Publications by authors named "Rui Lin"

201 Publications

The reduced form of the antibody CH2 domain.

Protein Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Among the immunoglobulin domains, the CH2 domain has the lowest thermal stability, which also depends on amino acid sequence and buffer conditions. To further identify factors that influence CH2 folding and stability, we characterized the domain in the reduced form using differential scanning fluorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that the CH2 domain can fold, similarly to the disulfide-bridged form, without forming a disulfide-bridge, even though the protein contains two Cys residues. Although the reduced form exhibits thermal stability more than 15°C lower than the disulfide-bridged form, it does not undergo immediate full oxidization. To explain this phenomenon, we compared CH2 oxidization at different conditions and demonstrate a need for significant fluctuation of the folded conformation to enhance CH2 disulfide-bridge formation. We conclude that, since CH2 can be purified as a folded, semi-stable, reduced protein that can coexist with the oxidized form, verification of the level of oxidization at each step is critical in CH2 engineering studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.4142DOI Listing
June 2021

TRPM2 promotes pancreatic cancer by PKC/MAPK pathway.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 7;12(6):585. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

General Surgery Department, Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

The mechanism of pancreatic cancer (PA) is not fully understanded. In our last report, TRPM2 plays a promising role in pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of TRPM2 is still unknown in this dismal disease. This study was designed to investigate the role and mechanism of TRPM2 in pancreatic cancer. TRPM2 overexpressed and siRNA plasmid were created and transfected with pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3) to construct the cell model. We employed CCK-8, Transwell, scratch wound, and nude mice tumor-bearing model to investigate the role of TRPM2 in pancreatic cancer. Besides, we collected the clinical data, tumor tissue sample (TT) and para-tumor sample (TP) from the pancreatic cancer patients treated in our hospital. We analyzed the mechanism of TRPM2 in pancreatic cancer by transcriptome analysis, western blot, and PCR. We blocked the downstream PKC/MEK pathway of TRPM2 to investigate the mechanism of TRPM2 in pancreatic cancer by CCK8, scratch wound healing, and transwell assays. Overexpressed TRPM2 could promote pancreatic cancer in proliferation, migration, and invasion ability in no matter the cell model or nude mice tumor-bearing model. TRPM2 level is highly negative correlated to the overall survival and progression-free survival time in PA patients, however, it is significantly increased in PA tissue as the tumor stage increases. The transcriptome analysis, GSEA analysis, western-blot, and PCR results indicate TRPM2 is highly correlated with PKC/MAPK pathways. The experiments of PKC/MEK inhibitors added to TRPM2 overexpressed BxPC-3 cell showed that significant inhibition of PA cells happened in CCK8, transwell, and wound-healing assay. TRPM2 may directly activate PKCα by calcium or indirectly activate PKCε and PKCδ by increased DAG in PA, which promote PA by downstream MAPK/MEK pathway activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03856-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184946PMC
June 2021

Prognostic Model to Predict Postoperative Adverse Events in Pediatric Patients With Aortic Coarctation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 21;8:672627. Epub 2021 May 21.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Postoperative adverse events remain excessively high in surgical patients with coarctation of aorta (CoA). Currently, there is no generally accepted strategy to predict these patients' individual outcomes. This study aimed to develop a risk model for the prediction of postoperative risk in pediatric patients with CoA. In total, 514 patients with CoA at two centers were enrolled. Using daily clinical practice data, we developed a model to predict 30-day or in-hospital adverse events after the operation. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach was applied to select predictor variables and logistic regression was used to develop the model. Model performance was estimated using the receiver-operating characteristic curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the calibration plot. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) compared with existing risk strategies were assessed. Postoperative adverse events occurred in 195 (37.9%) patients in the overall population. Nine predictive variables were identified, including incision of left thoracotomy, preoperative ventilation, concomitant ventricular septal defect, preoperative cardiac dysfunction, severe pulmonary hypertension, height, weight-for-age -score, left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular posterior wall thickness. A multivariable logistic model [area under the curve = 0.8195 (95% CI: 0.7514-0.8876)] with adequate calibration was developed. Model performance was significantly improved compared with the existing Aristotle Basic Complexity (ABC) score (NRI = 47.3%, IDI = 11.5%) and the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) (NRI = 75.0%, IDI = 14.9%) in the validation set. Using daily clinical variables, we generated and validated an easy-to-apply postoperative risk model for patients with CoA. This model exhibited a remarkable improvement over the ABC score and the RACHS-1 method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.672627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175771PMC
May 2021

New Isocoumarin Analogues from the Marine-Derived Fungus sp. CUGBMF180003.

Mar Drugs 2021 May 28;19(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Light Industry, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.

Nine new secondary metabolites, including six isocoumarin analogues, 7-hydroxyoospolactone (), 7-methoxyoospolactone (), 7-methoxy-9-hydroxyoospolactone (), 10-acetoxy-9-hydroxyoospolactone (), 6-dehydroxysescandelin (), parapholactone (), and three compounds with a rare skeleton of isocoumarin coupled with phenylethylamine, namely paraphamide A (), paraphamide B (), and paraphamide C (), together with five known compounds, oospolactone (), 8--methyloospolactone (), 10-hydroxyoospolactone (), 9,10-dihydroxyoospolactone (), and oospoglycol (), were isolated and identified from the marine-derived fungus sp. CUGBMF180003. Their chemical structures were determined using spectroscopic data, including HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Furthermore, the stereogenic carbons in and were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The carbon skeleton of - was identified as the first example of isocoumarin coupled with phenylethylamine derivatives. All of these compounds were examined for antimicrobial activities against and Both and showed antibacterial activity against with MIC values of 12.5 μg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19060313DOI Listing
May 2021

and the Volatile of Attenuate Chronic Myocardial Ischemia Injury in a Pig Model: A Metabonomic Approach for the Mechanism Study.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 28;2021:8840896. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

National Drug Clinical Trial Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang 712000, China.

(SM) coupled with (DO) has been used to relieve cardiovascular diseases in China for many years. Our previous studies have integrated that SM-the volatile oil of DO (SM-DOO)-has a cardioprotective effect on chronic myocardial ischemia based on a pharmacological method, but the cardioprotective mechanism has not been elucidated completely in the metabonomic method. In the present study, a metabonomic method based on high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was performed to evaluate the effects of SM-DOO on chronic myocardial ischemia induced by an ameroid constrictor, which was placed on the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of pigs. Pigs were divided into three groups: sham, model, and SM-DOO group. With multivariate analysis, a clear cluster among the different groups was obtained and the potential biomarkers were recognized. These biomarkers were mainly related to energy metabolism, glucose metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) were significantly upregulated by SM-DOO. The result indicated that SM-DOO could regulate the above biomarkers and metabolic pathways, especially energy metabolism and glucose metabolism. By analyzing and verifying the biomarkers and metabolic pathways, further understanding of the cardioprotective effect of SM-DOO with its mechanism was evaluated. Metabonomic is a reliable system biology approach for understanding the cardioprotective effects of SM-DOO on chronic myocardial ischemia and elucidating the mechanism underlying this protective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8840896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099511PMC
April 2021

[Genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis in high-risk families with tuberous sclerosis complex syndrome].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):435-438

Center of Genetic and Prenatal Diagnosis, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Objective: To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for 29 Chinese pedigrees affected with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and assess efficacy of combined next generation sequencing (NGS) and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the diagnosis.

Methods: NGS and MLPA were used in conjunct to detect variants of TSC1 and TSC2 genes among the probands of the pedigrees. Paternity test was carried out to exclude maternal DNA contamination. Prenatal diagnosis was provided to 14 couples based on the discoveries in the probands.

Results: Twenty-seven variants were identified in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes among the 29 pedigrees, which yielded a detection rate of 93.1%. Respectively, 5 (18.5%) and 22 (81.5%) variants were identified in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Twelve variants were unreported previously. Prenatal diagnosis showed that five fetuses were affected with TSC, whilst the remaining nine were unaffected.

Conclusion: Above finding has expanded the spectrum of TSC1 and TSC2 gene variants. Combined NGS and MLPA has enabled diagnosis of TSC with efficiency and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200325-00203DOI Listing
May 2021

Multichannel Immunosensor Platform for the Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A(H1N1) Virus.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 9;13(19):22262-22270. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P. R. China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present a similar syndrome to an influenza infection, which may complicate diagnosis and clinical management of these two important respiratory infectious diseases, especially during the peak season of influenza. A rapid and convenient point-of-care test (POCT) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus is of great importance for prompt and efficient control of these respiratory epidemics. Herein, a multichannel electrochemical immunoassay (MEIA) platform was developed based on a disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) array for the on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1). The developed MEIA was constructed with eight channels and allowed rapid detection on a single array. On the SPCE surface, monoclonal antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) hemagglutinin (HA) protein or SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were coated to capture the target antigens, which then interacted with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled detection antibody to form an immuno-sandwich complex. The results showed that the MEIA exhibited a broader linear range than ELISA and comparable sensitivity for A(H1N1) HA and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The detection results on 79 clinical samples for A(H1N1) suggested that the proposed MEIA platform showed comparable results with ELISA in sensitivity (with a positive rate of 100% for positive samples) but higher specificity, with a false-positive rate of 5.4% for negative samples versus that of 40.5% with ELISA. Thus, it offers great potential for the on-the-spot differential diagnosis of infected patients, which would significantly benefit the efficient control and prevent the spread of these infectious diseases in communities or resource-limited regions in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130191PMC
May 2021

Elastography for the differential diagnosis of malignant versus benign testicular lesions: a meta-analysis.

Ultrasonography 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Second Clinical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant testicular lesions.

Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies. The diagnostic accuracy of elastography was evaluated using pooled sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, post-test probability, diagnostic odds ratio, and by summarizing the area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve.

Results: Seven studies with 568 lesions were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 87% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81% to 92%) and 81% (95% CI, 65% to 90%), respectively. The pooled estimates of the positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 4.48 (95% CI, 2.37 to 8.47), 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.25), and 28.11 (95% CI, 11.39 to 69.36), respectively. The area under the HSROC curve was 90% (95% CI, 88% to 93%).

Conclusion: Elastography is useful for assessing the stiffness of testicular lesions and for differentiating benign from malignant lesions. Elastography can be an effective supplement to conventional ultrasonography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.20191DOI Listing
February 2021

Graphene-Based Polarization-Independent Mid-Infrared Electro-Absorption Modulator Integrated in a Chalcogenide Glass Waveguide.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 8;16(1):80. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China.

A polarization-insensitive graphene-based mid-infrared optical modulator is presented that comprised SiO/ GeSbS, in which two graphene layers are embedded with a semiellipse layout to support transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizing modes with identical absorption. The key performance index for the polarization independent modulator is polarization-sensitivity loss (PSL). The waveguide of our device just supports basic TE and TM modes, and the PSL between two modes is of < 0.24 dB. The model can offer extinction ratio (ER) more than 16 dB and insertion loss less than 1 dB. The operation spectrum ranges from 2 to 2.4 μm with optical bandwidth of 400 nm. The 3 dB modulation bandwidth is as high as 136 GHz based on theoretical calculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03538-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106561PMC
May 2021

Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from Marine-Derived Fungus sp. IMCASMF180035.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

School of Ocean Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China.

Four new secondary metabolites, including one [anthracenone-xanthene] derivative aspergiloxathene A (), one penicillide analogue, Δ-1'-dehydropenicillide (), and two new phthalide derivatives, 5-methyl-3-methoxyepicoccone () and 7-carboxy-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-5-methylphthalide (), together with four known compounds, yicathin C (), dehydropenicillide (), 3-methoxyepicoccone (), 4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-5-methylphthalide (), were identified from the marine-derived fungus sp. IMCASMF180035. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data, including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Compound was identified as the first jointed molecule by xanthene and anthracenone moieties possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton with spiro-ring system. All compounds were evaluated activities against , methicillin resistant (MRSA), , , , and Compound showed significant inhibitory effects against and MRSA, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 5.60 and 22.40 µM. Compounds and exhibited potent antibacterial activities against , with MIC values of 21.73 and 21.61 µM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066187PMC
April 2021

Microporous Layer Containing CeO-Doped 3D Graphene Foam for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells at Varying Operating Conditions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 25;13(17):20201-20212. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

To improve the interfacial mass-transfer efficiency, microporous layers (MPLs) containing CeO nanorods and the CeO nano-network were prepared for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In order to minimize the contact resistance, the three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam (3D-GF) was used as the carrier for the deposition of CeO nanorods and the nano-network. The CeO-doped 3D-GF anchored at the interface between the catalyst layer and microporous layer manufactured several novel functional protrusions. To evaluate the electrochemical property, the normal MPL, the MPL containing raw 3D-GF, and MPLs containing different kinds of CeO-doped 3D-GF were used to assemble the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). Measurements show that the CeO-doped 3D-GF improved the reaction kinetics of the cathode effectively. In addition, the hydrophilic CeO-doped 3D-GF worked as the water receiver to prevent the dehydration of MEAs at dry operating condition. Besides, at a high current density or humid operating condition, the CeO-doped 3D-GF provided the pathway for water removal. Compared with the CeO nanorods, the CeO nano-network on 3D-GF revealed a higher adaptability at varying operating conditions. Hence, such composition and structure design of MPL is a promising strategy for the optimization of high-performance PEMFCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03699DOI Listing
May 2021

A Supported Pd Dual-Atom Site Catalyst for Efficient Electrochemical CO Reduction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 6;60(24):13388-13393. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China.

Dual-atom site catalysts (DACs) have emerged as a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis because the synergistic effect between adjacent metal atoms can promote their catalytic activity while maintaining the advantages of single-atom site catalysts (SACs), like 100 % atomic utilization efficiency and excellent selectivity. Herein, a supported Pd DAC was synthesized and used for electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CO RR) for the first time. The as-obtained Pd DAC exhibited superior CO RR catalytic performance with 98.2 % CO faradic efficiency at -0.85 V vs. RHE, far exceeding that of Pd SAC, and coupled with long-term stability. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the intrinsic reason for the superior activity of Pd DAC toward CO RR was the electron transfer between Pd atoms at the dimeric Pd sites. Thus, Pd DAC possessed moderate adsorption strength of CO*, which was beneficial for CO production in CO RR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101559DOI Listing
June 2021

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomal microRNA-143 Promotes Apoptosis and Suppresses Cell Growth in Pancreatic Cancer via Target Gene Regulation.

Front Genet 2021 12;12:581694. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of General Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of hsa-miR-143-3p and lncRNA RP11-363N22.3-functioning upstream of -in exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Western blotting and quantitative PCR were used to determine gene expression. , cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle and invasion were evaluated using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transwell assays, respectively. , the effect of hsa-miR143-3p was investigated using a tumorigenesis test in nude mice. The association between hsa-miR-143-3p and lncRNA RP11-363N22.3 was investigated using the dual-luciferase assay.

Results: hsa-miR-143-3p expression significantly increased in hMSC exosomes than in those in human pancreatic cancer cell line (CFPAC-1) exosomes. , compared to the MOCK (CFPAC-1 only) group, cell proliferation and invasion were inhibited and apoptosis was induced in the inhibitor NC (CFPAC-1 + MSC-hsa-miR-3p inhibitor NC) group, while these changes were reversed in the inhibitor (CFPAC-1 + MSC-hsa-miR-3p inhibitor) group. The expression of lncRNA RP11-363N22.3 and genes related to miR-143 significantly decreased in the inhibitor NC group compared to the MOCK group, and increased in the inhibitor group compared to inhibitor NC group. A targeted combinatorial effect was observed between lncRNA RP11-363N22.3 and hsa-miR-143-3p. , the tumor volume of the mimics (CFPAC-1 + MSC-hsa-miR-143-3p mimics) group was smaller than that of the mimics NC (CFPAC-1 + MSC-hsa-miR-143-3p mimics NC) and MOCK groups. H&E staining showed that there were no obvious pathological changes in MOCK and mimic NC groups, while cell necrosis was seen in some regions in mimic groups.

Conclusion: hsa-miR-143-3p may promote apoptosis and suppress cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.581694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907650PMC
February 2021

The Raphe Dopamine System: Roles in Salience Encoding, Memory Expression, and Addiction.

Trends Neurosci 2021 May 8;44(5):366-377. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), Beijing 102206, China; Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing 102206, China; School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Dopamine (DA) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) were traditionally viewed as an extension of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA population. While the VTA DA population is known to play important roles in reward processing, emerging evidence now supports the view that DRN DA neurons are a specialized midbrain DA subsystem that performs distinct functions in parallel to the VTA DA population. Recent studies have shed new light on the roles of DRN DA neurons in encoding incentive salience and in regulating memory expression and arousal. Here, we review recent findings using mouse models about the physiology and behavioral functions of DRN DA neurons, highlight the engagement of DRN DA neurons and their upstream circuits in opioid addiction, and discuss emerging lines of investigation that reveal multifaceted heterogeneity among DRN DA neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2021.01.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Is polycystic ovary syndrome appropriately diagnosed by obstetricians and gynaecologists across China: a nationwide survey.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Feb 3;14(1):25. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No.1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, 100730, Beijing, China.

Background: To describe the diagnostic criteria used and their application accuracy in the practice of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) caring among obstetricians and gynaecologists across China.

Methods: This was an Online cross-sectional survey of Obstetricians and gynecologists involved in PCOS caring conducted via the largest continuing education platform of obstetrics and gynecology across China from September 2019 to November 2019.

Results: A total of 2,328 respondents were eligible for the final analysis. Of these, 94.5 % were general obstetricians and gynaecologists (Ge-ObGyn), and 5.5 % were reproductive endocrinologists (Re-ObGyn). Overall, the most frequently used criteria were the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (AE-PCOS) criteria (48.2 %), followed by the Rotterdam criteria (35.7 %) and NIH criteria (12.1 %). Of the respondents, 31.3 % used their diagnostic criteria in their clinical practice. More respondents who chose the Rotterdam criteria could accurately apply the diagnostic criteria than those who chose the AE-PCOS criteria (41.2 % vs. 32.1 %, P < 0.001). Compared with Ge-ObGyn, Re-ObGyn were less likely to use the AE-PCOS criteria (adjusted odds ratio, 0.513; 95 % CI, 0.328-0.802; P < 0.05) and 1.492 times more likely to accurately use their criteria (95 % CI, 1.014-2.196; P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Less than one-third of obstetricians and gynaecologists across China could accurately use the diagnostic criteria they choose to diagnose PCOS. There is an urgent need to train obstetricians and gynaecologists on PCOS diagnosis in an effort to improve the medical care quality of patients with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00780-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860004PMC
February 2021

Highly linear wavelength-tunable microring-assisted Mach-Zehnder modulator.

Appl Opt 2021 Jan;60(2):250-256

This paper proposes a wavelength-tunable microring-assisted Mach-Zehnder modulator (MRAMZM) based on the graphene structure. The integrated graphene on the racetrack microring achieves the tunability of the working wavelength and introduces the one-cycle loss of the microring corresponding to the working wavelength. Through the analysis of the modulation characteristic curve with loss, it is determined to eliminate the second- and third-order nonlinearities. The graphene-embedded asymmetric coupling structure is used to control the coupling efficiency, and finally, the linearity of the device in the range of 2 nm (1.5543 to 1.5562 µm) is improved. The simulation result shows that when the working wavelength is in this range, the spurious-free dynamic range third-order intermodulation distortion of this modulator is about 114⋅.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.412230DOI Listing
January 2021

[Correlation between water state and texture during moistening of Paeoniae Radix Alba by LF-NMR/MRI].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Oct;45(20):4882-4888

Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nanchang 330004, China the National Pharmaceutical Engineering Center for Solid Preparation in Chinese Herbal Medicine Nanchang 330006, China.

The changes of active ingredients content, moisture status and texture characteristics during the moistening of Paeoniae Radix Alba were studied by low-field NMR and imaging(LF-NMR/MRI) and texture analyzer, so as to analyze the correlation between LF-NMR parameters, texture characteristics and active ingredient content of Paeoniae Radix Alba during the moistening at diffe-rent times. The results showed that MRI technology could directly, vividly and accurately characterize the degree of moistening and the process of water migration, and the degree of moistening was consistent with the judgment results of traditional experience. The characteristics of moisture migration and moisture phase state in the moistening process of Paeoniae Radix Alba were that the total water content increased and existed in the form of free water, with an increased moisture mobility. In the case of dampening, the total water content did not increase, but the more watery part of the medicinal material was distributed to the less watery part, with a reduced fluidity. Finally, the medicinal materials were moistened, which can be mutually verified with the MRI results. The free water content and the total water content of Paeoniae Radix Alba had extremely negative correlations with hardness, surface toughness, internal toughness, Paeoniflorin and albiflorin contents(P<0.01). It showed that the use of LF-NMR/MRI and texture analyzer could better characterize the moistening process. It provides data characterization for the scientific connotation of "less soaking and more moisturizing, and the drug is completely saturated with water", and the traditional experience of "observing the water head". The feasible and objective evaluation method was helpful to optimize the softening process parameters, scientifically standardize the operating specifications, define the scienti-fic connotation of traditional Chinese medicine softening, and promote the inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200522.303DOI Listing
October 2020

Silver Single-Atom Catalyst for Efficient Electrochemical CO Reduction Synthesized from Thermal Transformation and Surface Reconstruction.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 29;60(11):6170-6176. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

We report an Ag single-atom catalyst (Ag /MnO ), which was synthesized from thermal transformation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and surface reconstruction of MnO . The evolution process of Ag NPs to single atoms is firstly revealed by various techniques, including in situ ETEM, in situ XRD and DFT calculations. The temperature-induced surface reconstruction process from the MnO (211) to (310) lattice plane is critical to firmly confine the existing surface of Ag single atoms; that is, the thermal treatment and surface reconstruction of MnO is the driving force for the formation of single Ag atoms. The as-obtained Ag /MnO achieved 95.7 % Faradic efficiency at -0.85 V vs. RHE, and coupled with long-term stability for electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CO RR). DFT calculations indicated single Ag sites possessed high electronic density close to Fermi Level and could act exclusively as the active sites in the CO RR. As a result, the Ag /MnO catalyst demonstrated remarkable performance for the CO RR, far surpassing the conventional Ag nanosized catalyst (Ag /MnO ) and other reported Ag-based catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202014718DOI Listing
March 2021

Mechanisms and Future of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2020 11;10:585284. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Lung cancer, renowned for its fast progression and metastatic potency, is rising to become a leading cause of death globally. It has been long observed that lung cancer is particularly ept in spawning distant metastasis at its early stages, and it can readily colonize virtually any human organ. In recent years, cancer research has shed light on why lung cancer is endowed with its exceptional ability to metastasize. In this review, we will take a comprehensive look at the current research on lung cancer metastasis, including molecular pathways, anatomical features and genetic traits that make lung cancer intrinsically metastatic, as we go from lung cancer's general metastatic potential to the particular metastasis mechanisms in multiple organs. We highly concerned about the advanced discovery and development of lung cancer metastasis, indicating the importance of lung cancer specific gene mutations, heterogeneity or biomarker discovery, and discussing potential opportunities and challenges. We will also introduce some current treatments that targets certain metastatic strategies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Advances made in these regards could be critical to our current knowledge base of lung cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.585284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686569PMC
November 2020

miR‑31 promotes tumorigenesis in ulcerative colitis‑associated neoplasia via downregulation of SATB2.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Dec 8;22(6):4801-4809. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, P.R. China.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) features chronic, non-infectious inflammation of the colon. The risk of ulcerative colitis‑associated neoplasia (UCAN) increases in direct association with the duration of this disease. Whether miRNAs exert a regulatory effect on the pathogenesis of UCAN has remained to be elucidated. In the present study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) were identified using bioinformatics analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Enrichment analyses were performed to determine the function of the DEGs. The target genes of key miRNAs were predicted using miRWalk. Validation of DEGs and miRNAs in patients with UC, UC with low‑grade dysplasia and UC with high‑grade dysplasia (UC‑HGD) was performed using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR analysis. A total of 38 differentially expressed miRNAs and 307 mRNAs were identified from the profiles and miR‑31 was validated as being overexpressed in UCAN tissues, particularly in the UC‑HGD samples. Furthermore, special AT‑rich DNA‑binding protein 2 (SATB2) was validated as a target gene of miR‑31 and SATB2 expression was negatively correlated with miR‑31 expression. Therefore, miR‑31 is upregulated in UCAN and it may promote tumorigenesis through downregulation of SATB2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646903PMC
December 2020

Co-exposure of serum calcium, selenium and vanadium is nonlinearly associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 26;263:128021. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China; Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Diseases, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China; Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China; Guangxi Key Laboratory for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Metals play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to explore the association of T2DM risk with single metal exposure and multi-metal co-exposure.

Methods: A case-control study with 223 T2DM patients and 302 controls was conducted. Serum concentrations of 19 metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Those metals with greater effects were screened out and co-exposure effects of metals were assessed by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression.

Results: Serum calcium (Ca), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were found with greater effects. Higher levels of Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 2.23, 95%CI: 1.38-3.62, P = 0.002; OR = 3.16, 95%CI: 1.82-5.50, P < 0.001), but higher V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk (OR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.34-0.97, P < 0.001). Serum Ca and V concentrations were nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk (P < 0.001, P < 0.001); however, Se concentration was linearly associated with T2DM risk (P < 0.001, P = 0.389). High co-exposure score of serum Ca, Se and V was associated with increased T2DM risk (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 2.08-5.89, P < 0.001) as a non-linear relationship (P < 0.001, P = 0.003).

Conclusions: This study suggest that higher levels of serum Ca and Se were associated with increased T2DM risk, but higher serum V level was associated with decreased T2DM risk. Moreover, co-exposure of serum Ca, Se and V was nonlinearly associated with T2DM risk, and high co-exposure score was positively associated with T2DM risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128021DOI Listing
January 2021

Anticancer effects of miR-124 delivered by BM-MSC derived exosomes on cell proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and chemotherapy sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Oct 11;12(19):19660-19676. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Department of General Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University Medical School, Shanghai 200065, China.

Objective: This study aims to explore the roles of miR-124 in pancreatic tumor and potential vehicles.

Results: The miR-124 expression levels decreased in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues and cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC1, BxPC-3 and SW1990. Furthermore, the elevated expression of miR-124 in AsPC-1 and PANC1 miR-124 mimic transfection-induced apoptosis, metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition was suppressed, and the EZH2 overexpression partly reversed the protective effects of miR-124 against pancreatic tumors. In addition, the expression of miR-124 was detected in exosomes extracted from miR-124-transfected BM-MSCs, and these exosomes delivered miR-124 into pancreatic cancer cells, and presented the anti-tumor effects and .

Conclusion: MiR-124-carried BM-MSC-derived exosomes have potential applications for the treatment of pancreatic tumors.

Methods: The expression of miR-124 and EZH2 was determined in both pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. miR-124 or EZH2 was overexpressed in AsPC-1 and PANC1 cells. Then, the effects on cell viability. apoptosis, invasion, migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition were evaluated. Afterwards, the roles of miR-124 on the expression and function of EZH2 in pancreatic tumors were determined by dual luciferase reporter assay. Subsequently, miR-124 was transfected to bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), and the BM-MSCs derived exosomes were isolated and co-cultured with AsPC-1 and PANC1 cells, or injected into pancreatic cancer tumor-bearing mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732307PMC
October 2020

The HY5 and MYB15 transcription factors positively regulate cold tolerance in tomato via the CBF pathway.

Plant Cell Environ 2020 11 15;43(11):2712-2726. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The induction of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs) is crucial for plant survival at low temperatures. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate CBF transcription is vital for the future development of crops with increased cold tolerance. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5)-MYB15-CBFs transcriptional cascade that plays a crucial role in the cold response in tomato. The exposure of tomato plants to cold (4°C) increased the levels of HY5, MYB15 and CBFs transcripts. Moreover, mutations in HY5 or MYB15 decreased the levels of CBF transcripts. In contrast, overexpression of HY5 or MYB15 increased CBF transcript abundance. Crucially, the HY5 transcription factor activated the expression of MYB15 by directly binding to the promoter region, while both HY5 and MYB15 activated the expression of CBF1, CBF2 and CBF3. Taken together, these data show that HY5 can directly regulate CBF transcript levels, and also influence CBF expression indirectly via MYB15. The coordinated action of HY5 and MYB15 allows precise regulation of CBF expression and subsequent cold tolerance. These findings provide an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms affording transcriptional regulation of CBFs, which can be exploited in the future to enhance cold tolerance in crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13868DOI Listing
November 2020

Dimeric hexylitaconic acids from the marine-derived fungus CUGBMF180262.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jul 15:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Ocean Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, P. R. China.

In the course of our efforts to search new secondary metabolites from marine-derived fungi, one new hexylitaconic acid derivative, 3-(5-methoxycarbonylpentyl)-4-methylfuran-2,5-dione (), and two dimeric analogues asperwelwinates A and B ( and ), together with ten known compounds, asperitaconic acid C (), kotanin () and orlandin (), desertorin B (), fonsecinone A (), aurasperone A (), asperpyrones B and C (nd ), aspernigrin B (), and pyrophen (), were isolated from a strain of CUGBMF180262. The structures of compounds were determined by detailed analysis of HRMS, and 1D/2D NMR experiments, while the absolute configurations of and were determined by comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. and were first reported dimeric hexylitaconic acid derivatives. Compounds , and showed moderate antibacterial activities against with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 16 μg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1793152DOI Listing
July 2020

Light-induced HY5 Functions as a Systemic Signal to Coordinate the Photoprotective Response to Light Fluctuation.

Plant Physiol 2020 10 14;184(2):1181-1193. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Horticulture, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, People's Republic of China

Optimizing the photoprotection of different leaves as a whole is important for plants to adapt to fluctuations in ambient light conditions. However, the molecular basis of this leaf-to-leaf communication is poorly understood. Here, we used a range of techniques, including grafting, chlorophyll fluorescence, revers transcription quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, to explore the complexities of leaf-to-leaf light signal transmission and activation of the photoprotective response to light fluctuation in tomato (). We established that light perception in the top leaves attenuated the photoinhibition of both PSII and PSI by triggering photoprotection pathways in the bottom leaves. Local light promoted the accumulation and movement of LONG HYPOCOTYL5 from the sunlit local leaves to the systemic leaves, priming the photoprotective response of the latter to light fluctuation. By directly activating the transcription of and , LONG HYPOCOTYL5 induced cyclic electron flow, the xanthophyll cycle, and energy-dependent quenching. Our findings reveal a systemic signaling pathway and provide insight into an elaborate regulatory network, demonstrating a pre-emptive advantage in terms of the activation of photoprotection and, hence, the ability to survive in a fluctuating light environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.20.00294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536661PMC
October 2020

Reward Contributions to Serotonergic Functions.

Annu Rev Neurosci 2020 07;43:141-162

National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China; email:

The brain serotonin systems participate in numerous aspects of reward processing, although it remains elusive how exactly serotonin signals regulate neural computation and reward-related behavior. The application of optogenetics and imaging techniques during the last decade has provided many insights. Here, we review recent progress on the organization and physiology of the dorsal raphe serotonin neurons and the relationships between their activity and behavioral functions in the context of reward processing. We also discuss several interesting theories on serotonin's function and how these theories may be reconciled by the possibility that serotonin, acting in synergy with coreleased glutamate, tracks and calculates the so-called beneficialness of the current state to guide an animal's behavior in dynamic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-093019-112252DOI Listing
July 2020

Antifungal Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by JZ-GX1 Against in × .

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:1114. Epub 2020 May 28.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Forestry, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microorganisms for the biological control of plant diseases has attracted much attention in recent years. In this study, the antifungal activity and identity of VOCs produced by JZ-GX1 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pine were determined and analyzed. The effect of the VOCs on the mycelial growth of , the pathogen of × black spot, was determined by a joined-petri dish fumigation method. An leaf inoculation method was used to determine the fumigation effect of the VOCs on black spot. VOCs with antifungal activity were collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and their components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the VOCs secreted by JZ-GX1 inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested pathogen. The VOCs destroyed the morphology of the mycelium, significantly increased the permeability of the cell membrane and downregulated the expression of pathogenicity-related genes during mycelial infection, thus inhibiting the expansion of anthracnose disease spots in leaves. In the volatile compound profile, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl methyl ether significantly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of . This work provides a new strategy for the research and application of microorganisms and bioactive compounds to control plant anthracnose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271530PMC
May 2020

Rhythmic light flicker rescues hippocampal low gamma and protects ischemic neurons by enhancing presynaptic plasticity.

Nat Commun 2020 06 15;11(1):3012. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Brain Research Centre and Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong Province, China.

The complex relationship between specific hippocampal oscillation frequency deficit and cognitive dysfunction in the ischemic brain is unclear. Here, using a mouse two-vessel occlusion (2VO) cerebral ischemia model, we show that visual stimulation with a 40 Hz light flicker drove hippocampal CA1 slow gamma and restored 2VO-induced reduction in CA1 slow gamma power and theta-low gamma phase-amplitude coupling, but not those of the high gamma. Low gamma frequency lights at 30 Hz, 40 Hz, and 50 Hz, but not 10 Hz, 80 Hz, and arrhythmic frequency light, were protective against degenerating CA1 neurons after 2VO, demonstrating the importance of slow gamma in cognitive functions after cerebral ischemia. Mechanistically, 40 Hz light flicker enhanced RGS12-regulated CA3-CA1 presynaptic N-type calcium channel-dependent short-term synaptic plasticity and associated postsynaptic long term potentiation (LTP) after 2VO. These results support a causal relationship between CA1 slow gamma and cognitive dysfunctions in the ischemic brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16826-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296037PMC
June 2020

Quercetin Suppresses AOM/DSS-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis through Its Anti-Inflammation Effects in Mice.

J Immunol Res 2020 21;2020:9242601. Epub 2020 May 21.

The Department of Hematology, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of tumor-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we explored the in vivo effects of quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols with antioxidant effects, on colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS). Thirty mice were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group, the AOM/DSS group, and the quercetin+AOM/DSS group. CRC was induced by AOM injection and a solution of 2% DSS in the drinking water. In the AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer mice model, quercetin treatment dramatically reduced the number and size of colon tumors. In addition, quercetin significantly restored the leukocyte counts by decreasing the inflammation caused by AOM/DSS. We also observed that the expression of oxidative stress markers, such as lipid peroxide (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PD), and glutathione (GSH), could be reduced by quercetin, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory function of quercetin comes from its antioxidant effect. Moreover, potential biomarkers were identified with serum metabolite profiling. Increased levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, and 2-oxobutyrate and decreased levels of gentian violet, indole-3-methyl acetate, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl were also found in the AOM/DSS-treated mice. However, quercetin treatment successfully decreased the levels of 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-aminobutyrate, 2-oxobutyrate, endocannabinoids, and sphinganine and increased the levels of gentian violet, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, indoxyl sulfate, and indoxyl. Together, our data demonstrated that quercetin could maintain relatively potent antitumor activities against colorectal cancer in vivo through its anti-inflammation effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9242601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260625PMC
March 2021