Publications by authors named "Rui Liu"

2,588 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanoconjugates to enhance PDT-mediated cancer immunotherapy by targeting the indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase pathway.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 14;19(1):182. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may elicit antitumor immune response in addition to killing cancer cells. However, PDT as a monotherapy often fails to induce a strong immunity. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which selectively block regulatory axes, may be used in combination with PDT to improve treatment outcomes. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme and an important meditator of tumor immune escape. Combination therapy with PDT and IDO-targeted immune checkpoint blockage is promising but has been seldom been explored.

Methods: Herein we report a composite nanoparticle that allows for simultaneous delivery of photosensitizer and IDO inhibitor. Briefly, we separately load ZnFPc, a photosensitizer, and NLG919, an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor, into ferritin and poly(lactide-co-glycolic)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles; we then conjugate these two compartments to form a composite nanoparticle referred to as PPF NPs. We tested combination treatment with PPF NPs first in vitro and then in vivo in B16F10-tumor bearing C57/BL6 mice.

Results: Our results showed that PPF NPs can efficiently encapsulate both ZnFPc and NLG919. In vivo studies found that the combination treatment led to significantly improved tumor suppression and animal survival. Moreover, the treatment increased tumor infiltration of CD8 T cells, while reducing frequencies of MDSCs and Tregs. 30% of the animals showed complete tumor eradication, and they successfully rejected a second tumor inoculation. Overall, our studies introduce a unique composite nanoplatform that allows for co-delivery of photosensitizer and IDO inhibitor with minimal inter-species interference, which is ideal for combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00919-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201842PMC
June 2021

Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed to metamifop: Changes in growth, behavioral endpoints, neurotransmitters, antioxidant system and thyroid development.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 12;220:112417. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (ICAMA), No. 22 Maizidian Street, Chaoyang, Beijing 100125, PR China. Electronic address:

Pesticides are a major cause of the reduction in the global amphibian population. In this study, the acute toxicity and chronic effects of metamifop on Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) tadpoles were investigated. The 96 h-LC value of metamifop on X. laevis tadpoles was 0.634 mg/L, which indicated that metamifop was highly toxic to tadpoles. In the chronic toxicity study, tadpoles were exposed to 0.063 mg/L of metamifop. After 14, 21 and 35 d of exposure, metamifop significantly inhibited the body weight and neurotransmitter synthesis of tadpoles, caused abnormal behavior and interfered with fat metabolism. According to the results of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA), tadpoles exposed to 0.063 mg/L metamifop suffered severe lipid oxidative damage. Compared with the control group, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and related gene expression in tadpoles in the treatment group were affected, reflecting the endocrine interference effect of metamifop. The data of this study can enrich our knowledge of the effects of aryloxyphenoxy propionate pesticides on amphibians and highlight the role of metamifop and other pesticides play in global decline of amphibians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112417DOI Listing
June 2021

Growth promotion of a deep-sea bacterium by sensing infrared light through a bacteriophytochrome photoreceptor.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Photoreceptors are found in all kingdoms of life and bacteriophytochromes (Bphps) are the most abundant photosensing receptors in bacteria. Interestingly, BphPs have been linked to some bacterial physiological responses, yet most of the biological processes they regulate are still elusive, especially in non-photosynthetic bacteria. Here, we show that a bacteriophytochrome (CmoBphp) from a deep-sea bacterium Croceicoccus marinus OT19 perceives infrared light (wavelength at 940 nm) and transduces photosensing signals to a downstream intracellular transduction cascade for better growth. We discover that the infrared light-mediated growth promotion of C. marinus OT19 is attributed partly to the enhancement of pyruvate and propanoate metabolism. Further study suggests that CmoBphp plays a crucial role in integrating infrared light with intracellular signaling to control the bacterial growth and metabolism. This is the first report that deep-sea non-photosynthetic bacteria can sense infrared light to control growth through a bacteriophytochrome photoreceptor, thus providing new understandings towards light energy utilization by microorganisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15639DOI Listing
June 2021

Silent information regulator 1 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells via its regulation of mitochondria status.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 10;280:119716. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Toxicology, The Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, Shaanxi Key Lab of Free Radical Biology and Medicine, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, cell metabolism, and mitochondrial functions. Given that it acts as both a tumor promoter and suppressor, the complex mechanisms underlying SIRT1 signaling in cancer remain controversial. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in the progression of carcinogenesis and tumors metastasis. Studies have shown that mitochondrial defects are critical in EMT process, and SIRT1 is found to regulate the generation and energy metabolism of mitochondria. Here, we elucidate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 affects EMT in lung cancer cells via its regulation on mitochondria.

Main Methods: SIRT1 signaling was detected in TGF-β1-induced EMT and was found to regulate mitochondria status, including mitochondrial biogenesis-related protein levels as detected by western blotting, mitochondrial structure observed by transmission electron microscopy, and respiratory functions analyzed by a respiration capacity assay. The effects of modulating SIRT1 expression on EMT and migration of lung cancer cells or normal cells were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo models.

Key Findings: We found that the regulation of SIRT1 signaling on the biogenesis or functions of mitochondria was critical to EMT. Overexpression of SIRT1 reduced EMT or metastasis potential of lung cancer cells by improving the quantity and quality of mitochondria, whereas silencing SIRT1 promote EMT in cancer cells, even in normal cells by disturbing mitochondria status.

Significance: Consequently, SIRT1 is an attractive therapeutic target for reversing EMT or tumor metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119716DOI Listing
June 2021

"Hands" figural teaching method in teaching percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy: A surgeon's teaching experience.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Department of Orthopedics Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University Huhhot North Street, Inner Mongolia 010050, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.05.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Application of "Hand as foot" in clinical teaching of axillary anatomy.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Department of Thyroid Breast Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehot North Street, Inner Mongolia, 010050, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.05.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Fabrication of Cobaltous Sulfide Nanoparticle-Modified 3D MXene/Carbon Foam Hybrid Aerogels for All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Material Science and Engineering, Institute for Graphene Applied Technology Innovation, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China.

MXene is a neoteric type of bidimensional (2D) transition metal carbide/nitride with broad application prospects, in particular with electrochemical energy storage. The electrochemical performance of MXene is unsatisfactory because it is easy to stack resulting in the difficulty of electrolyte penetration and ion transport. In this study, the cobaltous sulfide-modified 3D MXene/N-doped carbon foam ([email protected]/CF) hybrid aerogel is projected and manufactured via simple in situ growth and thermal annealing strategies. The capacitance of the as-fabricated 300-CMC-31:1 electrode material reaches 250 F g (1 A g), which is obviously higher than those of MXene, [email protected], 400-CMC-31:1, 300-CMC-10:1, 300-CMC-50:1, CF, and MXene/CF electrode materials. Moreover, it can hold 97.5% of the original capacitance after 10,000 cycles and the internal resistance () is only 0.50 Ω. A green bulb can be lit by two all-solid asymmetric supercapacitors installed in series. The prepared [email protected]/CF hybrid aerogel exhibits promising potential for practical application in energy storage areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05904DOI Listing
June 2021

Comprehensive analysis of the anti-glycation effect of peanut skin extract.

Food Chem 2021 May 21;362:130169. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Wuhan Engineering Research Center of Bee Products on Quality and Safety Control, Wuhan 430070, China; Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology (Huazhong Agricultural University), Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070, China; Laboratory of Urban Agriculture in Central China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced during protein glycation and associated with diabetic complications. Peanut skin is rich in procyanidins, which may be used as an inhibitor of glycation. This study evaluated the potential anti-glycation effect of peanut skin extract (PSE) and dissected the underlying mechanism. PSE could effectively inhibit the formation of AGEs in BSA-Glc and BSA-MGO/GO models, with 44%, 37% and 82% lower IC values than the positive control (AG), respectively. The inhibitory effect of PSE on BSA glycation might be ascribed to its binding interaction with BSA, attenuated formation of early glycation products and trapping of reactive dicarbonyl compounds. Notably, PSE showed a remarkably stronger inhibitory effect on Amadori products than AG. Furthermore, three new types of PSE-MGO adducts were formed as identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These findings suggest that PSE may serve as an inhibitor of glycation and provide new insights into its application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130169DOI Listing
May 2021

Loss of immobilized water and intense protein aggregation responsible for quality deterioration of ready to eat firm tofu.

J Texture Stud 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

The influence of high-temperature treatment (100-120 °C, 15 min) on the texture, color and water holding capacity of tofu gels was investigated. As the temperature increasing, the hardness and chewiness as well as the values of redness a and yellowness b increased gradually, while the water content and the lightness L value reduced progressively, and these variations were more pronounced at 115 or 120 °C. LF-NMR showed that the loss of T water led to the decrease of the water content. Scanning electron microscope revealed that the micro-pore in gels decreased after heating, and almost entirely disappeared at 120 °C. Further analysis by SDS-PAGE indicated the soy protein aggregation formed via disulfide linkage were observed in the thermal treated tofu gels, and non-disulfide linkage might also be occurred as temperature reached 110 °C or higher. The quality deterioration may be attributed to immobilized water loss combined with the protein aggregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12614DOI Listing
June 2021

Structural insights into two distinct nanobodies recognizing the same epitope of green fluorescent protein.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 4;565:57-63. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address:

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives are widely used in biomedical research, and the manipulation of GFP-tagged proteins by GFP-specific binders is highly desired. However, structural information on how these binders bind with GFP is still lacking. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the nanobody Nb2 complexed with superfolder GFP (sfGFP) at a resolution of 2.2 Å. Interestingly, although the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of Nb2 and LaG16 sequences were only 29.7% identical, they both bound to the same epitope of GFP and existed in the same orientation. Structural analysis indicated that they achieved similar binding characteristics through different mechanisms. We further verified the kinetics and thermodynamics of binding by biolayer interferometry (BLI) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Nb2 showed a slightly higher binding affinity for sfGFP than LaG16. The stability of GFP-specific nanobodies was verified by nano differential scanning fluorimetry (nanoDSF). Nb2 exhibited the highest melting temperature (Tm); thus, Nb2 is a promising GFP nanobody candidate for use in applications requiring harsh testing conditions. We also compared the binding sites of available GFP nanobodies and showed that some of them can simultaneously bind with GFP and assemble into multifunctional complexes to manipulate GFP-tagged target proteins. Our results provide atomic-scale binding information for Nb2-sfGFP, which is important for the further development of GFP-nanobody based fusion protein manipulation techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.089DOI Listing
August 2021

Swi6B, an alternative splicing isoform of Swi6, mediates the cell wall integrity of Ganoderma lucidum.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, Microbiology Department, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

The cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling activates the transcription factor Swi6 through a MAPK signaling cascade in response to cell wall stresses. In this study, we observed two different mRNA variants of swi6 (GlSwi6A and GlSwi6B) existed, due to alternative splicing. Besides, the expression level of GlSwi6B was higher than that of the GlSwi6A mRNA variant. The co-silencing of GlSwi6A and GlSwi6B was more sensitive to cell wall stress compared with WT, resulting in a decrease of 78% and 76% in chitin and β-1,3-d-glucan content respectively. However, only the overexpression of GlSwi6B decreased the sensitivity to cell wall stress and increased the content of chitin and β-1,3-d-glucan compared with the WT strain. Furthermore, Y1H, EMSA and BLI assays revealed that the GlSwi6B could bind to the promoters of chitin and glucan synthesis genes (GL24454 and GL18134). However, the binding phenome has not been observed in the isoform GlSwi6A. Taken together, our results found two different transcripts generated from Swi6, in which the alternative splice isoform of GlSwi6B participates in regulating the CWI of G. lucidum. This study provides the first insight into the alternative splicing isoform of GlSwi6B in the regulation of CWI signaling in fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15627DOI Listing
June 2021

Overexpressed circRANBP17 acts as an oncogene to facilitate nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the miR-635/RUNX2 axis.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(14):4322-4331. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Rhinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in the initiation and progress of several diseases, including cancer. However, the precise role of circRNAs in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. In this research, we found a new circRNA hsa_circ_0001554 (circRANBP17), which was derived from the RAN binding protein 17 (RANBP17). Our qRT-PCR data found that circRANBP17 expression was up-regulated in NPC tissue and cells. Functional silencing studies revealed that circRANBP17 inhibited NPC cell proliferation and invasion and circRANBP17 down-regulation also reduced tumor growth in nude mice. MiR-635 was demonstrated as a direct target of circRANBP17; circRANBP17 up-regulated RUNX2 expression levels by sponging miR-635, thereby promoting NPC proliferation and invasion. Thus, our data provide the evidence for the first time that circRANBP17 is a new onco-circRNA via miR-635/RUNX2 axis regulation, and may function as a novel therapeutic target for NPC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.55794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176428PMC
May 2021

Maillard reaction products and Guaiacol as production process and raw material markers for the authenticity identification of sesame oil.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, PR China.

Background: Sesame oil has excellent flavor and is widely loved by people. Sesame oil has a higher price than other vegetable oils because of its high raw material price, and different processing techniques also result in different quality and price. In the market, driven by economic interests, the problem of adulteration of sesame oil is endless. Therefore, screening of volatile markers used to distinguish the authenticity of sesame oil raw materials and processes is of great significance.

Results: In this work, 6 markers related to the production processes and raw materials of sesame oil were screened by GC-MS/MS combined with chemometric, including 3-methyl-2-butanone, 2-ethyl-5-methyl-pyrazine, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethyl-pyrazine, 5-methyl furfural, and ethyl-pyrazine. The concentration of these markers in sesame oil is 10-1000 times that of other vegetable oils. However, only 3-methyl-2-butanone and 2-ethyl-5-methyl-pyrazine were significant differences during different production processes. Except for guaiacol, mainly derived from raw materials, the other five compounds are all from the Maillard reaction during thermal processing. Combined with discriminatory analysis results, just these six compounds can accurately distinguish sesame oil raw materials and process fraud and accurately identify 30% adulteration concentration.

Conclusion: In this study, the classification markers can accurately identify the raw material and process adulteration of sesame oil. Therefore, these six compounds are of great significance to the authenticity of sesame oil and provide a theoretical basis for the rapid and accurate identification of the authenticity of sesame oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11353DOI Listing
June 2021

Worldwide prevalence of early repolarization pattern in general population and physically active individuals: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e25978

Department of General Practice, Shenzhen Longhua District Central Hospital, The Affiliated Central Hospital of Shenzhen Longhua District, Guangdong Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: The early repolarization pattern (ERP) has recently been associated with cardiac events such as ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, estimates of the prevalence of ERP vary widely, especially between the general population and physically active individuals. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the worldwide prevalence of ERP in the general population and physically active individuals.

Methods: We thoroughly searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases for relevant studies published until December 20, 2020. Studies in which prevalence was presented or could be estimated from eligible data were included. The pooled prevalence was analyzed using a random-effect model.

Results: Finally, we included 29 studies (182,135 subjects) in the general population and 14 studies (8087 subjects) in the physically active individuals. The worldwide pooled prevalence of ERP in the general population was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0%-13.3%). The incidence of ERP was 17.0% and 6.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence was 20.9% in blacks, 13.4% in Asians, and 10.1% in Caucasians. Additionally, the prevalence of ERP in physically active individuals was 33.9% (95% CI: 25.3%-42.6%).

Conclusion: A significant difference in the worldwide prevalence of ERP is revealed in this study. The ERP is highly prevalent in men, blacks, and physically active individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183793PMC
June 2021

Activation of Galanin Receptor 1 with M617 Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis via ERK/GSK-3β/TIP60 Pathway After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular disease. Neuronal apoptosis plays an important pathological role in early brain injury after SAH. Galanin receptor 1 (GalR1) activation was recently shown to be anti-apoptotic in the setting of ischemic stroke. This study aimed to explore the anti-neuronal apoptosis effect of GalR1 activation after SAH, as well as the underlying mechanisms. GalR1 CRISPR and GalR1 selective agonist, M617, was administered, respectively. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor (U0126) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-β) CRISPR were administered to investigate the involvement of the ERK/GSK3-β pathway in GalR1-mediated neuroprotection after SAH. Outcome assessments included neurobehavioral tests, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that endogenous ligand galanin (Gal) and GalR1 were markedly increased in the ipsilateral brain hemisphere at 12 h and 24 h after SAH. GalR1 were expressed mainly in neurons, but expression was also observed in some astrocytes and microglia. GalR1 CRISPR knockdown exacerbated neurological deficits and neuronal apoptosis 24 h after SAH. Moreover, activation of GalR1 with M617 significantly improved short- and long-term neurological deficits but decreased neuronal apoptosis after SAH. Furthermore, GalR1 activation dysregulated the protein levels of phosphorylated ERK and GSK-3β, but downregulated the phosphorylated Tat-interactive protein 60 (TIP60) and cleaved caspase-3 at 24 h after SAH. GalR1 CRISPR, U0126, and GSK-3β CRISPR abolished the beneficial effects of GalR1 activation at 24 h after SAH in rats. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that activation of GalR1 using M617 attenuated neuronal apoptosis through the ERK/GSK-3β/TIP60 pathway after SAH in rats. GalR1 may serve as a promising therapeutic target for SAH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-021-01066-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Goji berry ( spp.) extracts exhibit antiproliferative activity modulating cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis, and the p53 signaling pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

The phytochemical profiles, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative mechanism of two goji berry varieties were investigated in the present study. In contrast to Lycium barbarum L. (LB), Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM) showed stronger antioxidant activity evaluated by ORAC, PSC and CAA assays, which might be attributed to its higher total phenolics and total flavonoids. However, LB contains greater contents of VE and carotenoids compared to LRM, which may endow LB with other unique functions instead of antioxidant activity. Additionally, high dose LRM showed a stronger capability in terms of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis induction of MDA cells with increments of 17.85% cells blocked at the G1 phase and 50.49% cells achieving early apoptosis compared with the control group. Although supplementation with LB increased the number of cells in the G1 phase by 10%, its effect on inducing cell apoptosis was not ideal. Furthermore, both LRM and LB activated the proliferation-related p53 signaling pathway including p53, p21, CDK4, Cyclin E, Bax and Caspase3, but LB failed to downregulate bcl-2 and CDK2 levels, indicating the weaker antiproliferative effect of LB. The present findings indicated LRM and LB as potential candidates for managing the proliferation of cancer cells and improving human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01105gDOI Listing
June 2021

Efficient absorptive removal of Cd(Ⅱ) in aqueous solution by biochar derived from sewage sludge and calcium sulfate.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 27;336:125333. Epub 2021 May 27.

Office of Teaching Affairs, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

Biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and calcium sulfate was used to remove Cd(II) from aqueous solution. The results showed that the Cd(Ⅱ) adsorption better followed Freundlich model, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 109.0 mg/g (288 K), 127.9 mg/g (298 K) and 145.4 mg/g (308 K). The Cd(Ⅱ) removal was a multi-layer adsorption process dominated by chemisorption, which was also a spontaneous and endothermic process. The contribution of physisorption gradually increased as the Cd(Ⅱ) initial concentration. The Cd(Ⅱ) removal process which better followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, was divided into three stages. The first (0-0.3 h) and second stages (0.3-2 h) were separately controlled by liquid film diffusion/intraparticle diffusion/chemical reaction and liquid film diffusion/chemical reaction, while the third stage (0.3-24 h) was the dynamic equilibrium process. The speciation distribution of Cd on biochar surface was mainly CdCO/CdOOC and CdO/CdSiO, indicating coprecipitation, ion exchange and complexation contributed more to the Cd(Ⅱ) removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125333DOI Listing
May 2021

Spatial order of functional modules enabling diverse intracellular performance of fluorescent probes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074, P. R. China, 430074, wuhan, CHINA.

To overcome a series of challenges in tumor therapy, modular-agent probes (MAPs) comprised of various functional modules have been proposed. Nowadays, researchers have tried to optimize the MAPs by exploiting the new modules or increasing the numbers of module, while neglecting the configuration of various modules. Here, we focus on the different spatial-arrangements of existing modules. By utilizing a tetraphenylethylene (TPE) derivative with stereochemical structure and dual modifiable end-group sites as small molecule scaffold, two MAPs with same modular agents (module T for enhancing the internalization of MAPs by tumor cells and module M for causing mitochondrial dysfunction) but different spatial-arrangements (on the one side, TM-AIE, and two sides, T-AIE-M, of the molecule scaffold) are designed. It was found that T-AIE-M with bigger RGD binding angle performed higher specificity, while TM-AIE characterizing longer α-helix structure displayed superior toxicity. This interesting phenomenon sheds light on the design concept of future MAPs and opens a window for the renaissance of existing MAPs by rearranging modules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202106195DOI Listing
June 2021

In Situ Growth Large Area Silver Nanostructure on Metal Phenolic Network Coated NAAO Film and Its SERS Sensing Application for Monofluoroacetic Acid.

ACS Sens 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100013, China.

Rapid screening monofluoroacetic acid (FAcOH) is responsible for preventing chemical poisoning and food safety events. Whereas surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra is an effective tool for detecting forbidden chemicals, it is difficult to directly detect FAcOH due to its small Raman scattering cross section as well as weak adsorption on SERS substrates. In this work, the metal phenolic supramolecular networks (MPNs, i.e., the tannic acid and Fe complex) were fabricated on the commercial nanoanodic aluminum oxide film (NAAO) for assisting in situ chemical deposition highly uniform Ag nanostructure over large areas (the [email protected]). The low cost and simple fabrication process made the [email protected] a single-use consumable. For FAcOH detection, a specific derivative reaction between FAcOH and thiosalicylic acid (TSA) was introduced. By taking TSA as the Raman probe, its SERS signal attenuated constantly with the increasing amount of FAcOH. For improving quantitative accuracy, thiocyanate (SCN) was introduced on the [email protected] as an internal standard; thus, the characteristic peak intensity ratios associated with TSA and SCN (/) were fitted to the concentration of FAcOH. It was demonstrated that the SERS assay achieved good sensitivity and selection toward FAcOH with the limit of quantitation (LOD) as low as 50 nmol L. The [email protected] featured with highly sensitive, uniform, and consistent SERS performances could easily extend to wide SERS applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00560DOI Listing
June 2021

Choline kinase alpha 2 acts as a protein kinase to promote lipolysis of lipid droplets.

Mol Cell 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pancreatic Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, and Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310029, China; Zhejiang University Cancer Center, Hangzhou, 310029, China. Electronic address:

Lipid droplets are important for cancer cell growth and survival. However, the mechanism underlying the initiation of lipid droplet lipolysis is not well understood. We demonstrate here that glucose deprivation induces the binding of choline kinase (CHK) α2 to lipid droplets, which is sequentially mediated by AMPK-dependent CHKα2 S279 phosphorylation and KAT5-dependent CHKα2 K247 acetylation. Importantly, CHKα2 with altered catalytic domain conformation functions as a protein kinase and phosphorylates PLIN2 at Y232 and PLIN3 at Y251. The phosphorylated PLIN2/3 dissociate from lipid droplets and are degraded by Hsc70-mediated autophagy, thereby promoting lipid droplet lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and brain tumor growth. In addition, levels of CHKα2 S279 phosphorylation, CHKα2 K247 acetylation, and PLIN2/3 phosphorylation are positively correlated with one another in human glioblastoma specimens and are associated with poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. These findings underscore the role of CHKα2 as a protein kinase in lipolysis and glioblastoma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.05.005DOI Listing
May 2021

Advances in the Study of Metabolomics and Metabolites in Some Species Interactions.

Molecules 2021 May 31;26(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, and Key Laboratory for Microbial Resources of the Ministry of Education, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

In the natural environment, interactions between species are a common natural phenomena. The mechanisms of interaction between different species are mainly studied using genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques. Metabolomics is a crucial part of system biology and is based on precision instrument analysis. In the last decade, the emerging field of metabolomics has received extensive attention. Metabolomics not only provides a qualitative and quantitative method for studying the mechanisms of interactions between different species, but also helps clarify the mechanisms of defense between the host and pathogen, and to explore new metabolites with various biological activities. This review focuses on the methods and progress of interspecies metabolomics. Additionally, the prospects and challenges of interspecies metabolomics are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197931PMC
May 2021

ThHSFA1 Confers Salt Stress Tolerance through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging by Directly Regulating .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 10;22(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) play critical roles in several types of environmental stresses. However, the detailed regulatory mechanisms in response to salt stress are still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the salt-induced transcriptional responses of - in   and their functions and regulatory mechanisms in salt tolerance. ThHSFA1 protein acts as an upstream regulator that can directly activate expression by binding to the heat shock element (HSE) of the promoter using yeast one-hybrid (Y1H), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and dual-luciferase reporter assays. and expression was significantly induced by salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment in the roots and leaves of . . ThHSFA1 is a nuclear-localized protein with transactivation activity at the -terminus. Compared to nontransgenic plants, transgenic plants overexpressing displayed enhanced salt tolerance and exhibited reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and increased antioxidant enzyme activity levels under salt stress. Therefore, we further concluded that mediated the regulation of in response to salt stress in . .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22095048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126225PMC
May 2021

Synthetic Iowaite Can Effectively Remove Inorganic Arsenic from Marine Extract.

Molecules 2021 May 20;26(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Pharmacology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

For the removal of arsenic from marine products, iowaite was prepared and investigated to determine the optimal adsorption process of arsenic. Different chemical forms of arsenic (As(III), As(V)) with varying concentrations (0.15, 1.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) under various conditions including pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 11) and contact time (1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 min) were exposed to iowaite. Adsorption isotherms and metal ions kinetic modeling onto the adsorbent were determined based on Langmuir, Freundlich, first- and second-order kinetic models. The adsorption onto iowaite varied depending on the conditions. The adsorption rates of standard solution, As(III) and As(V) exceeded 95% under proper conditions, while high complexity was noted with marine samples. As(III) and As(V) from extraction all decreased when exposed to iowaite. The inclusion morphology and interconversion of organic arsenic limit adsorption. Iowaite can be efficiently used for inorganic arsenic removal from wastewater and different marine food products, which maybe other adsorbent or further performance of iowaite needs to be investigated for organic arsenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160602PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes and Toxicity after Stereotactic Phosphorus-32 Based Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients with Cystic Craniopharyngioma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Geisinger Health Care, Department of Radiation Oncology, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA; Division of Neurosurgery, McMaster University and Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Phosphorus-32-based interstitial brachytherapy has an established role as a minimally invasive treatment modality for patients with cystic craniopharyngioma. However, reporting on long-term outcomes with toxicity profiles for large cohorts is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the long-term visual, endocrine and neurocognitive function in what is the largest patient series having received this treatment to date.

Methods: Ninety patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas were retrospectively evaluated after having been treated with stereotactic intracavitary brachytherapy between 1998 and 2010. Colloidal activity of injected radioisotope phosphorus-32 was based on an even distribution within the tumor. After treatment, patients were followed-up for a minimum of five years and over a mean of 121 (60-192) months to assess radiographic and clinical response.

Results: The 90 patients included in our study cohort underwent a total of 108 stereotactic surgical procedures for 129 craniopharyngioma-related cysts. Sixty-five (72.2%) of included tumors were associated with a single cyst, 15 (16.7%) with 2 cysts, and 10 (11.1%) tumors had developed septations with 3-4 cysts. Stereotactic cyst puncture and content aspiration was used to drain a mean cyst fluid volume of 21.4 (1.0-55.0) ml. Each cyst was then instilled for interstitial brachytherapy with colloidal P-32 solution. Based on radiographic follow-up assessment, 56 cysts (43.4%) showed resolution and/or non-recurrence which was classified as complete response to treatment, 47 cysts (36.4%) showed partial response, whereas 5 cysts (3.9%) displayed a stable appearance. Treatment resulted in immediate and clinically significant vision improvement in 54 of 63 (86%) symptomatic patients and this improvement was maintained. Progression-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 95.5% and 84.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: P-32-based interstitial brachytherapy can play an effective role in managing patients with cystic craniopharyngiomas. It can be considered a valid alternative to surgery in select patients with a favorable toxicity profile and long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.05.123DOI Listing
May 2021

Renoprotective Effect of the Recombinant Anti-IL-6R Fusion Proteins by Inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:681424. Epub 2021 May 13.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Drug Target Discovery and Structural and Functional Research, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Diabetic nephropathy the main reason for end stage renal disease is a common microvascular complication in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The interleukin-6 (IL-6), acting as a pleiotropic cytokine, play key roles in main autoimmune disorders. The recombinant anti-IL-6R fusion proteins (VHH-0031) constructed and obtained in our lab is a dual target-directed single domain-based fusion protein against the interleukin-6 receptor. This study aims to explore the renoprotective effect of VHH-0031 in diabetic nephropathy. VHH-0031 treatment alleviated renal inflammation, morphologic injury and renal insufficiency in both Goto-Kakizaki rats and STZ-induced Sprague Dawley rats. These renoprotective effects of VHH-0031 are associated with alleviating inflammation and suppression of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. The mesangial cells treated with VHH-0031 exhibited anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation and inactivation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway under high glucose condition. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that VHH-0031 exhibited a potent protective effect in kidney of diabetic rats and its mechanism may be concerned with the inhibition of the IL-6R/JAK2/STAT3 pathway of glomerular mesangial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.681424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155588PMC
May 2021

Osteogenic effect of polymethyl methacrylate bone cement with surface modification of lactoferrin.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Spine Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, 218 Ziqiang Street, Changchun, Jilin 130040, China.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a commonly used filling material in orthopedic surgery. Its good and stable performances make it the most widely used in all kinds of bone cement. With the advancement of the application and research of PMMA bone cement by surgeons, its disadvantages such as non-degradation and non-bioactivity are gradually exposed. In recent years, the biological functions of lactoferrin (LF) have been gradually explored, especially its role in promoting osteogenesis. In this study, LF was modified on the surface of solidified PMMA bone cement (LF/PMMA bone cement) by physical/chemical mixed modification and verified by cytological experiments in vitro. In vitro studies have implicated that PMMA bone cement modified with LF can improve the attachment, expansion, proliferation, extracellular matrix secretion and osteogenic differentiation of mouse preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells, indicating biocompatibility. This experiment provides a novel insight for improving the biological activity of PMMA bone cement and lays a foundation for broadening the clinical application of PMMA bone cement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2021.04.006DOI Listing
May 2021

The comparison of epidemiological characteristics between confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases with COVID-19 during the early epidemic in Wuhan, China.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 05 28;6(1):18. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 430071, Wuhan, China.

Background: To put COVID-19 patients into hospital timely, the clinical diagnosis had been implemented in Wuhan in the early epidemic. Here we compared the epidemiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases with COVID-19 in Wuhan.

Methods: Demographics, case severity and outcomes of 29,886 confirmed cases and 21,960 clinically diagnosed cases reported between December 2019 and February 24, 2020, were compared. The risk factors were estimated, and the effective reproduction number (Rt) of SARS-CoV-2 was also calculated.

Results: The age and occupation distribution of confirmed cases and clinically diagnosed cases were consistent, and their sex ratio were 1.0 and 0.9, respectively. The epidemic curve of clinical diagnosis cases was similar to that of confirmed cases, and the city centers had more cumulative cases and higher incidence density than suburbs in both of two groups. The proportion of severe and critical cases (21.5 % vs. 14.0 %, P < 0.0001) and case fatality rates (5.2 % vs. 1.2 %, P < 0.0001) of confirmed cases were all higher than those of clinically diagnosed cases. Risk factors for death we observed in both of two groups were older age, male, severe or critical cases. Rt showed the same trend in two groups, it dropped below 1.0 on February 6 among confirmed cases, and February 8 among clinically diagnosed cases.

Conclusions: The demographic characteristics and spatiotemporal distributions of confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases are roughly similar, but the disease severity and clinical outcome of clinically diagnosed cases are better than those of confirmed cases. In cases when detection kits are insufficient during the early epidemic, the implementation of clinical diagnosis is necessary and effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-021-00200-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161348PMC
May 2021

Topologically Protected Transport of Cargo in a Chiral Active Fluid Aided by Odd-Viscosity-Enhanced Depletion Interactions.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(19):198001

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The discovery of topological edge states that unidirectionally propagate along the boundary of system without backscattering has enabled the development of new design principles for material or information transport. Here, we show that the topological edge flow supported by the chiral active fluid composed of spinners can even robustly transport an immersed intruder with the aid of the spinner-mediated depletion interaction between the intruder and boundary. Importantly, the effective interaction significantly depends on the dissipationless odd viscosity of the chiral active fluid, which originates from the spinning-induced breaking of time-reversal and parity symmetries, rendering the transport controllable. Our findings propose a novel avenue for robust cargo transport and could open a range of new possibilities throughout biological and microfluidic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.198001DOI Listing
May 2021

A Partial Discharge Study of Medium-Voltage Motor Winding Insulation Under Two-Level Voltage Pulses With High Dv/Dt.

IEEE Open J Power Electron 2021 Mar;2:225-235

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.

Medium-voltage (e.g., 10 kV rated) silicon carbide (SiC) devices have great potentials in medium-voltage variable speed drives. But their high switching dv/dt can increase the voltage stress on motor windings and cause partial discharges. This paper presents a partial discharge study of a medium-voltage form-wound winding under two-level square-wave voltage pulses. A 10 kV SiC device-based test platform is built to generate voltage pulses with high dv/dt. A three-step test approach is proposed and employed to systematically investigate the effects of various voltage parameters on partial discharges. These include voltage rise/fall time, voltage pulse width, pulse repetitive rate, duty ratio, voltage polarity, fundamental frequency, and modulation index. Partial discharge inception voltages (PDIVs) and repetitive partial discharge inception voltages (RPDIVs) of the sample are measured with varied voltage parameters. Test results show that voltage rise/fall time is a major affecting factor which reduces PDIVs of the winding sample by 6.5% when it decreases from 800 ns to 100 ns. Based on test results, a hypothetical partial discharge mechanism is presented to explain the effects of fast voltage rise/fall edges. An empirical equation is also derived to estimate PDIVs of a winding sample under various voltage rise/fall time and pulse width conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ojpel.2021.3069780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152218PMC
March 2021

Hydride-induced Meisenheimer complex formation reflects activity of nitro aromatic anti-tuberculosis compounds.

RSC Med Chem 2021 Jan 4;12(1):62-72. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame IN 46556 USA

The formation efficiency of hydride-induced Meisenheimer complexes of nitroaromatic compounds is consistent with their anti-TB activities exemplied by MDL860 and benzothiazol -oxide (BTO) analogs. Herein we report that nitro cyano phenoxybenzenes (MDL860 and analogs) reacted slowly and incompletely which reflected their moderate anti-TB activity, in contrast to the instantaneous reaction of BTO derivatives to quantitatively generate Meisenheimer complexes which corresponded to their enhanced anti-TB activity. These results were corroborated by mycobacterial and radiolabelling studies that confirmed inhibition of the DprE1 enzyme by BTO derivatives but not MDL860 analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0md00390eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130608PMC
January 2021