizophrenia may arise from dysfunction in the frontal and parietal cortices. Numerous studies have also found abnormal neural activation during working memory tasks in patients' unaffected relatives. The aim of this study was to systematically identify and anatomically localize the evidence for those activation differences across all eligible studies. Fifteen functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) manuscripts, containing 16 samples of 289 unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 358 healthy controls were identified that met our inclusion criteria: (1) used a working memory task; and (2) reported standard space coordinates. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) identified convergence across studies. Compared to healthy controls, patients' unaffected relatives showed decreases in neural activation in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA9), as well as right inferior frontal gyrus (BA44). Increased activation was seen in relatives in the right frontopolar (BA10), left inferior parietal lobe (BA40), and thalamus bilaterally. These results suggest that the familial risk of schizophrenia is expressed in changes in neural activation in the unaffected relatives in the cortical-subcortical working memory network that includes, but is not restricted to the middle prefrontal cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4903055PMC
July 2016

Application of the QUAL2K model to design an ecological purification scheme for treated effluent of a wastewater treatment plant.

Water Sci Technol 2015 ;72(12):2194-200

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road No. 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210023, China E-mail:

Treated effluent from wastewater treatment plants has become an important source of excess nutrients causing eutrophication in water. In this study, an ecological purification method was used to further treat eutrophic water. A three-season ecological purification scheme which comprised an emergent plant (Eme.), a submerged plant (Sub.) and a novel biological rope (Bio.), was designed for the treated effluent canal of a wastewater treatment plant. The removal parameters determined from the experiment were input into a QUAL2K model to simulate downstream water quality of the treated effluent canal. Respective removal rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus of the Eme., Sub. and Bio. were 32.48-37.33% and 31.63-39.86% in summer, 14.12-33.61% and 17.74-23.80% in autumn, and 14.13-18.03% and 10.05-12.75% in winter, with 1-day reaction time. Optimal combinations for summer, autumn/spring, and winter are Eme. + Bio., Eme. + Bio. + Sub., and Sub. + Bio., respectively. Simulated load reduction rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus for the treated effluent canal were 42.64-78.40% and 30.98-78.29%, respectively, year round with 2.5-day reaction time. This study provides an efficient evaluation and design method for ecological purification engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.439DOI Listing
March 2016

Fluorescent graphene quantum dots as traceable, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems.

Int J Nanomedicine 2015 28;10:6709-24. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China ; Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were rationally fabricated as a traceable drug delivery system for the targeted, pH-sensitive delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug into cancer cells. The GQDs served as fluorescent carriers for a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). The whole system has the capacity for simultaneous tracking of the carrier and of drug release. Dox release is triggered upon acidification of the intracellular vesicles, where the carriers are located after their uptake by cancer cells. Further functionalization of the loaded carriers with targeting moieties such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides enhanced their uptake by cancer cells. DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer ability of Dox-loaded RGD-modified GQDs (Dox-RGD-GQDs). The results demonstrated the feasibility of using GQDs as traceable drug delivery systems with the ability for the pH-triggered delivery of drugs into target cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S91864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630193PMC
September 2016

Exploring brain functional plasticity in world class gymnasts: a network analysis.

Brain Struct Funct 2016 09 29;221(7):3503-19. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

Long-term motor skill learning can induce plastic structural and functional reorganization of the brain. Our previous studies detected brain structural plasticity related to long-term intensive gymnastic training in world class gymnasts (WCGs). The goal of this study was to investigate brain functional plasticity in WCGs by using network measures of brain functional networks. Specifically, we acquired resting-state fMRI data from 13 WCGs and 14 controls, constructed their brain functional networks, and compared the differences in their network parameters. At the whole brain level, we detected significantly decreased overall functional connectivity (FC) and decreased local and global efficiency in the WCGs compared to the controls. At the modular level, we found intra- and inter-modular reorganization in three modules, the cerebellum, the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, in the WCGs. On the nodal level, we revealed significantly decreased nodal strength and efficiency in several non-rich club regions of these three modules in the WCGs. These results suggested that functional plasticity can be detected in the brain functional networks of WCGs, especially in the cerebellum, fronto-parietal network, and cingulo-opercular network. In addition, we found that the FC between the fronto-parietal network and the sensorimotor network was significantly negatively correlated with the number of years of training in the WCGs. These findings may help us to understand the outstanding gymnastic performance of the gymnasts and to reveal the neural mechanisms that distinguish WCGs from controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-015-1116-6DOI Listing
September 2016

Reconfiguration of the Brain Functional Network Associated with Visual Task Demands.

PLoS One 2015 6;10(7):e0132518. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the topological properties of resting-state brain functional networks are modulated through task performances. However, the reconfiguration of functional networks associated with distinct degrees of task demands is not well understood. In the present study, we acquired fMRI data from 18 healthy adult volunteers during resting-state (RS) and two visual tasks (i.e., visual stimulus watching, VSW; and visual stimulus decision, VSD). Subsequently, we constructed the functional brain networks associated with these three conditions and analyzed the changes in the topological properties (e.g., network efficiency, wiring-cost, modularity, and robustness) among them. Although the small-world attributes were preserved qualitatively across the functional networks of the three conditions, changes in the topological properties were also observed. Compared with the resting-state, the functional networks associated with the visual tasks exhibited significantly increased network efficiency and wiring-cost, but decreased modularity and network robustness. The changes in the task-related topological properties were modulated according to the task complexity (i.e., from RS to VSW and VSD). Moreover, at the regional level, we observed that the increased nodal efficiencies in the visual and working memory regions were positively associated with the increase in task complexity. Together, these results suggest that the increased efficiency of the functional brain network and higher wiring-cost were observed to afford the demands of visual tasks. These observations provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the reconfiguration of the brain network during task performance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0132518PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4493060PMC
April 2016
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