Publications by authors named "Rui Kano"

192 Publications

Antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes from racehorses in Japan.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Luliconazole (LCZ) is an imidazole antifungal medication that exhibits excellent activity against dermatophytes. As a topical cream and lotion (approved for human use), LCZ has demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity against human dermatophytoses.

Objectives: This is the first study to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates from horse dermatophytoses to LCZ.

Animals: No animals were used in this study.

Methods And Materials: In the present study, the in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of dermatophytes to LCZ, clotrimazole (CTZ), miconazole (MCZ) and terbinafine (TRF) were investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 test.

Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all 16 clinical isolates of Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum equinum/canis and M. gypseum for LCZ were <0.03 mg/L. The MICs of all isolates were <0.03-0.5 mg/L for CTZ, 0.03-16 mg/L for MCZ and <0.03-1 mg/L for TRF.

Conclusions: LCZ demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity against clinical isolates from horse dermatophytoses. We consider that LCZ will become the primary antifungal agent for treating horse dermatophytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12993DOI Listing
June 2021

Isolation of antifungal-resistant yeasts from bulk milk in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 9;83(7):1090-1092. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, 1866 Kameino, Fusisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan.

We isolated ascomycetous yeasts including Candida species, that originally belonged to the genus Candida, from bulk milk in the Aichi area of Japan, and determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal drugs on these isolates by conducting E-tests. We isolated 7 human pathogenic species (14 isolates) from 14 bulk milk samples: 5 Candida species of yeasts, and 2 Candida-related species. Two isolates of C. albicans and C. inconspicua were resistant to fluconazole (MIC >32 mg/l). One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to both azoles (fluconazole: >256 mg/ml and itraconazole: 4 mg/l). One isolate of C. catenulata might be resistant to amphotericin B (>32 mg/l).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.21-0023DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid Molecular Detection of Terbinafine-resistant Dermatophytes.

Med Mycol J 2021 ;62(2):41-44

Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology.

Terbinafine (TRF)-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton rubrum have been isolated from human patients. These strains have missense mutations (Leu393Ser/Phe or Phe397Leu) in the squalene epoxidase-encoding gene, SQLE. We developed a PCR detection method to identify hotspot mutation sites in SQLE genes of dermatophytes. To sequence hotspots in isolates, we prepared primers based on conserved sequences of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale SQLEs. Approximately 390-bp long DNA bands for T. rubrum, T. interdigitale, and Trichophyton indotineae strains were sequenced. Hotspots were detected only in TRF-resistant strains. This PCR-based method is simpler and more rapid than the conventional test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3314/mmj.21-00001DOI Listing
January 2021

The Clonal Population of Trichophyton equinum from Dermatophytoses of Japanese Racehorses.

Mycopathologia 2021 Jun 26;186(3):435-439. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Trichophyton equinum is a zoophilic dermatophyte that is frequently isolated from horse dermatophytosis and rare infections in humans. In the present study, molecular and physiological testing were performed on T. equinum isolates from dermatophytoses of Japanese racehorses to assess genotype and phenotype patterns of these strains. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences amplified from all Japanese isolates were 99.5% identical to T. equinum reference strains. ITS sequences amplified among the isolates were 100% (BT2) showed that isolates were 100% identical and harbored a "T" single nucleotide polymorphism at position 18. The sequences of β-tubulin (BT2) showed that isolates were 100% identical to T. equinum reference strains. The MAT1-2 allele was detected by PCR in all seven isolates, whereas none of the isolates contained the MAT1-1 allele. All isolates grew only on Trichophyton Agar 5 and did not grow on Trichophyton Agar 1 and 4, indicating nicotinic acid requirement. These results suggest that Japanese T. equinum isolates are derived from a clonal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-021-00561-1DOI Listing
June 2021

First isolation of from a horse with dermatophytosis in Japan.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2021 Jun 29;32:81-83. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

is a zoophilic dermatophyte that has been rarely isolated from horses and humans in Africa and Europe. This is the first reported isolation of from a horse with dermatophytosis in Japan. The isolate from a skin lesion formed a cream-colored and waxy colony that was slightly elevated in the center. Sequencing of the internal transcribe spacer region of the isolate revealed that it was 100% identical to that of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2021.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113804PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of the usefulness of cystic duct three-dimensional computed tomography with non-contrast for before laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage in comparison to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

J Med Imaging Radiat Sci 2021 Jun 24;52(2):248-256. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Radiology, Fuji City General Hospital, 50 Takashima-cho, Fuji City, Shizuoka 417-8567, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether anatomical variations of the cystic duct and accessory bile duct can be grasped by cystic duct three-dimensional (3D)-computed tomography (CT) using non-contrast CT and to examine the possibility of omitting magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).

Methods: Of patients who underwent non-contrast abdominal CT between May and October 2019, those who underwent MRCP within 1 month before and afterwards were targeted. Seven assessors visually evaluated the cystic duct 3D-CT images on a 5-point scale. Average scores of ≥3 and <3 points were assigned as the good and poor groups, respectively. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed inside the cystic duct and four places around it, and the CT values in those ROIs were measured. The CT value difference was calculated by subtracting the surrounding CT values from the CT value in the cystic duct and converting the result to an absolute value. The CT value difference was classified into good and poor groups, and statistical analysis was performed. Seven assessors evaluated anatomical variations of the cystic duct and the presence of the accessory bile duct. The results were compared with the MRCP interpretation results to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.

Results: The average visual evaluation score was 3.8. The good and poor groups were comprised by 53 (85.5%) and 9 (14.5%) patients, respectively. The CT difference value averages were 54.7 and 15.9 for the good and poor groups, respectively, and the value was significantly higher in the good group (p = 0.001). The comparison results with MRCP were sensitivity=83.3%, specificity=78.0%, positive predictive value=47.6%, and negative predictive value=95.1%.

Conclusion: Cystic duct 3D-CT using non-contrast CT is a useful technique for understanding anatomical variations of the cystic duct and accessory bile duct. Our method may reduce the number of MRCP sessions performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2021.03.037DOI Listing
June 2021

Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum successfully treated with fosravuconazole.

J Dermatol 2021 Jul 15;48(7):e331-e332. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15901DOI Listing
July 2021

ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Proteins in Highly Terbinafine-resistant Strains of Trichophyton indotineae (Former Species Name: Trichophyton interdigitale).

Authors:
Rui Kano

Med Mycol J 2021 ;62(1):21-25

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences.

To clarify the terbinafine (TRF) resistance mechanism in highly TRF-resistant [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32 μg/mL] strains of Trichophyton indotineae (NUBS19006 and NUBS19007), we investigated the expression of squalene epoxidase (SQLE), pleiotropic drug resistance 1 (PDR1), multidrug resistance 2 (MDR2), and MDR4 genes by real-time quantitative PCR analysis, given the known interaction of the corresponding proteins with antifungals and the efflux blocker tacrolimus (FK506). SQLE, PDR1, MDR2, and MDR4 transcript levels in TRF-resistant strains cultured in SDB were not significantly higher than those of the respective genes in TRF-susceptible strains (1 and 10). By contrast, PDR1, MDR2, and MDR4 transcript levels in TRF-resistant and TRF-susceptible strains cultured in SDB containing 10 μg/mL TRF were 5-100 times higher than those of the respective genes in strains grown in the absence of TRF. However, no differences in PDR1, MDR2, and MDR4 transcript levels were found between TRF-resistant (NUBS19006 and NUBS19007) and TRF-susceptible strains cultured in SDB containing 10 μg/mL TRF. The interaction between TRF and FK506 on antifungal activity was not detected in TRF-resistant strains. These results indicate that ATP-dependent efflux pumps do not confer TRF-resistance mechanisms in TRF-resistant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3314/mmj.20-00014DOI Listing
January 2021

Extensive tinea corporis caused by a virulent strain of Trichophyton interdigitale.

J Dermatol 2021 Apr 18;48(4):e190-e191. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15793DOI Listing
April 2021

Epidemiological study of terbinafine-resistant dermatophytes isolated from Japanese patients.

J Dermatol 2021 Apr 13;48(4):564-567. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

Terbinafine (TRF) has been used in the treatment of fungal infections for more than 20 years. Recently, TRF-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale and T. rubrum strains have been isolated from human patients worldwide. However, an epidemiological study of TRF-resistant strains in Japanese patients has not been investigated. In the present study, antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on clinical isolates from Japanese patients to assess TRF-resistance patterns of T. interdigitale and T. rubrum strains. We also sequenced the squalene epoxidase (SQLE) encoding gene of TRF-resistant T. rubrum strains. Two hundred and ten T. interdigitale and T. rubrum clinical isolates were obtained from 210 human cases of tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea unguium, tinea cruris, tinea manuum, tinea faciei and tinea capitis in Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Hyogo and Kumamoto, Japan, in 2020. Five T. rubrum isolates (N74, N79, N99, H30 and K2) grew on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) containing 1 mg/L of TRF. All five strains exhibited TRF minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≥32 mg/L but remained susceptible to azoles. We determined SQLE sequences in these TRF-resistant T. rubrum strains and found that all strains harbored missense mutations (L393F) in the SQLE-encoding gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15745DOI Listing
April 2021

Ungual hyalohyphomycosis caused by .

Clin Case Rep 2020 Dec 5;8(12):3533-3538. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences Kumamoto University Kumamoto Japan.

onychomycosis is uncommon in the temperate climate zone of Japan. Based on the morphological characteristics and a gene analysis, we diagnosed a patient with ungual hyalohyphomycosis caused by belonging to the complex. This intractable disease was cured by 6-month treatment with efinaconazole 10% solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752399PMC
December 2020

Protothecosis in Dogs and Cats-New Research Directions.

Mycopathologia 2021 Mar 18;186(1):143-152. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University School of Veterinary Medicine, 1866, Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Protothecosis refers to disease of humans and animals caused by infection with fungus-like, colourless microalgae of the genus Prototheca. Although protothecosis remains an uncommon infection, increasing numbers of human and animal cases are being diagnosed worldwide. This review summarises major new findings in basic science (sequencing analyses of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51/ERG11) genes and organelle genomes of Prototheca wickerhamii) to elucidate taxonomic features of this pathogen. Furthermore, this review updates and summarises the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of protothecosis in dogs and cats. This content of this review is based on information presented at the medical phycology symposium held in the 20th Congress of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology ( https://www.isham.org/ ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00508-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Antifungal drugs-low-susceptibility in Aspergillus flavus isolated from a captively reared Okinawa rail (Hypotaenidia okinawae).

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jan 13;83(1):28-30. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Yambaru Wildlife Conservation Center, Ministry of the Environment, 1-15-15 Higawa, Naha, Okinawa 900-0022, Japan.

A four-month old female Okinawa rail (Hypotaenidia okinawae) presented with respiratory distress. Despite antifungal treatment with voriconazole (VRZ), micafungin (MCF), and itraconazole (ITZ), respiratory distress did not improve and the bird died 167 days after initiating treatment. Necropsy revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous necrotic nodular lesions with numerous whitish-green fungal hyphae in the left air sac. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the left air sac lesion. Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that the isolate showed low susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLZ), VRZ and MCF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870398PMC
January 2021

Fosravuconazole to treat severe onychomycosis in the elderly.

J Dermatol 2021 Feb 25;48(2):228-231. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Fosravuconazole is a novel oral antifungal drug developed in Japan and used to treat tinea unguium since 2018. Its excellent oral absorbability and systemic bioavailability has enabled short-duration therapy of 3 months. Furthermore, no concomitant drugs are contraindicated due to the presence of the mild inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzyme which is responsible for polypharmacy adverse effects. Therefore, it can be safely administrated to elderly patients. Elderly patients (≥65 years old) with severe onychomycosis (≥50% nail involvement) were treated with oral fosravuconazole 100 mg once daily for 12 weeks. The rate of involvement improved from 86.6% to 28.1% (P < 0.01). The efficacy (i.e. percentage of those rated as "improved" and better) and cure rate was 83.8% (31/37) and 29.7% (11/37), respectively. Furthermore, when focusing on the thin nail group (<3 mm), the efficacy and cure rate was 88.2% (15/17) and 58.8% (10/17), respectively. Although the serum γ-glutamyltransferase levels increased in 21.6% (8/37), all patients recovered without any specific treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15651DOI Listing
February 2021

Granulomatous polyarthritis caused by in a dog.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2020 Nov 1;32(6):912-917. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

North Lab, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

A 6-y-old, 3.5-kg, spayed female Toy Poodle was presented with left forelimb lameness of 2-d duration. Two months before the initial presentation, radiography showed osteolysis of the medial epicondyle of the left humerus, and the left forelimb was amputated. Grossly, the articular villi of the elbow joint were markedly thickened, and the articular cartilage surfaces of the distal humerus and proximal radius had partial erosion. Histologically, granulomatous arthritis and osteomyelitis characterized by the presence of abundant macrophages containing numerous fungi were observed. ITS and β-tubulin sequences amplified from the isolate from the specimen were 100% and 99% identical to type strain UTHSC D16-145 of , respectively. Canine osteoarthritis caused by has not been reported previously, to our knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638720957964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649545PMC
November 2020

Tinea manuum caused by Trichophyton erinacei.

J Dermatol 2020 Sep 29;47(9):e344-e345. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15477DOI Listing
September 2020

Non-dermatophyte Mould Onychomycosis in Japan.

Med Mycol J 2020 ;61(2):23-31

Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University.

The incidence of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis has been increasing worldwide for the past several decades, but it is not well recognized in Japan. Recent molecular techniques and phylogenetic analyses contributed to the identification of uncommon and emerging species. We came across 13 (0.5%) cases of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis among a total of 2,591 onychomycosis cases in 106,703 outpatients during the past 5 years (January 2015-December 2019). The cases included 5 patients with Aspergillus species, 4 patients with Fusarium species, and one patient each with Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Botryosphaeria dothidea, respectively. Botryosphaeria dothidea is closely related phylogenetically to Neoscytalidium dimidiatum. In Japan, at the time of writing this report, there are 26 reported cases of ungual aspergillosis and 18 cases of hyalohyphomycosis caused by Fusarium species. We summarize these cases and report the symptoms and mycological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3314/mmj.20-00007DOI Listing
August 2020

Trichophyton indotineae sp. nov.: A New Highly Terbinafine-Resistant Anthropophilic Dermatophyte Species.

Mycopathologia 2020 Dec 24;185(6):947-958. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

In this report, we describe the first isolation of two highly terbinafine (TRF)-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale-like strains from a Nepali patient and an Indian patient with tinea corporis in Japan. These strains (designated NUBS19006 and NUBS19007) exhibited a TRF minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 32 mg/L and contained a missense mutation (Phe397Leu) in squalene epoxidase (SQLE) gene. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences amplified from the isolates (NUBS19006 and NUBS19007) were 99.5% identical to Japanese isolates of T. interdigitale and T. interdigitale strain CBS 428.63. The homology of region sequences were also 97.6% identical to T. mentagrophytes strain CBS 318.56. Moreover, the ITS sequences amplified from the isolates were 100% identical to highly TRF-resistant strains of T. interdigitale, which were isolated in Delhi, India, and harbored mutations in SQLE. The urease test on Christensen's urease agar was positive for T. mentagrophytes and T. interdigitale after 7 days of incubation. On the other hand, the type strain of T. rubrum CBS 100081 and highly TRF-resistant strains (NUBS19006 and NUBS19007) were negative on Christensen urease agar after 7 and 14 days of incubation. Moreover, NUBS19006 and NUBS19007 were also negative reaction on the hair perforation test. To avoid confusion in the taxonomy of the T. mentagrophytes/T. interdigitale complex, we suggest that the highly TRF-resistant Indian strains be considered a new species independent of T. interdigitale, according to clinical and mycological features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-020-00455-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: still a potential pitfall in embolization.

Surg Radiol Anat 2020 Nov 15;42(11):1293-1298. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Fuji City General Hospital, 50 Takashimacho, Fuji-shi, Shizuoka, 417-8567, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the influence of ectopic origin of bronchial arteries (BAs) on bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis.

Methods: CT and angiography images of 50 consecutive sessions in 39 patients (aged 26-93 years; mean, 70.6 years) who underwent BAE for hemoptysis from April 2010 to December 2019 were reviewed. We defined ectopic BA as a systemic artery originating from other than the T5-T6 vertebral level of the descending aorta with course along the major bronchi. The background of patients, number of BAs, culprit arteries, and treatment outcomes were compared between the cases with and without ectopic BAs.

Results: Seventeen patients (43.6%) demonstrated 19 ectopic BAs, originating from the subclavian artery (n = 7), aortic arch above the T5-T6 level (n = 6), internal mammary artery (n = 3), brachiocephalic trunk (n = 2) or lower descending thoracic aorta (n = 1). Total number of BAs in the cases with ectopic BA was significantly greater than those in cases without ectopic BA (p = 0.0062). Required sessions of embolization were similar in the two groups. No procedure-related significant complications were noted; however, four ectopic BAs caused unexpected filling of contrast media or migration of the embolic material from the orthotopic BA to ectopic BA originating from the arch vessels via tiny communication.

Conclusion: Although BAE under the presence of ectopic BA is feasible and safe, detection of BAs with ectopic origin, even of small diameter, is needed to avoid risk of non-target coursing of embolic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-020-02495-7DOI Listing
November 2020

Systemic Inonotus sp. Infection in a dog.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Jun 4;82(6):779-783. Epub 2020 May 4.

Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.

A 3-years-old male golden retriever was presented for decreased activity (lethargy), anorexia, and titubation. Superficial lymph nodes were enlarged, and arrhythmia and tachycardia were auscultated. Fungal hyphae-like structures were detected in the biopsy samples from an enlarged lymph node and spleen. Nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungi amplified by PCR was highly homologous to that of Inonotus pachyphloeus. The dog was treated with antifungal agents such as itraconazole, fluconazole, and voriconazole. Clinical signs resolved for 325 days but the dog died suddenly, possibly because of arrhythmia. Postmortem examination revealed the presence of a disseminated fungal infection. This report describes the case of canine systemic Inonotus sp. infection treated by an antifungal agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324816PMC
June 2020

Feline sporotrichosis in Asia.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Mar 3;52(1):125-134. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato is currently recognized as a species complex with only Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa and Sporothrix pallida identified to cause disease in the cat. Feline sporotrichosis in Asia is mainly reported from Malaysia where a single clonal strain of clinical clade D, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto manifesting low susceptibility to major antifungal classes, has been identified as the agent of the disease. Sporothrix globosa has been identified to cause disease from a single cat in Japan while the specific species of agent has not been identified yet for the disease in Thailand. Despite efforts to elucidate and describe the pathogenicity of the agent and the disease it causes, the paucity of data highlights the need for further molecular epidemiological studies to characterize this fungus and the disease it causes in Asia. Its prognosis remains guarded to poor due to issues pertaining to cost, protracted treatment course, zoonotic potential and low susceptibility of some strains to antifungals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00274-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966660PMC
March 2021

Ungual hyalohyphomycosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum successfully treated with fosravuconazole.

J Dermatol 2020 Jul 28;47(7):e251-e253. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15358DOI Listing
July 2020

Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon cacaoliposimilis.

J Dermatol 2020 May 18;47(5):e193-e195. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15305DOI Listing
May 2020

Antifungal Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates and Artificially Produced Multi-azole-resistant Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii) to Ravuconazole.

Med Mycol J 2020 ;61(1):11-13

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Nihon University College of Bioresouce Sciences.

Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a newly available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that exhibits excellent activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii). The drug is also highly active against isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLCZ). In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility to ravuconazole (RVCZ) of Japanese clinical isolates and multi-azole-resistant strains of C. neoformans was investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 test. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the 14 clinical isolates and the multi-azole-resistant strains were 0.003125-0.125 mg/L and 0.25-0.5 mg/L for RVCZ, respectively. RVCZ is as effective as ITCZ and VRCZ for treating clinical isolates from cats and humans. Moreover, RVCZ is highly effective against multi-azole-resistant strains that encode a protein with a G344S substitution in ERG11. Consequently, RVCZ has considerable potential for use as a therapeutic agent for multi-azole resistant cryptococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3314/mmj.19-00016DOI Listing
August 2020

Case of tinea corporis due to terbinafine-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale.

J Dermatol 2020 Apr 28;47(4):e104-e105. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15243DOI Listing
April 2020

Biology, diagnosis and treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs and cats Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology.

Vet Dermatol 2020 Feb;31(1):28-74

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Background: The genus Malassezia is comprised of a group of lipophilic yeasts that have evolved as skin commensals and opportunistic cutaneous pathogens of a variety of mammals and birds.

Objectives: The objective of this document is to provide the veterinary community and other interested parties with current information on the ecology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts in dogs and cats.

Methods And Material: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to October 2018. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) Clinical Consensus Guideline committee provided guidance and oversight for this process. The document was presented at two international meetings of veterinary dermatology societies and one international mycology workshop; it was made available for comment on the WAVD website for a period of six months. Comments were shared with the GP electronically and responses incorporated into the final document.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: There has been a remarkable expansion of knowledge on Malassezia yeasts and their role in animal disease, particularly since the early 1990's. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs and cats has evolved from a disease of obscurity and controversy on its existence, to now being a routine diagnosis in general veterinary practice. Clinical signs are well recognised and diagnostic approaches are well developed. A range of topical and systemic therapies is known to be effective, especially when predisposing factors are identified and corrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12809DOI Listing
February 2020

In Vitro Ravuconazole Susceptibility of Anthropophilic Dermatophyte Strains Isolated from Japanese Patients.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2020 May 25;73(3):250-252. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Ochanomizu Institute for Medical Mycology and Allergology.

Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a new human anti-fungal azole drug available in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum agent that exhibits excellent activity against dermatophytes. In the present study, the in vitro RVCZ susceptibility of clinical isolates of anthropophilic dermatophytes, including Trichophyton interdigitale strains with either low susceptibility to itraconazole (ITCZ) or resistance to terbinafine (TEBR), was investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 test. The MICs of RCVZ for 20 clinical isolates of T. interdigitale were < 0.03125-0.125 mg/L; for 4 clinical isolates of T. rubrum, < 0.03125-0.0625 mg/L; and for 20 clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, < 0.03125 mg/L. Similarly, the MICs of RCVZ for the T. interdigitale strains with either low susceptibility to ITCZ or resistance to TEBR were also < 0.03125 mg/L. To our knowledge, this is first study to investigate the in vitro RVCZ susceptibility of T. interdigitale strains with either low susceptibility to ITCZ or resistance to TEBR. Our results indicated that RVCZ was the most effective drug against these strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2019.265DOI Listing
May 2020

In vitro algaecid effect of itraconazole and ravuconazole on Prototheca species.

Med Mycol 2020 Aug;58(6):845-847

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan.

Protothecosis is a rare infection in humans, dogs, and cats, and its causative agent is Prototheca species, which consists of achlorophyllic algae that are ubiquitous in natural environments and hosts intestinal flora. Ravuconazole (RVZ) is a new available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and broad-spectrum antifungal agent. In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of P. wickerhamii, P. zopfii, and P. blaschkeae to itraconazole (ITZ) voriconazole (VRZ), posaconazole (PCZ), and RVZ. RVZ was more potent than the other azoles against Protheca species and has considerable potential for use as a therapeutic agent for human and animal protothecosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myz119DOI Listing
August 2020
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