Publications by authors named "Rui Xia"

241 Publications

Up-regulated long noncoding RNA AC007128.1 and its genetic polymorphisms associated with Tuberculosis susceptibility.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):1018

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. In this study, we explored the association between the expression of lncRNA AC007128.1 and TB susceptibility.

Methods: Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12333784, rs6463794, and rs720964) of lncRNA AC007128.1 were selected using the 1000 Genomes Project database and offline software Haploview V4.2, and were genotyped by a customized 2×48-Plex SNPscan™ Kit.

Results: We identified two differentially expressed lncRNA including AC007128.1 and AP001065.3 in comparisons of expression profiles between ATB LTBI, LTBI HCs, and AC700128.1 expression was specifically and significantly up-regulated in TB patients by verification of external data. Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis and co-expression network showed up-regulated mRNA was mainly involved in negative regulation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway, and FPR1 and CYP27B1 were involved in the co-expression of AC007128.1. Using the 1000 Genomes Project, software Haploview V4.2, and SNP genotype, we screened out SNP rs12333784 which locus at 7p21.3 in AC007128.1 associated with TB susceptibility. The G carrier of rs12333784 was then finally verified to be significantly associated with pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) susceptibility (pBonferroni =0.03878), and a similar but more significant effect was observed under the dominant model analysis (pBonferroni =0.013, OR =1.349, 95% CI, 1.065-1.709). In addition, the GG + GA genotype of SNP rs12333784 was significantly correlated with higher glucose (GLU) (P=0.03), higher gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (P=0.05), and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P=0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings show lncRNA AC007128.1 can be regarded as biomarkers discriminating between ATB and LTBI and may also be a diagnostic biomarker for LBTI. These findings may aid clinical decision making in the management of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267308PMC
June 2021

B7-H3 on breast cancer cell MCF7 inhibits IFN-γ release from tumour-infiltrating T cells.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 May 5;224:153461. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

B7-H3 is a type I membrane protein that has contradictory co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory effects in adaptive and anti-tumour immunity. B7-H3 is up-regulated in many malignant tumours, including breast cancer. Therefore, we hypothesise that B7-H3, which has an immunosuppressive role, suppresses anti-tumour immunity. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of B7-H3 in the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer, explore the possibility of B7-H3 as a target for clinical immunotherapy, and provide reference for clinical work. We knocked down B7-H3 with siRNA in MCF7 breast cancer cells, which we termed MCF7-B7-H3-KD cells, and the expression of B7-H3 was assessed by flow cytometry. GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) knockdown was used as a control (MCF7-Gapdh). MCF7-B7-H3-KD and MCF7-Gapdh cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD3 T cells from healthy donors to assess the effect of B7-H3 loss. PBMCs cultured with MCF7-Gapdh cells showed decreased activation, proliferation, and function of CD8 T cells, but there was no effect on the proliferation of CD4 T cells. However, when MCF7-B7-H3-KD cells were co-cultured with PBMCs, the proliferation ability of CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was significantly higher than that observed in MCF7-Gapdh cell co-culture. Additionally, co-culture with MCF7-Gapdh cells decreased the expression of IFN-γ (Interferon-γ). However, after co-culture with MCF7-B7-H3-KD cells, there was an increase in IFN-γ. We further found that this inhibitory effect on IFN-γ was because of decreased mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin) phosphorylation in T cells. Treatment of T cells co-cultured with MCF7-B7-H3-KD cells with an mTOR inhibitor blocked the secretion of IFN-γ. B7-H3 on tumour cells inhibits the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells and inhibits the release of IFN-γ by decreasing mTOR signalling. A better understanding of these complex immune regulatory mechanisms should facilitate the generation of more powerful and selective tools to manipulate cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153461DOI Listing
May 2021

Integrated Battery-Capacitor Electrodes: Pyridinic N-Doped Porous Carbon-Coated Abundant Oxygen Vacancy Mn-Ni-Layered Double Oxide for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 14;13(29):34374-34384. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Materials of MOE, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 Lanzhou, China.

Integrating the battery behavior and supercapacitor behavior in a single electrode to obtain better electrochemical performance has been widely researched. However, there is still a lack of research studies on an integrated battery-capacitor supercapacitor electrode (BatCap electrode). In this work, an integrated BatCap electrode porous carbon-coated Mn-Ni-layered double oxide (Mn-Ni LDO-C) was fabricated successfully using controllable heat treatment of polypyrrole-precoated Mn-Ni-layered double hydroxide (Mn-Ni [email protected]). This Mn-Ni LDO-C electrode was grown on Ni foam directly and possessed a hierarchical structure that consisted of a pyridinic N (N-6)-doped porous carbon shell and a Mn-Ni LDO core within abundant oxygen vacancies. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of N-6-doped porous carbon and increased oxygen vacancies, Mn-Ni LDO-C exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. The capacity of Mn-Ni LDO-C reached 2.36 C cm (1478.1 C g) at 1 mA cm and remained at 92.1% of the initial capacity after 5000 cycles at a current density of 20 mA cm. The aqueous battery-supercapacitor hybrid device Mn-Ni LDO-C//active carbon (Mn-Ni LDO-C//AC) also presented superior cycle stability: it retained 85.3% of the original capacity after 5000 cycles at 2 A g. Meanwhile, Mn-Ni LDO-C//AC could work normally under a wider potential window (2.0 V), so that the device held the highest energy density of 78.2 Wh kg at a power density of 499.7 W kg and retained 39.1 Wh kg at the highest power density of 31.3 kW kg. Two Mn-Ni LDO-C//AC devices connected in series could light a light-emitting diode (LED) bulb easily and keep the LED brightly illuminated for more than 10 min. In general, this work synthesized an integrated BatCap electrode Mn-Ni LDO-C; the integrated electrode exhibited high electrochemical performance, thus has a promising application prospect in the field of energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08699DOI Listing
July 2021

Mind-Body Exercise Modulates Locus Coeruleus and Ventral Tegmental Area Functional Connectivity in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 14;13:646807. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common global health problem. Recently, the potential of mind-body intervention for MCI has drawn the interest of investigators. This study aims to comparatively explore the modulation effect of Baduanjin, a popular mind-body exercise, and physical exercise on the cognitive function, as well as the norepinephrine and dopamine systems using the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) method in patients with MCI. 69 patients were randomized to the Baduanjin, brisk walking, or healthy education control group for 6 months. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were applied at baseline and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that (1) compared to the brisk walking, the Baduanjin significantly increased MoCA scores; (2) Baduanjin significantly increased the right locus coeruleus (LC) and left ventral tegmental area (VTA) rsFC with the right insula and right amygdala compared to that of the control group; and the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared to that of the brisk walking group; (3) the increased right LC-right insula rsFC and right LC-right ACC rsFC were significantly associated with the corresponding MoCA score after 6-months of intervention; (4) both exercise groups experienced an increased effective connectivity from the right ACC to the left VTA compared to the control group; and (5) Baduanjin group experienced an increase in gray matter volume in the right ACC compared to the control group. Our results suggest that Baduanjin can significantly modulate intrinsic functional connectivity and the influence of the norepinephrine (LC) and dopamine (VTA) systems. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms of mind-body intervention and aid the development of new treatments for MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.646807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236862PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging.

Genome Biol 2021 Jun 29;22(1):194. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field.

Results: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusion: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02398-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243879PMC
June 2021

A multi-ethnic epigenome-wide association study of leukocyte DNA methylation and blood lipids.

Nat Commun 2021 06 28;12(1):3987. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Here we examine the association between DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes and blood lipids in a multi-ethnic sample of 16,265 subjects. We identify 148, 35, and 4 novel associations among Europeans, African Americans, and Hispanics, respectively, and an additional 186 novel associations through a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. We observe a high concordance in the direction of effects across racial/ethnic groups, a high correlation of effect sizes between high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, a modest overlap of associations with epigenome-wide association studies of other cardio-metabolic traits, and a largely non-overlap with lipid loci identified to date through genome-wide association studies. Thirty CpGs reached significance in at least 2 racial/ethnic groups including 7 that showed association with the expression of an annotated gene. CpGs annotated to CPT1A showed evidence of being influenced by triglycerides levels. DNA methylation levels of circulating leukocytes show robust and consistent association with blood lipid levels across multiple racial/ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23899-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238961PMC
June 2021

Multiplex CRISPR-Cas9 editing of DNA methyltransferases in rice uncovers a class of non-CG methylation specific for GC-rich regions.

Plant Cell 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Life Sciences & Institute of Plant and Food Science & Key Laboratory of Molecular Design for Plant Cell Factory of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China.

DNA methylation in the non-CG context is widespread in the plant kingdom and abundant in mammalian tissues such as the brain and pluripotent cells. Non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana is coordinately regulated by DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) and CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) proteins but has yet to be systematically studied in major crops due to difficulties in obtaining genetic materials. Here, utilizing the highly efficient multiplex CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system, we created single- and multiple-knockout mutants for all nine DNA methyltransferases in rice (Oryza sativa) and profiled their whole-genome methylation status at single-nucleotide resolution. Surprisingly, the simultaneous loss of DRM2, CMT2, and CMT3 functions, which completely erases all non-CG methylation in Arabidopsis, only partially reduced it in rice. The regions that remained heavily methylated in non-CG contexts in the rice Os-dcc (Osdrm2/cmt2/cmt3a) triple mutant had high GC contents. Furthermore, the residual non-CG methylation in the Os-dcc mutant was eliminated in the Os-ddccc (Osdrm2/drm3/cmt2/cmt3a/cmt3b) quintuple mutant but retained in the Os-ddcc (Osdrm2/drm3/cmt2/cmt3a) quadruple mutant, demonstrating that OsCMT3b maintains non-CG methylation in the absence of other major methyltransferases. Our results showed that OsCMT3b is subfunctionalized to accommodate a distinct cluster of non-CG methylated sites at highly GC-rich regions in the rice genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab162DOI Listing
June 2021

Pseudo-ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Protective Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, Jilin Province, China.

Background: Pseudo-ginsenoside-Rh2 (pseudo-G-Rh2), a novel derivative of ginsenoside Rh2, is reported to exert a pro-apoptotic effect on various malignancies. However, whether this anti-cancer action of pseudo-G-Rh2 involves autophagy remains to be determined and explored.

Objectives: Investigation of pseudo-G-Rh2-induced apoptosis and autophagy and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: In the present study, the MTT assay was used for evaluating cell viability and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to assess cell toxicity. Autophagy evaluation was performed using monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The levels of autophagy-associated and apoptosis-associated proteins were determined using Western blotting. The Annexin V FITC/propidium iodide (PI) assay was used to assess apoptosis.

Results: The Annexin V FITC/PI assay revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in HepG2 cells at concentrations 0, 20, 40, and 60 μM was 3.75%±1.37%, 5.70%±1.04%, 12.30%±2.10%, and 34.26%±4.73%, respectively. Pseudo-G-Rh2 was observed to significantly increase the expressions of BAX, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9, while it decreased the Bcl-2 expression. MDC and TEM analyses revealed that pseudo-G-Rh2 at concentrations 20, 40, and 60 μM significantly facilitated the accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes within the HepG2 cells. Moreover, pseudo-G-Rh2 significantly increased the expressions of LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ, and Beclin-1 and decreased the expression of p62. The Annexin V FITC/PI assay also revealed that in comparison to the pseudo-G-Rh2 group, the concurrent treatment with pseudo-G-Rh2 and an autophagy inhibitor (CQ or 3-MA) significantly induced distinct apoptosis. In addition, pseudo-G-Rh2 activated AMPK and inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. Pseudo-G-Rh2 is similar to the current patents, which enhanced its anti-cancer activity by combining with autophagy inhibitors.

Conclusion: Pseudo-G-Rh2 could induce protective autophagy in HepG2 cells, at least in part, via AMPK and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892816666210607100239DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative study on supercapacitive and oxygen evolution reaction applications of hollow nanostructured cobalt sulfides.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 28;32(38). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 Lanzhou, People's Republic of China.

Due to the diversity of sulfur valence in cobalt-based sulfides, it is difficult to control the crystal phase and composition of the products during synthesis. Herein, a one-pot hydrothermal method is reported to self-assemble the cobalt sulfides (CoS, CoSand CoS) with hollow nanostructures. The whole preparation process is simple and mild, avoiding high temperature calcination. The performances of the three kinds of cobalt sulfide in superior supercapacitors and electrocatalytic oxygen evolution performance applications follow the order of CoS > CoS > CoS. Further analysis demonstrates that the performance difference in these cobalt sulfides may be attributed to three factors: the presence ofS22-,the coordination environment of Co and the presence of continuous network of Co-Co bonds. The distinctive electrochemical performance of CoSand CoSmay help us to better understand the excellent electrochemical activity of metal polysulfides and metal sulfides after doping or alloying. Therefore, this work may provide a reference in understanding and designing the electrode materials for highly efficient applications in the fields of energy storage and conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac09aaDOI Listing
June 2021

A robust discriminative multi-atlas label fusion method for hippocampus segmentation from MR image.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 25;208:106197. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Lab. of Speech and Image Information Processing (SAIIP), School of Computer Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Air-Sea-Earth-Sea Integrated Big Data Application Technology, China.

Accurate and automatic segmentation of the hippocampus plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system diseases. However, due to the anatomical variability of different subjects, the registered atlas images are not always perfectly aligned with the target image. This makes the segmentation of the hippocampus still face great challenges. In this paper, we propose a robust discriminative label fusion method under the multi-atlas framework. It is a patch embedding label fusion method based on conditional random field (CRF) model that integrates the metric learning and the graph cuts by an integrated formulation. Unlike most current label fusion methods with fixed (non-learning) distance metrics, a novel distance metric learning is presented to enhance discriminative observation and embed it into the unary potential function. In particular, Bayesian inference is utilized to extend a classic distance metric learning, in which large margin constraints are instead of pairwise constraints to obtain a more robust distance metric. And the pairwise homogeneity is fully considered in the spatial prior term based on classification labels and voxel intensity. The resulting integrated formulation is globally minimized by the efficient graph cuts algorithm. Further, sparse patch based method is utilized to polish the obtained segmentation results in label space. The proposed method is evaluated on IABA dataset and ADNI dataset for hippocampus segmentation. The Dice scores achieved by our method are 87.2%, 87.8%, 88.2% and 88.9% on left and right hippocampus on both two datasets, while the best Dice scores obtained by other methods are 86.0%, 86.9%, 86.8% and 88.0% on IABA dataset and ADNI dataset respectively. Experiments show that our approach achieves higher accuracy than state-of-the-art methods. We hope the proposed model can be transferred to combine with other promising distance measurement algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106197DOI Listing
May 2021

MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the rapid growth of the Phyllostachys edulis culm internode.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing species with uneven growth and lignification from lower to upper segments within one internode. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in post-transcriptional regulation in plants. However, how miRNAs regulate fast growth in bamboo internodes is poorly understood. In this study, one moso bamboo internode was divided during early rapid growth into four segments called F4 (bottom) to F1 (upper) and these were then analysed for transcriptomes, miRNAs and degradomes. The F4 segment had a higher number of actively dividing cells as well as a higher content of auxin (IAA), cytokinin (CK) and gibberellin (GA) compared with the F1 segment. RNA-seq analysis showed DNA replication and cell division-associated genes highly expressed in F4 rather than in F1. In total, 63 miRNAs (DEMs) were identified as differentially expressed between F4 and F1. The degradome and the transcriptome indicated that many downstream transcription factors and hormonal responses genes were modulated by DEMs. Several miR-target interactions were further validated by tobacco co-infiltration. Our findings give new insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in bamboo, and will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing rapid growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17542DOI Listing
June 2021

Small RNAs in Plant Immunity and Virulence of Filamentous Pathogens.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

Gene silencing guided by small RNAs governs a broad range of cellular processes in eukaryotes. Small RNAs are important components of plant immunity because they contribute to pathogen-triggered transcription reprogramming and directly target pathogen RNAs. Recent research suggests that silencing of pathogen genes by plant small RNAs occurs not only during viral infection but also in nonviral pathogens through a process termed host-induced gene silencing, which involves -species small RNA trafficking. Similarly, small RNAs are also produced by eukaryotic pathogens and regulate virulence. This review summarizes the small RNA pathways in both plants and filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, and discusses their role in host-pathogen interactions. We highlight secondary small interfering RNAs of plants as regulators of immune receptor gene expression and executors of host-induced gene silencing in invading pathogens. The current status and prospects of small RNAs trafficking at the host-pathogen interface are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 59 is August 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-121520-023514DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-range ordering of two-dimensional wide bandgap tantalum oxide nanosheets in printed films.

J Mater Chem C Mater 2021 Apr 9;9(17):5699-5705. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Twente, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology P.O. Box 217 7500 AE Enschede The Netherlands

Two-dimensional oxide materials are a well-studied, interesting class of materials, enabled by the fact that their bulk layered metal oxides, such as titanates and niobates, can be easily exfoliated within minutes into 2D nanosheets. However, some promising oxide materials, such tantalum oxide, are much more difficult to delaminate, taking several weeks, due to the higher charge density resulting in stronger Coulombic interactions between the layers. This intrinsic constraint has limited detailed studies for exploiting the promising properties of tantalum oxide 2D nanosheets towards enhanced catalysis and energy storage. Here, we have studied in detail the exfoliation mechanism of high charge density 2D materials, specifically tantalum oxide (TaO) nanosheets. Optimization of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPOH) as the exfoliation agent in a 2 : 1 ratio to HTaO has resulted in a dramatic reduction of the exfoliation time down to only 36 hours at 80 °C. Furthermore, single monolayers of TaO nanosheets with >95% coverage have been achieved by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, while thicker layers (ranging from several tens of nanometers up to microns) exhibiting long-range ordering of the present nanosheets have been realized through inkjet printing. Interestingly, scanning tunneling microscopy analysis indicated a wide bandgap of ∼5 eV for the single TaO nanosheets. This value is significantly higher than the reported values between 3.5 and 4.3 eV for the layered RbTaO parent compound, and opens up new opportunities for 2D oxide materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tc00801cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101408PMC
April 2021

Polyploidy underlies co-option and diversification of biosynthetic triterpene pathways in the apple tribe.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Joint Center for Single Cell Biology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;

Whole-genome duplication (WGD) plays important roles in plant evolution and function, yet little is known about how WGD underlies metabolic diversification of natural products that bear significant medicinal properties, especially in nonmodel trees. Here, we reveal how WGD laid the foundation for co-option and differentiation of medicinally important ursane triterpene pathway duplicates, generating distinct chemotypes between species and between developmental stages in the apple tribe. After generating chromosome-level assemblies of a widely cultivated loquat variety and we define differentially evolved, duplicated gene pathways and date the WGD in the apple tribe at 13.5 to 27.1 Mya, much more recent than previously thought. We then functionally characterize contrasting metabolic pathways responsible for major triterpene biosynthesis in and loquat, which pre- and postdate the Maleae WGD, respectively. Our work mechanistically details the metabolic diversity that arose post-WGD and provides insights into the genomic basis of medicinal properties of loquat, which has been used in both traditional and modern medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101767118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157987PMC
May 2021

Multiomics integrative analysis identifies allele-specific blood biomarkers associated to Alzheimer's disease etiopathogenesis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 12;13(7):9277-9329. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, currently affecting 35 million people worldwide. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the major risk factor for sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD), which comprises over 95% of AD cases, increasing the risk of AD 4-12 fold. Despite this, the role of APOE in AD pathogenesis is still a mystery. Aiming for a better understanding of APOE-specific effects, the ADAPTED consortium analysed and integrated publicly available data of multiple OMICS technologies from both plasma and brain stratified by haplotype ( and ). Combining genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with differential mRNA and protein expression analyses and single-nuclei transcriptomics, we identified genes and pathways contributing to AD in both APOE dependent and independent fashion. Interestingly, we characterised a set of biomarkers showing plasma and brain consistent protein profiles and opposite trends in and AD cases that could constitute screening tools for a disease that lacks specific blood biomarkers. Beside the identification of APOE-specific signatures, our findings advocate that this novel approach, based on the concordance across OMIC layers and tissues, is an effective strategy for overcoming the limitations of often underpowered single-OMICS studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064208PMC
April 2021

Nanoscale Covalent Organic Frameworks with Donor-Acceptor Structure for Enhanced Photothermal Ablation of Tumors.

ACS Nano 2021 04 1;15(4):7638-7648. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022, P. R. China.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have shown great potential in catalysis and the biomedical fields, but monodisperse COFs with tunable sizes are hard to obtain. Herein, we successfully developed a series of COFs based on electron donor-acceptor strategy in mild conditions. The synthetic COFs exhibit excellent colloidal stability with uniform spherical morphology. The sizes can be flexibly adjusted by the amount of catalyst, and the absorption spectra also vary with the sizes. By changing the electron-donating ability of the monomers, the corresponding COFs possess a wide range of absorption spectra, which can be even extended to the second near-infrared biowindow. The obtained COFs possess potent photothermal activity under laser irradiation, and could inhibit the growth of tumors effectively. This work provides a strategy for the synthesis of monodisperse COFs with variable absorption for their potential applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01194DOI Listing
April 2021

Post-Treating the Precursor Intermediate Film by a Cooling Stage for Fabricating Efficient Formamidinium-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 3;13(10):11783-11792. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Province Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI) is a category of perovskite material with an ideal band gap and high thermal stability, which can be efficiently prepared by two-step spin-coating. Spin-coating organic salts and transforming intermediate phase at the second step involves a components' reaction and state transition, thus playing a crucial role in the film quality formed afterward and optoelectronic properties of the fabricated perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this paper, a cooling stage (CO) is used to post-treat the as-prepared precursor after the second spin-coating. The procedure of intermediate phase transferring to other state is found to be retarded; hence, the appearing velocity of perovskite nucleation is decreased. As a result, components react more adequately and larger perovskite grains with fewer defects are obtained; charge transport as well as carrier recommbination behaviors are therefore optimized. The PSCs based on the CO process achieved a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.51% with enhanced stability. Moreover, CO treatment is observed to be beneficial for improving the film quality of perovskite in large-area preparation, which we anticipate can be further extended to the commercialized application of PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20126DOI Listing
March 2021

sRNAanno-a database repository of uniformly annotated small RNAs in plants.

Hortic Res 2021 Mar 1;8(1):45. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Small RNAs (sRNAs) are essential regulatory molecules, and there are three major sRNA classes in plants: microRNAs (miRNAs), phased small interfering RNAs (phased siRNAs or phasiRNAs), and heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs). Excluding miRNAs, the other two classes are not well annotated or available in public databases for most sequenced plant genomes. We performed a comprehensive sRNA annotation of 143 plant species that have fully sequenced genomes and next-generation sequencing sRNA data publicly available. The results are available via an online repository called sRNAanno ( www.plantsRNAs.org ). Compared with other public plant sRNA databases, we obtained was much more miRNA annotations, which are more complete and reliable because of the consistent and highly stringent criteria used in our miRNA annotations. sRNAanno also provides free access to genomic information for >22,721 PHAS loci and >22 million hc-siRNA loci annotated from these 143 plant species. Both miRNA and PHAS loci can be easily browsed to view their main features, and a collection of archetypal trans-acting siRNA 3 (TAS3) genes were annotated separately for quick access. To facilitate the ease of sRNA annotation, sRNAanno provides free service for sRNA annotations to the community. In summary, the sRNAanno database is a great resource to facilitate genomic and genetic research on plant small RNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00480-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917102PMC
March 2021

Combinational Antibacterial Activity of Nisin and 3-Phenyllactic Acid and Their Co-production by Engineered .

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 5;9:612105. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Nisin produced by certain strains is commercially used in meat and dairy industries because of its effective antibacterial activity and food safety characteristics. It has been proved that the antibacterial activity could be enhanced when combined with other antimicrobial agents. In this study, we demonstrated that nisin and 3-phenyllactic acid (PLA) in combination displayed excellent combinational antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens including and . The potential application in food preservation was further verified microbial analysis during the storage of meat and milk, and determination of strawberry rot rate. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated a distinct mode of PLA with nisin, which may target at the dividing cell, contributing to their combinational antibacterial effect of nisin and PLA. Considering the positive results, a nisin-PLA co-producing strain was constructed based on the food-grade strain F44, a nisin Z producer. By the knockout of two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and overexpression of D-LDH , the yield of PLA was significantly increased 1.77-fold in comparison with the wild type. Anti-bacterial assays demonstrated that the fermentation product of the recombinant strain performed highly effective antibacterial activity. These results provided a promising prospect for the nisin-PLA co-expressing in food preservation on account of its considerable antibacterial activity and cost-effective performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.612105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901885PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of eight-style Tai chi on cognitive function in patients with cognitive impairment of cerebral small vessel disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 02 8;11(2):e042177. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

The Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China

Introduction: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a critical factor that causes cognitive decline and progresses to vascular dementia and acute cerebrovascular events. Tai chi has been proven to improve nerve plasticity formation and directly improve cognitive function compared with other sports therapy, which has shown its unique advantages. However, more medical evidence needs to be collected in order to verify that Tai chi exercises can improve cognitive impairment due to CSVD. The main purposes of this study are to investigate the effect of Tai chi exercise on neuropsychological outcomes of patients with cognitive impairment related to CSVD and to explore its mechanism of action with neuroimaging, including functional MRI (fMRI) and event-related potential (P300).

Methods And Analysis: The design of this study is a randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups in a 1:1 allocation ratio with allocation concealment and assessor blinding. A total of 106 participants will be enrolled and randomised to the 24-week Tai chi exercise intervention group and 24-week health education control group. Global cognitive function and the specific domains of cognition (memory, processing speed, executive function, attention and verbal learning and memory) will be assessed at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks after randomisation. At the same time, fMRI and P300 will be measured the structure and function of brain regions related to cognitive function at baseline and 24 weeks after randomisation. Recruitment is currently ongoing (recruitment began on 9 November 2020). The approximate completion date for recruitment is in April 2021, and we anticipate to complete the study by December 2021.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval was given by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Affiliated People's Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval number: 2019-058-04). The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and at scientific conferences.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR2000033176; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871699PMC
February 2021

Deviations in Hippocampal Subregion in Older Adults With Cognitive Frailty.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 13;12:615852. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

College of Nursing and Health Management, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cognitive frailty is a particular state of cognitive vulnerability toward dementia with neuropathological hallmarks. The hippocampus is a complex, heterogeneous structure closely relates to the cognitive impairment in elderly which is composed of 12 subregions. Atrophy of these subregions has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in hippocampal subregions in older adults with cognitive frailty and the relationship between subregions and cognitive impairment as well as physical frailty.

Methods: Twenty-six older adults with cognitive frailty and 26 matched healthy controls were included in this study. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale (Fuzhou version) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Chinese version (WMS-RC), while physical frailty was tested with the Chinese version of the Edmonton Frailty Scale (EFS) and grip strength. The volume of the hippocampal subregions was measured with structural brain magnetic resonance imaging. Partial correlation analysis was carried out between the volumes of hippocampal subregions and MoCA scores, Wechsler's Memory Quotient and physical frailty indexes.

Results: A significant volume decrease was found in six hippocampal subregions, including the bilateral presubiculum, the left parasubiculum, molecular layer of the hippocampus proper (molecular layer of the HP), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (HATA), and the right cornu ammonis subfield 1 (CA1) area, in older adults with cognitive frailty, while the proportion of brain parenchyma and total number of white matter fibers were lower than those in the healthy controls. Positive correlations were found between Wechsler's Memory Quotient and the size of the left molecular layer of the HP and HATA and the right presubiculum. The sizes of the left presubiculum, molecular of the layer HP, and HATA and right CA1 and presubiculum were found to be positively correlated with MoCA score. The sizes of the left parasubiculum, molecular layer of the HP and HATA were found to be negatively correlated with the physical frailty index.

Conclusion: Significant volume decrease occurs in hippocampal subregions of older adults with cognitive frailty, and these changes are correlated with cognitive impairment and physical frailty. Therefore, the atrophy of hippocampal subregions could participate in the pathological progression of cognitive frailty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.615852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838368PMC
January 2021

Effects of hydrological change on the risk of riverine algal blooms: case study in the mid-downstream of the Han River in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 6;28(16):19851-19865. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Water Conservancy Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

Algal blooms usually occur in semi-closed water bodies such as lakes or estuaries; however, it has occurred frequently in the mid-downstream of the Han River (MSHR) in China since the 1990s. We made a comparative analysis of the hydrological conditions and identified the hydrological condition thresholds that induce algal blooms. From the hydrodynamic point of view, the changes and characteristics of the hydrological conditions in the MSHR were analyzed. Furthermore, the influence on the risk of algal blooms under different design water transfer schemes for the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) was studied. The results indicated that (1) the flow in the MSHR less than 900 m/s and water level in the Yangtze River higher than 14 m provided a suitable hydrological environment for diatoms multiply. (2) The flow of the MSHR showed a downtrend, while the water level of the Yangtze River showed an uptrend. There were variations in hydrological processes. Through specific IHA index analysis, the fact of flow reduction in the MSHR was demonstrated, and further indicated that algal bloom outbreak was in low flow period. (3) The water transfer in the middle route of SNWDP affected the risk probability of algal blooms. The more the amount of water transfer, the greater the risk probability of algal blooms. It was the Water Diversion Project from Yangtze River to Han River (WDPYHR) that replenished flow of the MSHR and was conducive to the prevention and control of algal bloom risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11756-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Upregulating miR-130a-5p relieves astrocyte over activation-induced neuropathic pain through targeting C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 12/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 axis.

Neuroreport 2021 01;32(2):135-143

Department of Anesthesiology.

Objectives: This study intends to explore the role and specific mechanism of miR-130a-5p in neuropathic pain through regulating the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 12 (CXCL12)-C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathway.

Methods: First, mouse neuropathic pain model was constructed by spinal nerve ligation. MiR-130a-5p mimics were used to upregulate miR-130a-5p in vivo. The behaviour and pain scores of the spinal cord injury (SCI) mice were assessed. In addition, astrocytic activation as well as inflammatory response in the spinal lesions was determined.

Results: The results manifested miR-130a-5p was notably downregulated in neuropathic pain model and reached the lowest point at 3 days after injury. Besides, tail vein injection of miR-130a-5p mimics inhibited the activation and inflammatory response of astrocytes, thus alleviating chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. Moreover, miR-130a-5p inactivated CXCR4 and its downstream Rac1, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and extracellular regulated protein kinases signalling pathways by attenuating CXCL12.

Conclusion: MiR-130a-5p inactivated astrocytes by targeting CXCL12/CXCR4, thus alleviating SCI-induced neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001573DOI Listing
January 2021

Monolayer Amorphous Carbon-Bridged Nanosheet Mesocrystal: Facile Preparation, Morphosynthetic Transformation, and Energy Storage Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 31;13(1):1114-1126. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P. R. China.

Self-assembly of nanoscale building units into mesoscopically ordered superstructures opens the possibility for tailored applications. Nonetheless, the realization of precise controllability related specifically to the atomic scale has been challenging. Here, first, we explore the key role of a molecular surfactant in adjusting the growth kinetics of two-dimensional (2D) layered SnS. Experimentally, we show that high pressure both enhances the adsorption energy of the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) on the SnS(001) surface at the initial nucleation stage and induces the subsequent oriented attachment (OA) growth of 2D crystallites with monolayer thickness, leading to the formation of a monolayer amorphous carbon-bridged nanosheet mesocrystal. It is notable that such a nanosheet-coalesced mesocrystal is metastable with a flowerlike morphology and can be turned into a single crystal crystallographic fusion. Subsequently, direct encapsulation of the mesocrystal FeCl-induced pyrrole monomer self-polymerization generates conformal polypyrrole (PPy) coating, and carbonization of the resulting nanocomposites generates Fe-N-S-co-doped carbons that are embedded with well-dispersed SnS/FeCl quantum sheets; this process skillfully integrated structural phase transformation, pyrolysis graphitization, and self-doping. Interestingly, such an integrated design not only guarantees the flowerlike morphology of the final nanohybrids but also, more importantly, allows the thickness of petalous carbon and the size of the nanoconfined particles to be controlled. Benefiting from the unique structural features, the resultant nanohybrids exhibited the brilliant electrochemical performance while simultaneously acting as a reliable platform for exploring the structure-performance correlation of a Li-ion battery (LIB).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14480DOI Listing
January 2021

Long Non-Coding RNAs, the Dark Matter: An Emerging Regulatory Component in Plants.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 23;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasive transcripts of longer than 200 nucleotides and indiscernible coding potential. lncRNAs are implicated as key regulatory molecules in various fundamental biological processes at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels. Advances in computational and experimental approaches have identified numerous lncRNAs in plants. lncRNAs have been found to act as prime mediators in plant growth, development, and tolerance to stresses. This review summarizes the current research status of lncRNAs in planta, their classification based on genomic context, their mechanism of action, and specific bioinformatics tools and resources for their identification and characterization. Our overarching goal is to summarize recent progress on understanding the regulatory role of lncRNAs in plant developmental processes such as flowering time, reproductive growth, and abiotic stresses. We also review the role of lncRNA in nutrient stress and the ability to improve biotic stress tolerance in plants. Given the pivotal role of lncRNAs in various biological processes, their functional characterization in agriculturally essential crop plants is crucial for bridging the gap between phenotype and genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795044PMC
December 2020

Remimazolan inhibits glioma cell growth and induces apoptosis through down-regulation of NF-κB pathway.

IUBMB Life 2021 Feb 24;73(2):341-348. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, People's Hospital of Shiyan, People's Hospital affiliated to Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China.

Glioma alone accounts for 30% of various kinds of primary brain tumors and is the highest cause of mortality associated with intracranial malignant cancers. In the present study, Suzuki-coupling products of remimazolan were synthesized and investigated for anti-neoplastic property against glioma cells. RFMSP treatment for 48 hr suppressed viabilities of U-118MG and U87MG cells in dose dependent manner. Exposure of primary astrocytes to RFMSP at 2-20 μM concentration range minimally affected viabilities. RFMSP treatment at 5 μM doses raised apoptotic cell count to 53.8 ± 2.3% and 48.2 ± 1.8%, respectively in U-118MG and U87MG cells. Treatment of the cells with RFMSP induced nuclear condensation and subsequent fragmentation. In RFMSP treated U-118MG and U87MG cells, NF-κB p65 expression was markedly suppressed compared to the control cells. Additionally, RFMSP treatment decreased the ratio of nuclear to total NF-κB p65 level in both the cell lines. Treatment of U-118MG and U87MG cells with 5 μM RFMSP for 48 hr caused a marked down-regulation in survivin and XIAP levels. Treatment with RFMSP promoted Bax expression and suppressed Bcl-2 level. The caspase-9 and -3 activation was markedly induced by RFMSP treatment in U-118MG and U87MG cells compared to the control cells. In summary, the RFMSP synthesized by Suzuki-coupling of RFMSP inhibited glioma cell survival via DNA damage mediated apoptosis. The anti-glioma potential of RFMSP involved down-regulation of NF-κB expression, targeted survivin & XIAP levels and induced caspase activation in glioma cells. Therefore, RFMSP may be studied further as therapeutic agent for the treatment of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2433DOI Listing
February 2021

Chromosome-level reference genome assembly provides insights into aroma biosynthesis in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis).

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Apr 28;21(3):955-968. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Passion fruit, native to tropical America, is an agriculturally, economically and ornamentally important fruit plant that is well known for its acid pulp, rich aroma and distinctive flavour. Here, we present a chromosome-level genome assembly of passion fruit by incorporating PacBio long HiFi reads and Hi-C technology. The assembled reference genome is 1.28 Gb size with a scaffold N50 of 126.4 Mb and 99.22% sequences anchored onto nine pseudochromosomes. This genome is highly repetitive, accounting for 86.61% of the assembled genome. A total of 39,309 protein-coding genes were predicted with 93.48% of those being functionally annotated in the public databases. Genome evolution analysis revealed a core eudicot-common γ whole-genome triplication event and a more recent whole-genome duplication event, possibly contributing to the expansion of certain gene families. The 33 rapidly expanded gene families were significantly enriched in the pathways of isoflavone biosynthesis, galactose metabolism, diterpene biosynthesis and fatty acid metabolism, which might be responsible for the formation of featured flavours in the passion fruit. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to ester and ethylene biosynthesis were significantly upregulated in the mature fruit and the expression levels of those genes were consistent with the accumulation of volatile lipid compounds. The passion fruit genome analysis improves our understanding of the genome evolution of this species and sheds new lights into the molecular mechanism of aroma biosynthesis in passion fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13310DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between the triglyceride-glucose index and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Apr 7;12(4):557-565. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Aims/introduction: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index has been proposed as a reliable and simple marker of insulin resistance. We investigated the association between TyG index and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: A consecutive case series of 682 adult patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized in the Department of Endocrinology at the Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, Hubei, China) from January 2007 to December 2009 was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were carried out.

Results: A total of 232 (34.0%) participants were identified with DN. Compared with the non-DN group, the DN group had longer disease duration, and higher bodyweight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, serum uric acid, 24 h-urinary albumin, TyG index and homeostasis model assessment 2 estimates for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR; P < 0.05 for each). The TyG index with an optimal cut-off point >9.66 showed a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.67 (P = 0.002) than HOMA2-IR (area under the curve 0.61, P = 0.029) on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for DN identification. Additionally, the TyG index positively correlated with the levels of metabolic indicators (bodyweight, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, serum uric acid, fasting glucose and HOMA2-IR) and natural logarithmic 24 h-urinary albumin (P < 0.05 for each), but not natural logarithm of estimated glomerular filtration rate. On multiple regression analysis, an increased TyG index was shown to be an independent risk factor (odds ratio 1.91, P = 0.001) for DN.

Conclusions: The TyG index was independently associated with DN in patients with type 2 diabetes, and was a better marker than HOMA2-IR for identification of DN in type 2 diabetes patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015837PMC
April 2021

Kinematic Comparisons of the Shakehand and Penhold Grips in Table Tennis Forehand and Backhand Strokes when Returning Topspin and Backspin Balls.

J Sports Sci Med 2020 12 19;19(4):637-644. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

School of International Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China.

Identifying the factors associated with table tennis performance may provide training information for competitive athletes and guide the general population for active participation. The purpose was to compare the joint, racket, and ball kinematics between the shakehand and penhold grips in table tennis forehand and backhand strokes when returning topspin and backspin balls in advanced male players. Nine penhold-grip players and 18 matched shakehand-grip players performed forehand and backhand strokes when returning topspin and backspin balls using their habitual grip styles, while the kinematics of the trunk, upper extremities, racket, and ball were collected. Racket angles were calculated as the relative motion of the racket to the forearm. For the forehand strokes, no significant differences were observed for ball or racket velocities between the two grips. The shakehand grip tended to demonstrate greater shoulder external rotation angles compared to the penhold grip. The shakehand grip resulted in racket angular velocity compared to racket velocity for the penhold grip. For the backhand strokes, greater ball and racket velocities were observed for the shakehand grip. The shakehand grip generally demonstrated decreased final trunk left rotation angles, increased trunk right rotation angular velocities, decreased final shoulder abduction angles, increased shoulder adduction angular velocities, and increased forearm supination angular velocities. The two grips demonstrated similar peak racket and ball velocities but different shoulder rotation range of motion and racket motion in forehand strokes. The penhold grips resulted in decreased peak racket and ball velocities in backhand strokes, likely due to its decreased shoulder, elbow, and forearm motion and less aligned longitudinal axes between the racket and forearm. These findings may help understand the dominance of the shakehand grip over the penhold grip in elite athletes and provide information for grip selection, technique improvements, and exercise training.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675628PMC
December 2020
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