Publications by authors named "Rui Xu"

1,042 Publications

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Programmable and Site-Specific Patterning on DNA Origami Templates with Heterogeneous Condensation of Silver and Silica.

Small 2021 Oct 11:e2103877. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Nucleic Acid Chemistry and Nanomedicine and State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200120, P. R. China.

DNA origami has been widely used as a modular platform for condensation of functional molecules to assemble optical, electronic, and biological components. However, the heterogeneous condensation with greater diversities in chemical composition templated with DNA origami is still challenging. Herein, a programmable deposition method is developed to precisely condense silver-silica nanohybrids on DNA origami templates. First, the site-specific metallization of Ag is achieved by thiol group-initiated silver reduction at the designed areas of DNA origami. Next, cysteamine is used to selectively modify the condensed Ag surface with positively charged amino groups for creating an electronically different environment for site-specific placement of silica by a modified Stöber method. Using these strategies, customized patterning of both silver and silica on tubular and rectangular DNA origami nanostructures is successfully achieved with nanoscale spatial resolution. These findings will greatly facilitate the development of DNA nanotechnology-based bottom-up nanofabrication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103877DOI Listing
October 2021

Intestinal flora alterations in patients with ulcerative colitis and their association with inflammation.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Nov 20;22(5):1322. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Translational Medicine Center, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475000, P.R. China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC), which is a type of inflammatory bowel disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder of multifactorial etiology. Numerous studies have indicated an association between UC and intestinal bacteria. However, a limited number of studies regarding the expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) in association with intestinal bacteria have been performed. The aim of the current study was to investigate the gut microbiota alterations in patients with UC, at a number of taxonomic levels, and their relationship with intestinal inflammation by analyzing the protein expression of IL-17 and IL-23. Specimens were collected from 10 healthy controls and 16 patients with UC. A histological examination was performed in colonic tissues, IL-17 and IL-23 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, fecal samples were sequenced using 16S rDNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis was performed. The UC group exhibited an increased histological score (P<0.01) and upregulated IL-17 and IL-23 expression (P<0.01). At the order level, the bacterial diversity of the UC group was decreased. β-diversity analyses, including principal component analysis, principal coordinate analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling, demonstrated that the two groups of samples were separated into two taxonomic categories, as distinct variations were observed in the analysis of group differences (P=0.001). Regarding the differences in species composition between the groups, was indicated to be the species with the greatest difference in abundance compared with the healthy control group (P<0.01), followed by (P<0.05), (P<0.05), and . In addition, the average optical density of IL-17 was positively correlated with the histological score (ρ=0.669; P=0.035), (r=0.843; P<0.001), (r=0.737; P=0.001), (r=0.773; P<0.001) and (r=0.663; P=0.005), and the average optical density of IL-23 was positively correlated with the histological score (ρ=0.733; P=0.016), (r=0.771; P<0.001), (r=0.566; P=0.022), (r=0.517; P=0.041) and (r=0.613; P=0.012). The results of the present study indicated that the intestinal microbiota of patients with UC differed from that of healthy controls at multiple taxonomic levels. The alterations of the intestinal microflora were closely associated with the degree of inflammation. The IL-23/IL-17 axis, as a key factor in the development of UC, maybe associated with the alterations of intestinal microflora. The interaction between intestinal microflora and the IL-23/IL-17 axis may serve an important role in the pathogenesis of UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495592PMC
November 2021

Fractions of Shen-Sui-Tong-Zhi Formula Enhance Osteogenesis Activation of β-Catenin Signaling in Growth Plate Chondrocytes.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:711004. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Shen-sui-tong-zhi formula (SSTZF) has been used to treat osteoporosis for decades and shows excellent clinical efficacy. This article aims to explore the optimal anti-osteoporotic ingredient and its precise mechanisms in mice models. In this study, we first screened the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction of SSTZF extract , and then further explored the mechanism of its effects both and . Ten-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were administrated with each fraction of SSTZF. At 10 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX), femurs were collected for tissue analyses, including histology, micro-CT, biomechanical tests, and immunohistochemistry for ALP, FABP4, and β-catenin. Additionally, we also evaluated the mRNA expression level of ALP and FABP4 and the protein expression level of β-catenin after being treated with SSTZF extract in CHT1/2 cells. Moreover, we investigated the anti-osteoporosis effect of SSTZF extract on mice with conditional knockout in growth plate chondrocytes ( mice) through μCT, histology, and immunohistochemistry analyzes. At 10 weeks after treatment, osteoporosis-like phenotype were significantly ameliorated in SSTZF n-butanol extract (SSTZF-NB) group mice, as indicated by increased trabecular bone area and ALP content, and decreased lipid droplet area and FABP4 content. No such improvements were observed after being treated with other extracts, demonstrating that SSTZF-NB is the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction. Additionally, the elevated β-catenin was revealed in both OVX mice and CHT1/2 cells with SSTZF-NB administered. Furthermore, a significant osteoporosis-like phenotype was observed in mice as expected. However, SSTZF-NB failed to rescue the deterioration in mice, no significant re-upregulated ALP and downregulated FABP4 were observed after being treated with SSTZF-NB, demonstrating that SSTZF-NB prevents bone loss mainly via β-catenin signaling. SSTZF-NB enhances osteogenesis mainly via activation of β-catenin signaling in growth plate chondrocytes. SSTZF-NB is the optimal anti-osteoporosis fraction of SSTZF and it can be considered a salutary alternative therapeutic option for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.711004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498212PMC
September 2021

Untargeted Metabolomics and Targeted Quantitative Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Variations in Specialized Metabolites Accumulation in (Schw.) Wolf (Fushen).

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:713490. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China.

(Schw.) Wolf is a saprophytic fungus that grows around the roots of old, dead pine trees. Fushen, derived from the sclerotium of but also containing a young host pine root, has been widely used as a medicine and food in China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asian countries, and some European countries. However, the compound variations at the different growth periods and in the different parts of Fushen have not previously been investigated. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) and targeted quantitative analysis was utilized to characterize the temporal and spatial variations in the accumulation of specialized metabolites in Fushen. There were 119 specialized metabolites tentatively identified using the UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. The nine growth periods of Fushen were divided into four groups using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). Four different parts of the Fushen [fulingpi (FP), the outside of baifuling (BO), the inside of baifuling (BI), and fushenmu (FM)] were clearly discriminated using a PLS-DA and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA). Markers for the different growth periods and parts of Fushen were also screened. In addition, the quantitative method was successfully applied to simultaneously determine 13 major triterpenoid acids in the nine growth periods and four parts. The quantitative results indicated that the samples in January, March, and April, i.e., the late growth period, had the highest content levels for the 13 triterpenoid acids. The pachymic acid, dehydropachymic acid, and dehydrotumulosic acid contents in the FM were higher than those in other three parts in March, whereas the poricoic acid B, poricoic acid A, polyporenic acid C, dehydrotratrametenolic acid, dehydroeburicoic acid, and eburicoic acid in FP were higher beginning in October. These findings reveal characteristics in temporal and spatial distribution of specialized metabolites in Fushen and provide guidance for the identification of harvesting times and for further quality evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.713490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490877PMC
September 2021

Identification and characterization of expression profiles of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in the swimming crab, .

PeerJ 2021 15;9:e12179. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate multiple physiological processes. Currently, little is known about the identity of native neuropeptides and their receptors in . This study employed RNA-sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to identify neuropeptides and their receptors that might be involved in regulation of reproductive processes of . In the central nervous system transcriptome data, 47 neuropeptide transcripts were identified. In further analyses, the tissue expression profile of 32 putative neuropeptide-encoding transcripts was estimated. Results showed that the 32 transcripts were expressed in the central nervous system and 23 of them were expressed in the ovary. A total of 47 GPCR-encoding transcripts belonging to two classes were identified, including 39 encoding GPCR-A family and eight encoding GPCR-B family. In addition, we assessed the tissue expression profile of 33 GPCRs (27 GPCR-As and six GPCR-Bs) transcripts. These GPCRs were found to be widely expressed in different tissues. Similar to the expression profiles of neuropeptides, 20 of these putative GPCR-encoding transcripts were also detected in the ovary. This is the first study to establish the identify of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in , and provide information for further investigations into the effect of neuropeptides on the physiology and behavior of decapod crustaceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.12179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8449533PMC
September 2021

Design and Demystify the Lithium Metal Interface towards Highly Reversible Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 5:e2105962. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

The reversible lithium (Li) plating/stripping is essentially required for building practical high-energy-density batteries based on Li metal chemistry, which unfortunately remains a severe challenge yet. In this contribution, we demonstrate that through the rational regulation of strong Li -anion coordination structures in a highly compatible low-polarity solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (MeTHF), the Li plating/stripping assisted by a nucleation modulation procedure delivers a remarkably high average Coulombic efficiency (CE) under rather demanding conditions (99.7% and 99.5% under 1.0 mA cm , 3.0 mAh cm and 3.0 mA cm , 3.0 mAh cm , respectively). The exceedingly reversible cycling obtained herein is fundamentally correlated with the flattened Li deposition and minimized SEI generation/reconstruction in the customized condition, which notably restrains the growth rates of both dead Li (0.0120 mAh/cycle) and SEI-Li (0.0191 mAh/cycle) during consecutive cycles. Benefiting from the efficient Li plating/stripping manner, the assembled anode-free Cu|LiFePO (2.7 mAh cm ) coin and pouch cells exhibit impressive capacity retention of 43.8% and 41.6% after 150 cycles, respectively, albeit no optimization on the test conditions. This work provides guidelines into the targeted interfacial design of high-efficiency working Li anode, aiming to pave the way for the practical deployment of high-energy-density Li metal batteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105962DOI Listing
October 2021

Utilization of coal fly ash waste for effective recapture of phosphorus from waters.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 1;287(Pt 4):132431. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Brackenhurst Campus, Nottinghamshire, NG25 0QF, United Kingdom; Nanjing Xianglai Academy of Eco-environmental Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210046, China. Electronic address:

Reutilization of the waste by-products from industrial and agricultural activities is crucially important towards attainment of environmental sustainability and the 'circular economy'. In this study, we have developed and evaluated a sustainably-sourced adsorbent from coal fly ash, which was modified by a small amount of lanthanum (La-FA), for the recapture of phosphorous (P) from both synthetic and real natural waters. The prepared La-FA adsorbent possessed typical characteristic diffraction peaks similar to zeolite type Na-P1, and the BET surface area of La-FA was measured to be 10.9 times higher than that of the original FA. Investigation of P adsorption capability indicated that the maximum adsorption (10.8 mg P g) was 6.14 times higher than that (1.8 mg P g) of the original fly ash material. The ζ potentials measurement and P K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra demonstrated that P was bonded on La-FA surfaces via an adsorption mechanism. After applying the proposed adsorbent to real lake water with La/P molar ratios in the range from 0.5:1 to 3:1, the La-FA adsorbent showed the highest phosphate removal ability with a La/P molar ratio 1:1, and the P adsorption was similar to that performance with the synthetic solution. Moreover, the La-FA absorbent produced a negligible effect on the concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH-N and NO-N in water. This study thus provides a potential material for effective P recapture and details of its operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132431DOI Listing
October 2021

Folate Reverses NF-κB p65/Rela/IL-6 Level Induced by Hyperhomocysteinemia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:651582. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is derived from the abnormal metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy) and is related to metabolic-related diseases. In addition, HHcy combined with hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, the mechanism of HHcy aggravating hypertensive arterial damage and the efficacy of folate (FA) as a beneficial supplement have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we established a rat HHcy model and a hypertension combined with HHcy model. Rat tail artery blood pressure (BP), plasma Hcy, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Rat thoracic aorta was for pathological analysis after 12 weeks of the experiment. The relative expression levels of oxidative stress and immune/inflammation in rat arterial tissues were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The results demonstrated that the relative expression levels of oxidative stress and immune/inflammation were the highest in the hypertension combined with HHcy group, followed by the hypertension group. Compared with the hypertension group, the hypertension combined with HHcy group up-regulated the expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) p65/Rela, but not NADPH oxidase (Nox). Furthermore, folate inhibited the expression of IL-6 and NF-κB p65/Rela, reduced the levels of MDA and HHcy, but significantly increased the SOD level. In conclusion, HHcy synergistically aggravated the arterial damage factor of hypertension through immune/inflammatory response. However, folate demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties and reversed the NF-κB p65/Rela/IL-6 level induced by HHcy in hypertensive rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.651582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481771PMC
September 2021

An improved data-free surrogate model for solving partial differential equations using deep neural networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 30;11(1):19507. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Science and Technology on Parallel and Distributed Processing Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410000, China.

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are ubiquitous in natural science and engineering problems. Traditional discrete methods for solving PDEs are usually time-consuming and labor-intensive due to the need for tedious mesh generation and numerical iterations. Recently, deep neural networks have shown new promise in cost-effective surrogate modeling because of their universal function approximation abilities. In this paper, we borrow the idea from physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) and propose an improved data-free surrogate model, DFS-Net. Specifically, we devise an attention-based neural structure containing a weighting mechanism to alleviate the problem of unstable or inaccurate predictions by PINNs. The proposed DFS-Net takes expanded spatial and temporal coordinates as the input and directly outputs the observables (quantities of interest). It approximates the PDE solution by minimizing the weighted residuals of the governing equations and data-fit terms, where no simulation or measured data are needed. The experimental results demonstrate that DFS-Net offers a good trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. It outperforms the widely used surrogate models in terms of prediction performance on different numerical benchmarks, including the Helmholtz, Klein-Gordon, and Navier-Stokes equations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99037-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484684PMC
September 2021

Variation in the diazotrophic community in a vertical soil profile contaminated with antimony and arsenic.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 27:118248. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China. Electronic address:

A nitrogen (N) deficiency will usually hinder bioremediation efforts in mining-derived habitats such as occurring in mining regions. Diazotrophs can provide N to support the growth of plants and microorganisms in these environments. However, diazotrophic communities in mining areas have been not studied frequently and are more poorly understood than those in other environments, such as in agricultural soils or in the presence of legumes. The current study compares the differences in depth-resolved diazotrophic community compositions and interactions in two contrasting sites (to depths of 2 m), including a highly contaminated and a moderately contaminated site. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) co-contamination induced a loosely connected biotic interaction, and a selection of deep soils by diazotrophic communities. Multiple lines of evidence, including the enrichment of diazotrophic taxa in the highly contaminated sites, microbe-microbe interactions, environment-microbe interactions, and a machine learning approach (random forests regression), demonstrated that Rhizobium was the keystone taxon within the vertical profile of contaminated soil and was resistant to the Sb and As contaminant fractions. All of these observations suggest that one diazotroph, Rhizobium, may play an important role in N fixation in the examined contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118248DOI Listing
September 2021

Arsenic removal by manganese-doped mesoporous iron oxides from groundwater: Performance and mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;806(Pt 2):150615. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, China; State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Source Apportionment and Control of Aquatic Pollution, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, 430074 Wuhan, China.

FeMn bimetallic oxides have been widely used in catalytic adsorption due to their large pore size, large specific surface area and mesoporous structure, which have great potential for high As groundwater remediation. In this study, FeMn composite oxide was synthesized by template-free route and forming mesopores through high temperature calcination, and its efficiency and mechanism for As removal were subsequently investigated. The results showed that the different Fe/Mn molar ratios and calcination temperatures have important effect on FeMn composite oxides performance. For all synthesized materials, the largest specific surface area is 388.6 m/g of FeMn-300. The maximum As absorption capacity was also reached by FeMn-300, which is 59.44 mg/g for As(III) and 31.68 mg/g for As(V), respectively. As removal efficiency was further evaluated through batch adsorption experiments conducted with five variables, initial As concentration, adsorption equilibrium time, pH, solid-to-liquid ratio, and competitive ions. The adsorption capacity of the material reaches to the maximum when the initial As concentration is 40 mg/L, and that for As(III) and As(V) is 74.05 and 38.09 mg/g, respectively. When the pH rises, the adsorption capacity generally shows a decreasing trend, thus acidic conditions are more conducive to the adsorption reaction. The optimum solid-to-liquid ratios for removal 10 mg/L of As(III) and As(V) are 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. The order of competitive ions effects on As removal is: PO > HCO > SO ≈ NO ≈ Cl. The adsorption mechanisms for As by FeMn composite oxides included adsorption, co-precipitation and oxidative chelation, which was a combination of physical and chemical process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150615DOI Listing
September 2021

Selenium sulfide disrupts the PLAGL2/C-MET/STAT3-induced resistance against mitochondrial apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Sep;11(9):e536

School of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, P. R. China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Overexpression of pleomorphic adenoma gene like-2 (PLAGL2) is associated with tumorigenesis. However, its function in HCC is unclear, and there are currently no anti-HCC drugs that target PLAGL2. Drug repositioning may facilitate the development of PLAGL2-targeted drug candidates.

Methods: The expression of PLAGL2 in HCC clinical tissue samples and HCC cell lines was analyzed by western blotting. The constructed HCC cell models were used to confirm the underlying function of PLAGL2 as a therapeutic target. Multiple in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of selenium sulfide (SeS ), which is clinically used for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and tinea versicolor.

Results: PLAGL2 expression was higher in HCC tumor tissues than in normal adjacent tissues. Its overexpression promoted the resistance of HCC cells of mitochondrial apoptosis through the regulation of the downstream C-MET/STAT3 signaling axis. SeS exerted significant anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HCC cells in a PLAGL2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SeS suppressed C-MET/STAT3, AKT/mTOR, and MAPK signaling and triggered Bcl-2/Cyto C/Caspase-mediated intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: Our data reveal an important role of PLAGL2 in apoptosis resistance in HCC and highlight the potential of using SeS as a PLAGL2 inhibitor in patients with HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441139PMC
September 2021

Agnathia-otocephaly complex diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound: a case report.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Aug;10(8):2131-2135

Department of Ultrasound, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Maternity and Child Health Hospital & Ningxia Children's Hospital, Yinchuan, China.

Agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC) is a rare and complex craniofacial malformation characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or agnathia, auricular fusion (synotia), and microstomia with oroglossal hypoplasia or aglossia. It can occur alone or in combination with forebrain anomalies and cardiac malformations and has an extremely poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of AOC diagnosed by systemic fetal screening at a gestational age of 25 weeks. Ultrasound revealed that the S-curve formed by the normal lower jaw and lower lip had disappeared, the lower jaw and mandible were invisible, the mouth was extremely small, and the oral fissure was "pinhole-shaped". There was a cone-shaped perioral bulge. Both ears were located in the front side of the neck, and the right foot was inverted. Excessive amniotic fluid was observed. The absence of a mandible was confirmed on X-ray examination after induced abortion. Specimen observation showed that the ear positions were extremely low, and both earlobes were connected in the front side of the neck. It was particularly challenging to identify the development of the mandible and locate auricles during prenatal ultrasound diagnosis, and the prenatal diagnosis of AOC was confirmed by combining two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound in our current case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-21-235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429858PMC
August 2021

Identification of Antimonate Reducing Bacteria and Their Potential Metabolic Traits by the Combination of Stable Isotope Probing and Metagenomic-Pangenomic Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China.

Microorganisms play an important role in altering antimony (Sb) speciation, mobility, and bioavailability, but the understanding of the microorganisms responsible for Sb(V) reduction has been limited. In this study, DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomics analysis were combined to identify potential Sb(V)-reducing bacteria (SbRB) and predict their metabolic pathways for Sb(V) reduction. Soil slurry cultures inoculated with Sb-contaminated paddy soils from two Sb-contaminated sites demonstrated the capability to reduce Sb(V). DNA-SIP identified bacteria belonging to the genera and as putative SbRB in these two Sb-contaminated sites. In addition, bacteria such as and may potentially participate in Sb(V) reduction. Nearly complete draft genomes of putative SbRB (i.e., and ) were obtained, and the genes potentially responsible for arsenic (As) and Sb reduction (i.e., respiratory arsenate reductase () and antimonate reductase ()) were examined. Notably, bins affiliated with contained and genes, supporting our hypothesis that they are putative SbRB. Further, pangenomic analysis indicated that various -associated genomes obtained from diverse habitats also contained and genes. In contrast, may use a predicted DMSO reductase closely related to (Sb(V) reductase gene) clade II to reduce Sb(V), which may need further experiments to verify. This current work represents a demonstration of using DNA-SIP and metagenomic-binning to identify SbRB and their key genes involved in Sb(V) reduction and provides valuable data sets to link bacterial identities with Sb(V) reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03967DOI Listing
September 2021

The Role of Surface Electromyography in Data Fusion with Inertial Sensors to Enhance Locomotion Recognition and Prediction.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 19;21(18). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Academy of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Locomotion recognition and prediction is essential for real-time human-machine interactive control. The integration of electromyography (EMG) with mechanical sensors could improve the performance of locomotion recognition. However, the potential of EMG in motion prediction is rarely discussed. This paper firstly investigated the effect of surface EMG on the prediction of locomotion while integrated with inertial data. We collected EMG signals of lower limb muscle groups and linear acceleration data of lower limb segments from ten healthy participants in seven locomotion activities. Classification models were built based on four machine learning methods-support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), artificial neural network (ANN), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA)-where a major vote strategy and a content constraint rule were utilized for improving the online performance of the classification decision. We compared four classifiers and further investigated the effect of data fusion on the online locomotion classification. The results showed that the SVM model with a sliding window size of 80 ms achieved the best recognition performance. The fusion of EMG signals does not only improve the recognition accuracy of steady-state locomotion activity from 90% (using acceleration data only) to 98% (using data fusion) but also enables the prediction of the next steady locomotion (∼370 ms). The study demonstrates that the employment of EMG in locomotion recognition could enhance online prediction performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21186291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473357PMC
September 2021

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling dependent epidermal growth-like factor expression is required for NPR2 inhibition and meiotic resumption in goat oocytes.

Theriogenology 2021 Sep 17;176:35-42. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which is different from traditional estrogen nuclear receptors (ERs), mediates the rapid transduction of nongenomic signals in cells, and works by regulating transcription and intracellular second messengers. Studies have shown that GPER may regulate oocyte maturation, but the relevant mechanism is not entirely clear. Here, goat cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were used as a model to explore the regulation and mechanism of GPER on oocyte maturation. Our study showed that 17β-estradiol (E) significantly reduced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis in COCs and accelerated the meiotic resumption of goat oocytes via GPER. Further investigation found that GPER mediated the downregulation of natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) protein expression in goat cumulus cells by E. In addition, we found that E significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of epidermal growth (EGF)-like factors in goat cumulus cells through GPER, and activated the downstream EGF receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. Both AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) abolished the inhibitory effect of E on the protein expression of NPR2. These results indicate that, through GPER, E upregulates the mRNA levels of EGF-like factors in goat cumulus cells and activates the downstream EGF signaling network to suppress the expression of NPR2 protein, which results in a decrease in cGMP synthesis and acceleration of meiotic resumption in goat oocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.09.010DOI Listing
September 2021

pH-Sensitive Molecular-Switch-Containing Polymer Nanoparticle for Breast Cancer Therapy with Ferritinophagy-Cascade Ferroptosis and Tumor Immune Activation.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Sep 17:e2100683. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Ferritin internalized into tumor cells is degraded and releases iron ions via ferritinophagy. Iron ions participate in Fenton reaction to produce reactive oxygen species for lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Inhibition of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) decreases tryptophan elimination to induce T cells activation for tumor immunosuppression relief. The active tumor targeting nanoparticles containing ferritin and a pH-sensitive molecular-switch ([email protected]) are developed to utilize ferritinophagy-cascade ferroptosis and tumor immunity activation for cancer therapy. [email protected] disintegrates in acidic cytoplasm and releases sorafenib (SRF) and IDO inhibitor (NLG919). SRF upregulates nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4) to induce ferritin and endogenous iron pool degradation by ferritinophagy, then obtained iron ions participate in the Fenton reaction to produce lipid peroxide (LPO). Meanwhile, SRF blocks glutathione synthesis to downregulate glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) which can scavenge LPO as a different pathway from ferritinophagy to promote ferroptosis in tumor cells. NLG919 inhibits IDO to reduce tryptophan metabolism, so immunity in tumors is aroused to anti-tumor. In vitro and in vivo experiments prove [email protected] inhibits tumor cell growth and metastasis, indicating the potential of [email protected] for breast cancer therapy based on the combination of ferritinophagy-cascade ferroptosis and tumor immunity activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100683DOI Listing
September 2021

A novel electrochemiluminescence aptasensor based on copper-gold bimetallic nanoparticles and its applications.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 6;194:113601. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, No. 266 Xincun Xilu, Zibo, 255049, China; Shandong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Vegetable Safety and Quality Traceability, No. 266 Xincun Xilu, Zibo, 255049, China; Zibo City Key Laboratory of Agricultural Product Safety Traceability, No. 266 Xincun Xilu, Zibo, 255049, China. Electronic address:

In this work, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor was structured for the detection of four organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Firstly, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to create a favorable loading interface for the fixation of tris (2, 2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) (Ru (bpy)). At the same time, copper (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were synthesized in the aqueous phase for the sensor construction. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) could promote the electrochemiluminescence intensity of Ru (bpy) with high efficiency by catalyzing the oxidation process of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA). Compared with the Au NPs, [email protected] NPs increased the solid loading of Au NPs by virtue of the large specific surface area of copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs), which could further improve the sensitivity of aptasensor. When OPs were added, the ECL intensity was significantly reduced, and the concentration of OPs could be detected through the ECL intensity. Under the optimum conditions, the aptasensor had a wider dynamic range and ultra-low detection limit for the detection of four pesticides: profenofos, isocarbophos, phorate, and omethoate, and their detection limits were 3 × 10 ng/mL, 3 × 10 ng/mL, 3 × 10 ng/mL, and 3 × 10 ng/mL respectively (S/N = 3). The aptasensor had the merits of good stability, reproducibility, and specificity, and had a favorable recovery rate in detecting OPs residues in vegetables. This work provided an effective method for the construction of a simple, rapid, and sensitive biosensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113601DOI Listing
September 2021

Lattice-matching Ni-based scaffold with a spongy cover for uniform electric field against lithium dendrites.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 16;57(74):9442-9445. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

The State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Chemical Process for Clean Energy and Resource Utilization, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Shazhengjie 174, Chongqing 400044, China.

Herein, carbonized nickel metal organic framework scaffolds at nickel foam ([email protected]) were fabricated to regulate Li-ion plating/stripping in lithium cells. [email protected] would contribute to uniform Li nucleation and low overpotential due to the small lattice mismatch ratio and homogenous lithiophilic sites. Moreover, the spongy structure of the carbonized MOF can reduce the local current density by smoothening the sharp edges of NiO. Owing to these advantages, both the symmetric cells and full cells exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03501kDOI Listing
September 2021

mTOR regulates cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization through the SynDIG1-GluA2 interaction in the nucleus accumbens.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Behavioral sensitization is a progressive increase in locomotor or stereotypic behaviours in response to drugs. It is believed to contribute to the reinforcing properties of drugs and to play an important role in relapse after cessation of drug abuse. However, the mechanism underlying this behaviour remains poorly understood. In this study, we showed that mTOR signaling was activated during the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and that intraperitoneal or intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) treatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, attenuated cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization. Cocaine significantly modified brain lipid profiles in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized mice and markedly elevated the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphates (PIPs), including PIP, PIP and PIP. The behavioural effect of cocaine was attenuated by intra-NAc administration of LY294002, an AKT-specific inhibitor, suggesting that PIPs may contribute to mTOR activation in response to cocaine. An RNA-sequencing analysis of the downstream effectors of mTOR signalling revealed that cocaine significantly decreased the expression of SynDIG1, a known substrate of mTOR signalling, and decreased the surface expression of GluA2. In contrast, AAV-mediated SynDIG1 overexpression in NAc attenuated intracellular GluA2 internalization by promoting the SynDIG1-GluA2 interaction, thus maintaining GluA2 surface expression and repressing cocaine-induced behaviours. In conclusion, NAc SynDIG1 may play a negative regulatory role in cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization by regulating synaptic surface expression of GluA2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00760-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Quality inspection of micro solder joints in laser spot welding by laser ultrasonic method.

Ultrasonics 2022 Jan 30;118:106567. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

The quality inspection of micro solder joints in laser spot welding (LSW) is a problem of great concern in industrial application. In this paper, a laser ultrasonic technology (LUT) was proposed to inspect the quality of micro solder joints in LSW. Firstly, based on the thermoelastic model of acoustic wave propagation in solid, a theoretical model was built and used to analyze the propagation properties of the Lamb wave in the whole field by finite element method (FEM), the transmitting properties of the excited Lamb wave via solder joint were affected by the effective contacted area of solder joint. Secondly, LUT was used to inspect the 1.2 mm/0.4 mm welding spot of standard/false 304 stainless steel welded components. By comparing the propagating properties of excited ultrasonic wave in different samples with different weld quality, the standard and false welding can be visually distinguished. Finally, a industrial CT was used to check the quality of the samples used in our experiment. Inclusions and pores have been found in the false solder joints, which will reduce the effective contacted area of solder joint, and then affected the propagation of ultrasonic wave. By combining the CT results and the experimental analysis, the experimental results detected by LUT are in good agreement with the simulation results. So, the LUT is a potential method in field of the quality inspection of micro solder joints in LSW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2021.106567DOI Listing
January 2022

Twinfilin regulates actin assembly and Hexagonal peroxisome 1 (Hex1) localization in the pathogenesis of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Control of Fujian-Taiwan Crop Pests, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Plant Immunity Center, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Actin assembly at the hyphal tip is key for polar growth and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The mechanism of its precise assemblies and biological functions is not understood. Here, we characterized the role of M. oryzae Twinfilin (MoTwf) in M. oryzae infection through organizing the actin cables that connect to Spitzenkörper (Spk) at the hyphal tip. MoTwf could bind and bundle the actin filaments. It formed a complex with Myosin2 (MoMyo2) and the Woronin body protein Hexagonal peroxisome 1 (MoHex1). Enrichment of MoMyo2 and MoHex1 in the hyphal apical region was disrupted in a ΔMotwf loss-of-function mutant, which also showed a decrease in the number and width of actin cables. These findings indicate that MoTwf participates in the virulence of M. oryzae by organizing Spk-connected actin filaments and regulating MoHex1 distribution at the hyphal tip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13136DOI Listing
September 2021

900 MHz Radiofrequency Field Induces Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response in Mouse Bone Marrow Stem Cells.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:724239. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

To examine whether exposure of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields used in mobile communication devices can induce mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR). BMSCs were exposed to continuous wave 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120 μW/cm power intensity for 4 h/d for 5 consecutive days. Cells in sham group (SH) were cultured in RF exposure system, but without RF radiation. The positive control cells were irradiated with 6 Gy X-ray at a dose rate of 1.103 Gy/min (XR). To inhibit the upstream molecular JNK2 of UPR, cells in siRNA + RF, and siRNA + XR group were also pretreated with 100 nM siRNA-JNK2 for 48 h before RF/XR exposure. Thirty minutes, 4 h, and 24 h post-RF/XR exposure, cells were collected, the level of ROS was measured with flow cytometry, the expression levels of UPR-related proteins were detected using western blot analysis. Compared with Sham group, the level of ROS in RF and XR group was significantly increased 30 min and 4 h post-RF/XR exposure ( < 0.05), however, the RF/XR-induced increase of ROS level reversed 24 h post-RF/XR exposure. Compared with Sham group, the expression levels of HSP10/HSP60/ClpP proteins in cells of RF and XR group increased significantly 30 min and 4 h post-RF/XR exposure ( < 0.05), however, the RF/XR-induced increase of HSP10/HSP60/ClpP protein levels reversed 24 h post-RF exposure. After interfering with siRNA-JNK2, the RF/XR exposures could not induce the increase of HSP10/HSP60/ClpP protein levels any more. The exposure of 900 MHz RF at 120 μW/cm power flux density could increase ROS level and activate a transient UPR in BMSC cells. Mitochondrial homeostasis in term of protein folding ability is restored 24 h post-RF exposure. Exposure to RF in our experimental condition did not cause permanent and severe mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, the detailed underlying molecular mechanism of RF-induced UPR remains to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.724239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428517PMC
August 2021

Simvastatin Blocks Reinstatement of Cocaine-induced Conditioned Place Preference in Male Mice with Brain Lipidome Remodeling.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Drug-associated reward memories are conducive to intense craving and often trigger relapse. Simvastatin has been shown to regulate lipids that are involved in memory formation but its influence on other cognitive processes is elusive. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic method to evaluate the impact of simvastatin on the mouse brain in a cocaine-induced reinstatement paradigm. We found that simvastatin blocked the reinstatement of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting CPP acquisition. Specifically, only simvastatin administered during extinction prevented cocaine-primed reinstatement. Global lipidome analysis showed that the nucleus accumbens was the region with the greatest degree of change caused by simvastatin. The metabolism of fatty-acids, phospholipids, and triacylglycerol was profoundly affected. Simvastatin reversed most of the effects on phospholipids induced by cocaine. The correlation matrix showed that cocaine and simvastatin significantly reshaped the lipid metabolic pathways in specific brain regions. Furthermore, simvastatin almost reversed all changes in the fatty acyl profile and unsaturation caused by cocaine. In summary, pre-extinction treatment with simvastatin facilitates cocaine extinction and prevents cocaine relapse with brain lipidome remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00771-zDOI Listing
September 2021

The preparation and study on properties of calcium sulfate bone cement combined tuning silk fibroin nanofibers and vancomycin-loaded silk fibroin microspheres.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, China.

In this study, a bioactive composite material based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) bone cement was studied, which use calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) as coagulant and silk fibroin nanofibers (SFF) solution as the curing liquid, further loaded vancomycin silk fibroin microspheres (SFM/VCM). The drug release effect of bone cements caused by tuning weight content of SFM/VCM (0.5, 1, 2%) and the concentration of silk fibroin solution (SFS) (20, 60, 100 mg/mL) used for preparation of SFM was studied in this article. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) demonstrated that the average diameter of microspheres gradually increased and the setting time was prolonged with the concentration of SFS increasing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were used to analyze the composition of composite materials. The result of compressive strength revealed that the composites contained 0.5% SFM/VCM showed better mechanical performance independent on the concentration of microspheres and the cumulative drug release percentage of all composites were less than 55% after 4 weeks. The drug-loading bone cement possesses not only injectability but also sustained release capability which has a promising prospect in the field of bone substitute material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34935DOI Listing
September 2021

Nanoparticle-Mediated Inhibition of Mitochondrial Glutaminolysis to Amplify Oxidative Stress for Combination Cancer Therapy.

Nano Lett 2021 09 2;21(18):7569-7578. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Medical Research Center, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120, P. R. China.

Selective amplification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tumor cells has been recognized as an effective strategy for cancer therapy. However, an abnormal tumor metabolism, especially the mitochondrial glutaminolysis, could promote tumor cells to generate high levels of antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to evade ROS-induced damage. Here, we developed a tumor-targeted nanoparticle (NP) platform for effective breast cancer therapy via combining inhibition of mitochondrial glutaminolysis and chemodynamic therapy (CDT). This NP platform is composed of bovine serum albumin (BSA), ferrocene, and purpurin. After surface decoration with a tumor-targeting aptamer and then intravenous administration, this NP platform could target tumor cells and release ferrocene to catalyze hydrogen peroxide (HO) into the hydroxyl radical (·OH) for CDT. More importantly, purpurin could inhibit mitochondrial glutaminolysis to concurrently prevent the nutrient supply for tumor cells and disrupt intracellular redox homeostasis for enhanced CDT, ultimately leading to the combinational inhibition of tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02073DOI Listing
September 2021

Integrated lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals clarithromycin-induced alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism in the cerebral cortex of mice.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, West China Medical School, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, #1 Keyuan Road, Gaopeng Street, High-tech Development Zone, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.

Clarithromycin (CLA) has been widely used in the treatment of bacterial infection. Research reveals the adverse effects on the central nervous system among patients receiving CLA treatment; whereas, a relevant underlying mechanism remains considerably unclear. According to our research, an integrated lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis was applied to explore the effect of CLA on neurobehavior. CLA treatment caused anxiety-like behaviors dose-dependently during open field as well as elevated plus maze trials on mice. Transcriptomes and LC/MS-MS-based metabolomes were adopted for investigating how CLA affected lipidomic profiling as well as metabolic pathway of the cerebral cortex. CLA exposure greatly disturbed glycerophospholipid metabolism and the carbon chain length of fatty acids. By using whole transcriptome sequencing, we found that CLA significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of CEPT1 and CHPT1, two key enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids, supporting the findings from the lipidomic profiling. Also, CLA causes changes in neuronal morphology and function in vitro, which support the existing findings concerning neurobehavior in vivo. We speculate that altered glycerophospholipid metabolism may be involved in the neurobehavioral effect of CLA. Our findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of CLA-induced adverse effects on the central nervous system. 1. Clarithromycin treatment caused anxiety-like behavior with dose-dependent response both in the open field and elevated plus maze test in mice; 2. Clarithromycin exposing predominately disturbed the metabolism of glycerophospholipids in the cerebral cortex of mice; 3. Clarithromycin application remarkably attenuated CEPT1 and CHPT1 gene expression, which participate in the last step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids; 4. The altered glycerophospholipid metabolomics may be involved in the abnormal neurobehavior caused by clarithromycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-021-09646-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Shapes an Inflamed Tumor Microenvironment and Identifies Immuno-Hot Tumors.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:704965. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Oncology, Nantong Third People's Hospital Affiliated to Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an interferon-induced membrane protein, which has been identified as a functional gene in multiple human cancers. The role of IFITM3 in cancer has been preliminarily summarized, but its relationship to antitumor immunity is still unclear. A pancancer analysis was conducted to investigate the expression pattern and immunological role of IFITM3 based on transcriptomic data downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Next, correlations between IFITM3 and immunological features in the bladder cancer (BLCA) tumor microenvironment (TME) were assessed. In addition, the role of IFITM3 in estimating the clinical characteristics and the response to various therapies in BLCA was also evaluated. These results were next confirmed in the IMvigor210 cohort and a recruited cohort. In addition, correlations between IFITM3 and emerging immunobiomarkers, such as microbiota and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) genes, were assessed. IFITM3 was enhanced in most tumor tissues in comparison with adjacent tissues. IFITM3 was positively correlated with immunomodulators, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), cancer immunity cycles, and inhibitory immune checkpoints. In addition, IFITM3 was associated with an inflamed phenotype and several established molecular subtypes. IFITM3 expression also predicted a notably higher response to chemotherapy, anti-EGFR therapy, and immunotherapy but a low response to anti-ERBB2, anti-ERBB4, and antiangiogenic therapy. In addition, IFITM3 was correlated with immune-related microbiota and m6A genes. In addition to BLCA, IFITM3 is expected to be a marker of high immunogenicity in most human cancers. In conclusion, IFITM3 expression can be used to identify immuno-hot tumors in most cancers, and IFITM3 may be a promising pancancer biomarker to estimate the immunological features of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.704965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385493PMC
August 2021

Characterization of natural herbal medicines by thin-layer chromatography combined with laser ablation-assisted direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Sep 11;1654:462461. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

The MOE Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines, and SATCM Key Laboratory of New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China; Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

The characterization and quality control of natural herbal medicines, such as traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), is of great significance to ensure their potential efficacy and avoid severe side effects. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a simple and classic approach for examining quality marker of natural products. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to further characterize the compounds adsorbed on the TLC plate. Herein, we reported a simple setup of laser ablation-assisted direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (LA-DART-MS), in which the coupling of mass spectrometry information to provide a predominant dimension in the identification of unknown chemical compositions separated on standard TLC plates, and it was applied for rapid characterization of various kinds of natural herbal medicines. The results showed that the introduction of low-cost small laser pointer had significantly improved the desorption process. The system was successfully applied in the analysis of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, volatile oils, glycosides, organic acids, and eight different TCMs including Sophorae Flavescentis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Picrasmae Ramulus et Folium, Gynura Japonica, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and Dendrobii Caulis. The obtained limits of detection (LODs) of this method for various types of reference substances were in the range of 4.6-162.2 ng/band on TLC plates. Furthermore, the quality control and identification of different species of Dendrobii Caulis herb was achieved. This study combines the advantages of TLC and ambient mass spectrometry to provide a good choice for the screening and identification of active ingredients and the quality evaluation of botanical samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462461DOI Listing
September 2021

Diagnosis of retrotracheal left brachiocephalic vein with prenatal ultrasound: a case report.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Jul;10(7):1960-1964

Department of Ultrasound, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Maternity and Child Health Hospital & Ningxia Children's Hospital, Yinchuan, China.

Retroesophageal or retrotracheal left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) is a rare anatomic variant that is often associated with congenital heart disease. It is rarely reported in fetal life, and an isolated fetal retroesophageal LBCV has a good prognosis: it is typically asymptomatic, although respiratory symptoms or swallowing disorders occasionally occur. A variant was observed on fetal echocardiography at 22 weeks of gestation. The 3-vessel view revealed a transverse section of a vessel to the left of the pulmonary artery. Tracing upwards along its long axis showed that the left subclavian vein joined the left internal jugular vein to form the LBCV, and tracing downwards revealed that the vessel traveled to the right and lower side, where it merged into the superior vena cava via the azygos vein behind the aortic arch. The variant was identified as retrotracheal LBCV. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of fetal great vessels was performed using temporal spatial correlation imaging. The left internal jugular vein and the left subclavian vein converged into the LBCV, then bypassed behind the trachea and converged into the superior vena cava via the azygous vein. As a 3D technique, spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) can visualize the abnormal courses of LBCV, thus improving the diagnostic accuracy. This article presents the 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasound, color Doppler, and STIC findings of an isolated retrotracheal LBCV, which may inform the sonographic diagnosis of such variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-21-230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349951PMC
July 2021
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