Publications by authors named "Rui Sun"

840 Publications

Crystallization Behavior of the Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrate Formed in Microcapillaries.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 28;6(22):14288-14297. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

There are no reports on the hydrogen sulfide hydrate growth process and morphology in micropores due to the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, the experimental measurements and dissociation enthalpies were provided to assess the effect of the microcapillary silica tube size on hydrogen sulfide hydrate dissociation conditions. To simulate micropore sediments, the HS hydrate growth processes and morphologies at different supercooling temperatures were observed in this study. The dissociation temperature depression of the hydrate crystal in the microcapillary was less than 0.001 °C, which shows that the stability of the hydrate is less affected by the microcapillary pore used in this study. The mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase is easily blocked when the hydrogen sulfide hydrate shell covers the gas-water meniscus, causing the growth of the gas hydrate to be inhibited. The hydrate crystal morphology can be divided into fibrous, needle-like crystals and dendritic crystals when Δ > 12.7; the hydrate crystal morphology can be categorized as dendritic crystals and columnar crystals when Δ = 7.9-8.9, and the hydrate crystals can form polyhedral crystals when Δ = 7.9-8.9. Additionally, a new "bridging effect" that a hollow crystal which was filled with the gas phase can connect with two separated gas phases was found at low supercooling temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190900PMC
June 2021

Solar-driven tandem photoredox nickel-catalysed cross-coupling using modified carbon nitride.

Chem Sci 2020 Jun 25;11(28):7456-7461. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University 12 Oxford Street Cambridge Massachusetts 02138 USA

Nickel-catalysed aryl amination and etherification are driven with sunlight using a surface-modified carbon nitride to extend the absorption of the photocatalyst into a wide range of the visible region. In contrast to traditional homogeneous photochemical methodologies, the lower cost and higher recyclability of the metal-free photocatalyst, along with the use of readily available sunlight, provides an efficient and sustainable approach to promote nickel-catalysed cross-couplings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc02131hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159281PMC
June 2020

Perception and Evaluation of 23 Positive Emotions in Hong Kong and the Netherlands.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:579474. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Positive emotions are linked to numerous benefits, but not everyone appreciates the same kinds of positive emotional experiences. We examine how distinct positive emotions are perceived and whether individuals' perceptions are linked to how societies evaluate those emotions. Participants from Hong Kong and Netherlands rated 23 positive emotions based on their individual perceptions (positivity, arousal, and socially engaging) and societal evaluations (appropriate, valued, and approved of). We found that (1) there were cultural differences in judgments about all six aspects of positive emotions; (2) positivity, arousal, and social engagement predicted emotions being positively regarded at the societal level in both cultures; and (3) that positivity mattered more for the Dutch participants, although arousal and social engagement mattered more in Hong Kong for societal evaluations. These findings provide a granular map of the perception and evaluation of distinct positive emotions in two cultures and highlight the role of cultures in the understanding how positive emotions are perceived and evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.579474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195569PMC
May 2021

The Impact of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Modifications, Folding and Degradation on Lung Structure and Function.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:665622. Epub 2021 May 25.

Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC), McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and induces the unfolded protein response (UPR) and other mechanisms to restore ER homeostasis, including translational shutdown, increased targeting of mRNAs for degradation by the IRE1-dependent decay pathway, selective translation of proteins that contribute to the protein folding capacity of the ER, and activation of the ER-associated degradation machinery. When ER stress is excessive or prolonged and these mechanisms fail to restore proteostasis, the UPR triggers the cell to undergo apoptosis. This review also examines the overlooked role of post-translational modifications and their roles in protein processing and effects on ER stress and the UPR. Finally, these effects are examined in the context of lung structure, function, and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.665622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188853PMC
May 2021

Nanomaterials and their composite scaffolds for photothermal therapy and tissue engineering applications.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2021 Jun 4;22(1):404-428. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) has attracted broad attention as a promising method for cancer therapy with less severe side effects than conventional radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgical resection. PTT relies on the photoconversion capacity of photothermal agents (PTAs), and a wide variety of nanomaterials have been employed as PTAs for cancer therapy due to their excellent photothermal properties. The PTAs are systematically or locally administered and become enriched in cancer cells to increase ablation efficiency. In recent years, PTAs and three-dimensional scaffolds have been hybridized to realize the local delivery of PTAs for the repeated ablation of cancer cells. Meanwhile, the composite scaffolds can stimulate the reconstruction and regeneration of the functional tissues and organs after ablation of cancer cells. A variety of composite scaffolds of photothermal nanomaterials have been prepared to combine the advantages of different modalities to maximize their therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. The synergistic effects make the composite scaffolds attractive for biomedical applications. This review summarizes these latest advances and discusses the future prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2021.1924044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183558PMC
June 2021

Metronomic capecitabine as adjuvant therapy in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of disease relapse, despite a high proportion of patients attaining complete clinical remission after receiving standard-of-care treatment (ie, definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy). Additional adjuvant therapies are needed to further reduce the risk of recurrence and death. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial, highlighting the need for more effective adjuvant treatment options.

Methods: This multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 14 hospitals in China. Patients (aged 18-65 years) with histologically confirmed, high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stage III-IVA, excluding T3-4N0 and T3N1 disease), no locoregional disease or distant metastasis after definitive chemoradiotherapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, sufficient haematological, renal, and hepatic function, and who had received their final radiotherapy dose 12-16 weeks before randomisation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral metronomic capecitabine (650 mg/m body surface area twice daily for 1 year; metronomic capecitabine group) or observation (standard therapy group). Randomisation was done with a computer-generated sequence (block size of four), stratified by trial centre and receipt of induction chemotherapy (yes or no). The primary endpoint was failure-free survival, defined as the time from randomisation to disease recurrence (distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence) or death due to any cause, in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of capecitabine or who had commenced observation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02958111.

Findings: Between Jan 25, 2017, and Oct 25, 2018, 675 patients were screened, of whom 406 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the metronomic capecitabine group (n=204) or to the standard therapy group (n=202). After a median follow-up of 38 months (IQR 33-42), there were 29 (14%) events of recurrence or death in the metronomic capecitabine group and 53 (26%) events of recurrence or death in the standard therapy group. Failure-free survival at 3 years was significantly higher in the metronomic capecitabine group (85·3% [95% CI 80·4-90·6]) than in the standard therapy group (75·7% [69·9-81·9]), with a stratified hazard ratio of 0·50 (95% CI 0·32-0·79; p=0·0023). Grade 3 adverse events were reported in 35 (17%) of 201 patients in the metronomic capecitabine group and in 11 (6%) of 200 patients in the standard therapy group; hand-foot syndrome was the most common adverse event related to capecitabine (18 [9%] patients had grade 3 hand-foot syndrome). One (<1%) patient in the metronomic capecitabine group had grade 4 neutropenia. No treatment-related deaths were reported in either group.

Interpretation: The addition of metronomic adjuvant capecitabine to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved failure-free survival in patients with high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a manageable safety profile. These results support a potential role for metronomic chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education, and the Overseas Expertise Introduction Project for Discipline Innovation.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01123-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Network analysis of PTSD in college students across different areas after the COVID-19 epidemic.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2021 May 26;12(1):1920203. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, P.R. China.

: Various studies have examined the psychological 'typhoon eye' and 'ripple' effects in mental disorders following COVID-19. However, these studies only considered the disorders as entities and assessed severity, and overlooked the differences in specific symptoms of disorders. : This aim of the study is to assess the psychological typhoon eye and ripple effects at the symptom-level in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is considered as a common psychopathology following the COVID-19 epidemic. : In total, 1150 undergraduates, including 271 students from the Hubei province (e.g. epidemic centre) and 879 students from other provinces, completed the self-report questionnaire. The networks were estimated and compared using the R packages. : Although the PTSD networks of Hubei and non-Hubei undergraduates were similarly connected and shared some symptoms with high centrality (e.g. flashbacks, irritability and anger), there were differences across the networks. Distorted cognition and no positive emotion only exhibited high centrality in the Hubei network. Physiological responses and exaggerated startle only exhibited high centrality in the non-Hubei network. : These findings suggested that the psychological typhoon eye and ripple effects may co-exist at the symptom level. Targeted and distinct psychological services for college students in Hubei and non-Hubei provinces should be emphasized following COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2021.1920203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158277PMC
May 2021

[Application and inheritance of moxibustion in modern acupuncture-moxibustion school].

Authors:
Rui Sun Jun Yang

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Jun;41(6):641-4

Second Department of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Rehabilitation, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of CM, Hefei 230031.

The characteristics of moxibustion of the representative successors of each acupuncture and moxibustion school were analyzed, and the application and inheritance of moxibustion in acupuncture and moxibustion school, acupuncture and moxibustion school, 's acupuncture and moxibustion school and Golden Needle Plum Blossom acupuncture and moxibustion school were summarized. As a result, the acupuncture and moxibustion school innovated moxibustion treatment forms and moxibustionmethods, expanding moxibustion indications; the acupuncture and moxibustion school quantitatively popularized direct moxibustion, emphasizing the application of health-care moxibustion; the 's acupuncture and moxibustion school enriched material-separated moxibustion and basic research of moxibustion methods, and proposed dog days moxibustion therapy; the Golden Needle Plum Blossom acupuncture and moxibustion school proposed the "heat syndrome can also be treated with moxibustion" and "visceral moxibustion method", and treated difficult diseases with moxibustion and innovated moxibustion tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20201016-k0010DOI Listing
June 2021

A randomized controlled trial comparing two different schedules for cisplatin treatment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center.

Purpose: Previous studies suggest that a cumulative cisplatin dose of 200 mg/m might be adequate in the IMRT era for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). However, two cycles of once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m has never been prospectively compared with standard once-a-week cisplatin regimen.

Experimental Design: This trial was conducted at 3 hospitals from 2011 to 2016. Patients who met the eligibility criteria were recruited (ChiCTR-TRC-12001979) and randomized (1:1) via a computer-generated sequence to receive once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m for two cycles or once-a-week cisplatin at 40 mg/m for six cycles concurrently with IMRT. Primary endpoint was failure-free survival and between-group absolute difference of 10% as the noninferiority margin.

Results: Totally 510 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 58.3 months with 85.4% of 3-year failure-free survival in the once-every-3-weeks group and 85.6% in the once-a-week group. An absolute difference of -0.2% (95% CI, -6.3%-5.9%; =0.0016 for noninferiority). Acute toxicities of grade 3 or higher occurred in 55.8% in the once-every-3-weeks group and 66.3% in the once-a-week group (=0.015). The most common acute toxicities were hematologic abnormalities, including leucopenia (16% vs 27%; =0.0022) and thrombocytopenia (1% vs 5%; =0.015). The late grade 3-4 auditory loss rate was significantly lower in the once-every-3-week group than the once-a-week group (6% vs 13%; =0.0039).

Conclusions: Once-every-3-weeks cisplatin as concurrent chemoradiotherapy is noninferior to once-a-week cisplatin in the treatment efficacy in the LANPC. Although both regimens are well tolerated, severe acute toxicities and late onset auditory loss are higher in the once-a-week group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4532DOI Listing
June 2021

Downregulation of Serum and Distal Ileum Fibroblast Growth Factor19 in Bile Acid Diarrhoea Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bile acid diarrhoea or BAD is a common but little recognised cause of chronic diarrhoea. Few of these patients in China have been diagnosed due to a lack of diagnostic options.

Aims: To clarify the diagnostic value of serum fibroblast growth factor19 (FGF19) in BAD patients.

Methods: We reported on 60 chronic diarrhoea patients and 80 healthy volunteers (HV). Based on the 90th percentile levels of serum 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) of HV, these patients were divided into BAD group (C4 ≥ 90th) and non-bile acid diarrhoea group (NBAD, C4 < 90th). Serum FGF19 in the two clinical groups and HV group were compared, as was distal ileum FGF19 in clinical groups. The diagnostic value of serum FGF19 for BAD was evaluated.

Results: The 90th percentile of serum C4 in HV group was 65.87 ng/ml. Serum FGF19 concentrations in BAD group (Median 69.28 pg/ml; n = 23) were significantly lower than those in HV (Median 122.18 pg/ml; n = 80) and NBAD (Median 129.57 pg/ml; n = 29) groups. FGF19 mRNA of the distal ileum in BAD group, was lower than that in NBAD group, P = 0.002. The rate of FGF19 protein low expression of distal ileum in BAD and NBAD group were 78.3% and 48.3%, P = 0.027. Using an ROC curve, statistical analysis yielded a threshold FGF19 concentration of 117.3 pg/ml (AUC, 0.906; 91.3% sensitivity, 79.3% specificity) for a clinical diagnosis of BAD.

Conclusions: Serum and distal ileum expression of FGF19 significantly decreased in BAD patients. The suggested clinical ranges for serum FGF19 < 117.3 pg/ml has high sensitivity and specificity for BAD patients with a normal structural and histological ileum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-07042-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Treatment of left ventricular thrombus after myocardial infarction: need longer or lifetime use of anticoagulants?

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210029, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13432DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of body composition with risk of overall and site-specific cancers: A population-based prospective cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Center for Digestive Disease, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Although excess adiposity has been linked with various cancers, association between body composition and some cancers remains unclear, like lung and prostate cancers. We investigated associations of body composition with risk of overall cancer and major site-specific cancers in a prospective cohort of 454 079 cancer-free participants from UK-Biobank. Body composition was measured with bioimpedance analysis. We evaluated hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with multivariate Cox linear and nonlinear models in men and women separately. We identified 27 794 cancers over 7.6 years of follow-up. Multivariable adjusted models including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) showed that FFM was positively associated with overall cancer risk in men and women (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04 and 1.07, 1.04-1.10, respectively); while the association between FM and overall cancer disappeared after adjusting for FFM. FFM was associated with higher risks of obesity-related cancers combined, stomach (women only), malignant melanoma, postmenopausal breast, corpus uteri, prostate, kidney (men only), and blood cancers and lower risk of lung cancer. FM was associated with higher risks of obesity-related cancers combined, esophageal, colon, lung (men only), postmenopausal breast (at the lower end of FM range), and corpus uteri cancers and lower risks of rectal, malignant melanoma (women only), prostate and blood cancers. FFM and FM seemed to have different effects on cancer risk, and the effects varied substantially by cancer type, in both direction and size. Higher FM/FFM ratio was also associated with some cancers risk, and might be a useful predictor of cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33697DOI Listing
May 2021

Elevated expression of LPCAT1 predicts a poor prognosis and is correlated with the tumour microenvironment in endometrial cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 20;21(1):269. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 107 West Wenhua Rd, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the three malignant reproductive tumours that threaten women's lives and health. Glycerophospholipids (GPLs) are important bioactive lipids involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Immune infiltration of the tumour microenvironment (TME) is positively associated with the overall survival in EC. Exploring GPL-related factors associated with the TME in endometrial cancer can aid in the prognosis of patients and provide new therapeutic targets.

Methods: Differentially expressed GPL-related genes were identified from TCGA-UCEC datasets and the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB). Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to select GPL-related genes with prognostic value. The Random forest algorithm, LASSO algorithm and PPI network were used to identify critical genes. ESTIMATEScore was calculated to identify genes associated with the TME. Then, differentiation analysis and survival analysis of LPCAT1 were performed based on TCGA datasets. GSE17025 and immunohistochemistry (IHC) verified the results of the differentiation analysis. An MTT assay was then conducted to determine the proliferation of EC cells. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed to explore the underlying mechanism of LPCAT1. In addition, we used the ssGSEA algorithm to explore the correlation between LPCAT1 and cancer immune infiltrates.

Results: Twenty-three differentially expressed GPL-related genes were identified, and eleven prognostic genes were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis. Four significant genes were identified by two different algorithms and the PPI network. Only LPCAT1 was significantly correlated with the tumour microenvironment. Then, we found that LPCAT1 was highly expressed in tumour samples compared with that in normal tissues, and lower survival rates were observed in the groups with high LPCAT1 expression. Silencing of LPCAT1 inhibited the proliferation of EC cells. Moreover, the expression of LPCAT1 was positively correlated with the histologic grades and types. The ROC curve indicated that LPCAT1 had good prognostic accuracy. Receptor ligand activity, pattern specification process, regionalization, anterior/posterior pattern specification and salivary secretion pathways were enriched as potential targets of LPCAT1. By using the ssGSEA algorithm, fifteen kinds of tumor-infiltrating cells (TICs) were found to be correlated with LPCAT1 expression.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that LPCAT1 may act as a valuable prognostic biomarker and be correlated with immune infiltrates in endometrial cancer, which may provide novel therapy options for and improved treatment of EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01965-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139085PMC
May 2021

Transition metal chemistry in synthetically viable alkaline earth complexes M(Cp) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba).

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(47):5806-5809

Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage of Shanxi Province, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, People's Republic of China.

We predicted the stable alkaline earth complexes M(Cp)3- (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; Cp = cyclopentadienyl), where the M centers were in their stable +2 oxidation state and mimicked the bonding behaviour of transition metals by participating in bonding with the π orbitals of Cp ligands using their d orbitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01753eDOI Listing
June 2021

Primary tumor resection improves prognosis of unresectable carcinomas of the transverse colon including flexures with liver metastasis: a preliminary population-based analysis.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 6;21(1):503. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 1, Minde Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Studies on unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastasis(CRLM) rarely analyze the prognosis of the patients from the point of colonic subsites. We aimed to evaluate the effect of primary tumor resection (PTR) and different scope of colectomy on the prognosis of patients with unresectable transverse colon cancer liver metastasis (UTCLM), hepatic flexure cancer liver metastasis (UHFLM), and splenic flexure cancer liver metastasis (USFLM).

Patients And Methods: The patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2010 to 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS). Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank tests were conducted to assess the effectiveness of PTR on survival.

Results: In total, this study included a cohort of 1960 patients: 556 cases of UHFLM, 1008 cases of UTCLM, and 396 cases of USFLM. The median survival time of whole patients was 11.0 months, ranging from 7.0 months for UHFLM patients to 15.0 months for USFLM patients. USFLM patients had the best OS and CSS, followed by UTCLM patients. UHFLM patients had the worst OS and CSS (All P < 0.001). PTR could improve the OS and CSS of UTCLM, UHFLM, and USFLM (All P < 0.001). Subgroups analysis revealed that USFLM patients with tumor size≤5 cm and negative CEA had not demonstrated an improved OS and CSS after PTR. Multivariate analysis showed that PTR and perioperative chemotherapy were common independent prognostic factors for UHFLM, UTCLM, and USFLM patients. There was no difference between segmental colon resection and larger colon resection on CSS of UHFLM, UTCLM, and USFLM patients.

Conclusions: We confirmed the different survival of patients with UTCLM, UHFLM, and USFLM, and for the first time, we proved that PTR could provide survival benefits for patients with unresectable CRLM from the perspective of colonic subsites of transverse colon, hepatic flexure, and splenic flexure. Besides, PTR may not improve the prognosis of USFLM patients with CEA- negative or tumor size≤5 cm. For oncologic outcomes, we concluded that segmental colon resection seemed an effective surgical procedure for UTCLM, UHFLM, and USFLM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08157-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101189PMC
May 2021

Infection Temperature Affects the Phenotype and Function of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Produced Lentiviral Technology.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:638907. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has become an important method for the treatment of hematological tumors. Lentiviruses are commonly used gene transfer vectors for preparing CAR-T cells, and the conditions for preparing CAR-T cells vary greatly. This study reported for the first time the influence of differences in infection temperature on the phenotype and function of produced CAR-T cells. Our results show that infection at 4 degrees produces the highest CAR-positive rate of T cells, infection at 37 degrees produces the fastest proliferation in CAR-T cells, and infection at 32 degrees produces CAR-T cells with the greatest proportion of naive cells and the lowest expression of immune checkpoints. Therefore, infection at 32 degrees is recommended to prepare CAR-T cells. CAR-T cells derived from infection at 32 degrees seem to have a balance between function and phenotype. Importantly, they have increased oncolytic ability. This research will help optimize the generation of CAR-T cells and improve the quality of CAR-T cell products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.638907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089475PMC
April 2021

Hsa_circ_0054633 mediates apoptosis and insulin secretion in human pancreatic β cells through miR-409-3p/caspase-8 axis.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 24;176:108837. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Endocrinology, The People's Hospital of Jiaozuo City, Jiaozuo 454000, China.

Background: CircRNAs are reported to be aberrantly expressed and perform biological functions in diverse processes. This study aimed to investigate the potential involvement of hsa_circ_0054633 in high glucose (HG)‑induced diabetic model and its potential mechanism.

Methods: The expression of hsa_circ_0054633, miR-409-3p and caspase-8 was detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cell viability, apoptosis and the protein levels of apoptosis-related factors were revealed by CCK-8 colorimetry, flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Insulin secretion was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the measurement of insulin-related transcription factors. The target association between miR-409-3p and hsa_circ_0054633 or caspase-8 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and biotin-based pulldown assay.

Results: Hsa_circ_0054633 was highly expressed and the expression of miR-409-3p was downregulated in serum of DM patients and HG-treated human pancreatic β cell line NES2Y. Further investigation indicated that hsa_circ_0054633 suppression promoted cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis and facilitated insulin secretion in HG-treated NES2Y cells. Mechanical analysis revealed that hsa_circ_0054633 regulated caspase-8 expression via sponging miR-409-3p. Rescue experiments demonstrated that miR-409-3p knockdown or caspase-8 overexpression reversed the effects of hsa_circ_0054633 in HG-stimulated NES2Y cells.

Conclusion: Inhibition of hsa_circ_0054633 protected against HG-induced NES2Y cell apoptosis and impairment of insulin secretion by regulating miR-409-3p/caspase-8 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108837DOI Listing
April 2021

First Report of Botryosphaeria dothidea Causing Leaf Spot on Kadsura coccinea in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Dalian, China;

Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A. C. Smith, belonging to Schisandraceae, is an evergreen, woody climbing plant that is distributed widely in southwest China. Additionally, K.coccinea is used as an ethnic medicine and its main chemical components are lignin and terpenoids. The roots of the plant have been effectively used for treatment of cancer and dermatosis and as an anodyne to relieve pain (Song et al. 2010). In June 2019, a leaf spot disease on K. coccinea was first observed in a greenhouse in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province, China. Over 300 plants were surveyed in the three greenhouses, and nearly 70% of the plants were infected. The diseased plants grew poorly and appeared stunted, and severely affected plants died. The symptoms occurred on leaves as small brown spots initially and then developed into suborbicular or irregular-shaped brown necrotic lesions, which often displayed irregular concentric rings. Four diseased leaves from four symptomatic Kadsura coccinea plants were randomly collected for pathogen isolation. Diseased tissues were cut into about 2mm diameter fragments, surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 15 s and 1% NaClO for 2 min, and then rinsed twice in sterilized distilled water. After being dried on sterilized filter paper, the fragments were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25°C in the dark for 5 days. The same fungus was isolated in 95% of the samples. A representative isolate, F2020003 was used for morphological and molecular characterization. The colonies were initially white, gradually turning gray-green to dark gray after 7 days, with abundant gray aerial mycelium. Conidia were one-celled, hyaline, fusoid to ellipsoid and measured 24.3 ± 1.9 × 4.8 ± 0.7 µm (n = 50). The conidial morphology matched the description of Botryosphaeria dothidea (Slippers et al. 2004). To verify identity, the partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, translation elongation factor 1 alpha genes and beta-tubulin, were amplified from isolate F2020003 with primers ITS1/ITS4 (GenBank accession no. MW111267), EF1-728F/EF1-986R (GenBank accession no. MW196739) and BT-2a/BT-2b (GenBank accession no. MW206378), respectively(Sun et al. 2014). The isolates were confirmed as B. dothidea based on morphological comparisons and BLAST searches (Zhai et al. 2014). To assess pathogenicity, five healthy leaves on each of the three 6-month-old healthy K. coccinea plants were wound inoculated with a sterilized needle. Mycelium plugs (4 mm in diameter) taken from a 5-day-old culture on PDA were inoculated on surface-sterilized leaves (sprayed with 75% ethanol). PDA plugs with no mycelium were used as a control. Plants with treated leaves were covered with plastic bags and incubated in a greenhouse at 25°C. The pathogenicity test was repeated three times. Within 4 days, all the inoculated points showed lesions similar to those previously observed in the greenhouse, whereas controls were asymptomatic. Fungi re-isolated from inoculated leaves were confirmed as B. dothidea on the basis of morphological and molecular characterization as described above. B. dothidea is a member of Botryosphaeriaceae, it has been reported to cause leaf spot on Celtis sinensis (Wang et al., 2020) and branch canker on Malosma laurina (Aguirre et al., 2018) in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. dothidea causing leaf spot on K. coccinea in China. The identification of this pathogen will be helpful to prevent and control this disease in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0150-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

CD19 CAR-T cell treatment conferred sustained remission in B-ALL patients with minimal residual disease.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Hematology, Tianjin First Central Hospital, No. 24 Fu Kang Road, Tianjin, 300192, People's Republic of China.

The persistence or recurrence of minimal residual disease (MRD) after chemotherapy predicts relapse of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T (CD19 CAR-T) cells have shown promising responses in B-ALL. However, their role in chemotherapy-refractory MRD-positive B-ALL remains unclear. Here we aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of CD19 CAR-T cells in MRD-positive B-ALL patients. From January 2018, a total of 14 MRD-positive B-ALL patients received one or more infusions of autogenous CD19 CAR-T cells. Among them, 12 patients achieved MRD-negative remission after one cycle of CAR-T infusion. At a median follow-up time of 647 days (range 172-945 days), the 2-year event-free survival rate in MRD-positive patients was 61.2% ± 14.0% and the 2-year overall survival was 78.6 ± 11.0%, which were significantly higher than patients with active disease (blasts ≥ 5% or with extramedullary disease). Moreover, patients with MRD had a lower grade of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) than patients with active disease. However, the peak expansion of CAR-T cells in MRD positive patients showed no statistical difference compared to patients with active disease. Five patients received two or more CAR-T cell infusions and these patients showed a decreased peak expansion of CAR-T cell in subsequent infusions. In conclusion, pre-emptive CD19 CAR-T cell treatment is an effective and safe approach and may confer sustained remission in B-ALL patients with chemotherapy-refractory MRD. The trials were registered at www.chictr.org.cn as ChiCTR-ONN-16009862 (November 14, 2016) and ChiCTR1800015164 (March 11, 2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02941-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Punica granatum Extract Inhibits Bladder Cancer Cell Viability, Invasion and Migration through Down-Regulation of HOXD10 Signalling Pathway.

Dokl Biochem Biophys 2021 Mar 24;497(1):130-136. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Urology, Occupational Disease Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

The present study investigated Punica granatum extract (PGE) as potential proliferation inhibitory agent for bladder cancer cells and elucidated the possible mechanism. PGE reduced viabilities of HT-1197 and RT4 cells in concentration-based manner at 72 h. Colony forming potential of HT-1197 and RT4 cells was also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited on exposure to 2 and 12 mg/mL PGE. Exposure to 12 mg/mL PGE for 72 h significantly (p < 0.05) decreased miR‑10b expression and suppressed migration potential of HT-1197 and RT4 cells. In PGE exposed HT-1197 and RT4 cells, invasiveness was reduced to 30.25 and 33.47%, respectively. PGE treatment of HT-1197 and RT4 cells caused a significant (p < 0.05) elevation in HOXD10 protein and mRNA levels compared to control. The miR‑10b mimic transfection in HT-1197 and RT4 cells reversed inhibitory effect of PGE on cell viability. Thus, PGE exhibited cytotoxicity and anti-invasive effect on HT-1197 and RT4 cells through targeting miR‑10b and up-regulation of HOXD10 expression. Thus, PGE may be developed as therapeutic agent for treatment of bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1607672921020162DOI Listing
March 2021

Integrated Systems Pharmacology and Surface Plasmon Resonance Approaches to Reveal the Synergistic Effect of Multiple Components of Gu-Ben-Ke-Chuan Decoction on Chronic Bronchitis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 15;14:1455-1471. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Life Sciences, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 102488, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Gu-Ben-Ke-Chuan (GBKC) decoction, a well-known prescription composed of seven herbs, has been widely used for treating chronic bronchitis (CB). However, the pharmacological constituents of GBKC and the underlying mechanisms by which these components act on CB remain unclear.

Methods: Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) was first employed to rapidly identify compounds from GBKC. Thereafter, network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses were performed to identify the potential active constituents, candidate targets, and major pathways. Finally, the affinities between the key compounds and targets were verified via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of GBKC was verified using an LPS-induced inflammatory cell model based on the predicted results.

Results: A total of 53 major compounds were identified in the GBKC decoction. After network pharmacology-based virtual screening, 141 major targets and 39 main compounds were identified to be effective in the treatment of CB. The major targets were highly enriched in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, suggesting that GBKC could attenuate the inflammatory response in patients with CB. Furthermore, molecular docking results indicated that 20 pairs of components and target proteins relevant to the TNF pathway exhibited notable interactions. Among them, eight compound-target pairs exhibited good affinity as per SPR analysis. In addition, the production of interleukin 6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced MH-S cells was suppressed after GBKC treatment.

Conclusion: This study successfully clarified the mechanism of action of GBKC against CB, which demonstrated that the integrated strategy described above is reliable for identifying the active compounds and mechanisms responsible for the pharmacological activities of GBKC decoction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S303530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055291PMC
April 2021

Identification of Ten Core Hub Genes as Potential Biomarkers and Treatment Target for Hepatoblastoma.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:591507. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

Background: This study aimed to systematically investigate gene signatures for hepatoblastoma (HB) and identify potential biomarkers for its diagnosis and treatment.

Materials And Methods: GSE131329 and GSE81928 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between hepatoblastoma and normal samples were identified using the Limma package in R. Then, the similarity of network traits between two sets of genes was analyzed by weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Cytoscape was used to visualize and select hub genes. PPI network of hub genes was construed by Cytoscape. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses of hub genes were carried out using ClueGO. The random forest classifier was constructed based on the hub genes using the GSE131329 dataset as the training set, and its reliability was validated using the GSE81928 dataset. The resulting core hub genes were combined with the InnateDB database to identify the innate core genes.

Results: A total of 4244 DEGs in HB were identified. WGCNA identified four modules that were significantly correlated with the disease status. A total of 114 hub genes were obtained within the top 20 genes of each node rank. 6982 relation pairs and 3700 nodes were contained in the PPI network of 114 hub genes. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses of hub genes were focused on MAPK, cell cycle, p53, and other crucial pathways involved in HB. A random forest classifier was constructed using the 114 hub genes as feature genes, resulting in a 95.5% true positive rate when classifying HB and normal samples. A total of 35 core hub genes were obtained through the mean decrease in accuracy and mean decrease Gini of the random forest model. The classification efficiency of the random forest model was 81.4%. Finally, , , , , , , , , , and were identified by cross-comparison with the InnateDB database.

Conclusion: Our study established a random forest classifier that identified 10 core genes in HB. These findings may be beneficial for the diagnosis, prediction, and targeted therapy of HB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.591507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047669PMC
April 2021

Polyphenols from Arctium lappa L ameliorate doxorubicin-induced heart failure and improve gut microbiota composition in mice.

J Food Biochem 2021 Apr 17:e13731. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, PR China.

In this study, the ameliorative effect of purified polyphenols from Arctium lappa L (ALPP) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induce heart failure was investigated. Results indicated that ALPP pretreatment significantly reduced the activities of casein kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, lowered the levels of inflammatory indexes (TNF-α and NO), and alleviated antioxidant stress in DOX-induce mice, thus leading to a reduced heart failure syndrome. In addition, according to 16s high-throughput sequencing, the increased abundance of Lactobacillaceae, Muribaculaceae, and Ruminococcaceae and the decreased abundance of Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaee, and Escherichia_Shigella were observed in ALPP treatment group. ALPP could significantly enhance the abundance of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and then promote the increase of SCFAs. Consequently, ALPP might be a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of DOX-induced heart failure. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The effect of Arctium lappa L (ALPP) on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced heart failure was investigated. It provided experimental basis for further studies on the biological activity of polyphenols from ALPP. The results demonstrated that ALPP could significantly ameliorate DOX-induced heart failure and improve the gut microbiota composition. The obtained results could provide the potential application of ALPP as an alternative therapy for heart failure in the functional food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13731DOI Listing
April 2021

AFI-Net: Attention-Guided Feature Integration Network for RGBD Saliency Detection.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 30;2021:8861446. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Urban Railway Transportation, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

This article proposes an innovative RGBD saliency model, that is, attention-guided feature integration network, which can extract and fuse features and perform saliency inference. Specifically, the model first extracts multimodal and level deep features. Then, a series of attention modules are deployed to the multilevel RGB and depth features, yielding enhanced deep features. Next, the enhanced multimodal deep features are hierarchically fused. Lastly, the RGB and depth boundary features, that is, low-level spatial details, are added to the integrated feature to perform saliency inference. The key points of the AFI-Net are the attention-guided feature enhancement and the boundary-aware saliency inference, where the attention module indicates salient objects coarsely, and the boundary information is used to equip the deep feature with more spatial details. Therefore, salient objects are well characterized, that is, well highlighted. The comprehensive experiments on five challenging public RGBD datasets clearly exhibit the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed AFI-Net.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8861446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026315PMC
March 2021

Enhanced tumour penetration and prolonged circulation in blood of polyzwitterion-drug conjugates with cell-membrane affinity.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Smart BioMaterials and Center for Bionanoengineering, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Effective anticancer nanomedicines need to exhibit prolonged circulation in blood, to extravasate and accumulate in tumours, and to be taken up by tumour cells. These contrasting criteria for persistent circulation and cell-membrane affinity have often led to complex nanoparticle designs with hampered clinical translatability. Here, we show that conjugates of small-molecule anticancer drugs with the polyzwitterion poly(2-(N-oxide-N,N-diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) have long blood-circulation half-lives and bind reversibly to cell membranes, owing to the negligible interaction of the polyzwitterion with proteins and its weak interaction with phospholipids. Adsorption of the polyzwitterion-drug conjugates to tumour endothelial cells and then to cancer cells favoured their transcytosis-mediated extravasation into tumour interstitium and infiltration into tumours, and led to the eradication of large tumours and patient-derived tumour xenografts in mice. The simplicity and potency of the polyzwitterion-drug conjugates should facilitate the design of translational anticancer nanomedicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00701-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Periphytic biofilms accumulate manganese, intercepting its emigration from paddy soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 16;411:125172. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Faculty Energy and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8QH, UK.

Manganese (Mn) in acidic paddy soil has large potential in emigrating from the soil and pollute adjacent ecosystems. Single microorganisms modulate the biogeochemistry process of Mn via redox reactions, while the roles of microbial aggregates (e.g. periphytic biofilm) in modulating its biogeochemical cycle is poorly constrained. Here we collected a series of periphytic biofilms from acidic paddy fields in China to explore how periphytic biofilm regulates Mn behavior in paddy fields. We found that periphytic biofilms have large Mn accumulation potential: Mn contents in periphytic biofilm ranged from 176 ± 38 to 797 ± 271 mg/kg, which were 1.2-4.5 folds higher than that in the corresponding soils. Field experiments verified the Mn accumulation potential, underlining the biofilms function as natural barriers to intercept Mn emigrating from soil. Extracellular polymeric substances, especially the protein component, mediated adsorption was the main mechanism behind Mn accumulation by periphytic biofilm. Microorganisms in periphytic biofilms in general appeared to have inhibitory effects on Mn accumulation. Climatic conditions and nutrients in floodwater and soil affect the microorganisms, thus indirectly affecting Mn accumulation in periphytic biofilms. This study provides quantitative information on the extent to which microbial aggregates modulate the biogeochemistry of Mn in paddy fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125172DOI Listing
June 2021

Construction of miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network and Prognostic Signature in Endometrial Cancer.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 6;14:2363-2378. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: This bioinformatic study confirmed a new miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and a prognostic signature in endometrial cancer (EC).

Materials And Methods: We downloaded RNA-seq and miRNA-seq data of EC from the TCGA database, then used EdegR package to screen differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs (DE-miRNAs and DE-mRNAs). Then, we constructed a regulatory network of EC-associated miRNAs and hub genes by Cytoscape, and determined the expression of unexplored miRNAs in EC tissues and normal adjacent tissues by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). A prognostic signature model and a predictive nomogram were constructed. Finally, we explored the association between the prognostic model and the immune cell infiltration.

Results: A total of 11,531 DE-mRNAs and 236 DE-miRNAs, as well as 275 and 118 candidate DEGs for upregulated and downregulated DE-miRNAs were screened out. The miRNA-mRNA network included 5 downregulated and 13 upregulated DE-miRNAs. qRT-PCR proved that the expression levels of miRNA-18a-5p, miRNA-18b-5p, miRNA-449c-5p and miRNA-1224-5p and their target genes (NR3C1, CTGF, MYC, and TNS1) were consistent with our predictions. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of the hub genes revealed a significant prognostic value of NR3C1, EZH2, AND GATA4, and these genes were closely related to eight types of immune infiltration cells.

Conclusion: We identified three genes as candidate biomarkers for EC, which may provide a theoretical basis for targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S272222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039850PMC
April 2021

Targeting KDM1B-dependent miR-215-AR-AGR2-axis promotes sensitivity to enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Post-translational modifications of histones by histone demethylases plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription and are implicated in cancers. Castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often driven by constitutively active androgen receptor and commonly becomes resistant to established hormonal therapy strategies such as enzalutamide as a result. However, the role of KDM1B involved in next generation anti-enzalutamide resistance and the mechanisms of KDM1B regulation are poorly defined. Here, we show that KDM1B is upregulated and correlated with prostate cancer progression and poor prognosis. Downregulation of miR-215 is correlated with overexpression of KDM1B in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells, which promotes AR-dependent AGR2 transcription and regulates the sensitivity to next generation AR-targeted therapy. Inhibition of KDM1B significantly inhibits prostate tumor growth and improves enzalutamide treatments through AGR2 suppression. Our studies demonstrate inhibition of KDM1B can offer a viable therapeutic option to overcome enzalutamide resistance in tumors with deregulated miR-215-KDM1B-AR-AGR2 signaling axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00332-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of biochar aging in the soil on its mechanical property and performance for soil CO and NO emissions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 29;782:146824. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Environmental Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address:

Biochar application into the soils has been reported to have huge carbon sequestration potential, although it remains unclear that how the biochar aging in the soil affects its mechanical properties and soil CO and NO emissions. This work assessed the impact of soil biochar aging on its physicochemical properties, microbiota community in the biochar, and soil CO and NO emissions. Various characterizations (e.g., SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR) of fresh and aged biochar indicated that soil minerals accumulated on the biochar during the field aging process, forming organo-mineral complexes and blocking the cracks and channels on the biochar. The measured hardness and compressive strength of aged biochar were significantly higher than those of fresh biochar, consistent with the presence of soil minerals on the aged biochar. The soil CO and NO emissions were significantly decreased after the addition of aged biochar particles, as compared to fresh biochar particles. This was probably because that the improved mechanical properties could inhibit the fragmentation of biochar particles, reducing the release of labile fractions from the biochar and the subsequent CO and NO emissions. Moreover, the presence of CO-fixing bacteria (e.g., Chloroflexi) and inhibited nitrification and ammonia oxidation in aged biochar particles might also reduce CO and NO emissions. These findings suggest aged biochar particles with improved physical stability to the soil could enhance soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emission reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146824DOI Listing
August 2021

Establishment and validation of a prognostic nomogram to predict early metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients within six months after radiotherapy and to guide intensive treatment.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou 510060, PR China; Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou 510060, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to establish an effective prognostic nomogram to predict the risk of early metastasis (EM) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, as a guide for intensive treatment.

Materials And Methods: A total of 9021 patients with biopsy-confirmed NPC at our institute were enrolled in this study between December 2006 to December 2016. We randomized these patients using a proportion of 2/3 and 1/3 and selected 6044 and 2977 patients as the training and validation cohorts, respectively. All patients received radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate logistical regressions were used to identify independent risk factors. The nomogram's predictive value was evaluated by concordance indexes (C-indexes), calibration curves, probability density functions (PDFs), and clinical utility curves (CUCs). ROC analysis using Delong test was used to compare efficiency between the nomogram and other risk factors.

Results: In total, 174 (2.9%) and 81 (2.7%) patients in training and validation cohorts, respectively, had EM. Pretreatment plasma EBV DNA, N stage, LDH, ALP, BMI, and sex were independent predictive factors of EM. The C-indexes of nomogram were 0.756 (95% CI=0.719-0.793) and 0.766 (95% CI=0.720-0.813), in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The C-index of the nomogram was significantly superior to any one of independent factors. According to the PDFs and CUCs and considering the balance of the true positive EM patients and true positive non-EM patients, we chose 5.0% as a threshold probability for clinical decision-making, which could distinguish about 85% and 48% of non-EM and EM patients, respectively.

Conclusion: Our nomogram had good accuracy in predicting EM incidence, and a 5.0% threshold was appropriate for clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.03.035DOI Listing
April 2021