Publications by authors named "Rui Huang"

1,104 Publications

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Polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris prevent obesity in association with modulating gut microbiota and metabolites in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Food Res Int 2022 Jul 1;157:111197. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, College of Science & Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Improved gut microbes and nutritious metabolites have been considered as the mediators of health benefits from indigestible polysaccharides, but their role in the anti-obesity effect of polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris (CMP) remains elusive. This study aims to explore the potential mediators of the anti-obesity effects of CMP in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice using 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics analysis. The results showed that CMP supplementation in HFD-fed mice reduced body weight, fat accumulation, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and impaired glucose tolerance as well as gut barrier. Moreover, the CMP reversed the HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, as indicated by the elevated population of Alloprevotella, Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Alistipes; and decreased population of Negativebacillus, in addition to altered levels of metabolites, such as brassicasterol and 4'-O-methylkanzonol W. Notably, CMP prevented obesity in association with the altered gut microbes and metabolites. These findings suggest that CMP may serve as a potential prebiotic agent to modulate specific gut microbes and related metabolites, which play a critical role in its preventing obesity-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111197DOI Listing
July 2022

Advances in biomarkers and techniques for pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

Cancer Cell Int 2022 Jun 28;22(1):220. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China.

Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal type of malignancy and is characterized by high invasiveness without severe symptoms. It is difficult to detect PC at an early stage because of the low diagnostic accuracy of existing routine methods, such as abdominal ultrasound, CT, MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Therefore, it is of value to develop new diagnostic techniques for early detection with high accuracy. In this review, we aim to highlight research progress on novel biomarkers, artificial intelligence, and nanomaterial applications on the diagnostic accuracy of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-022-02640-9DOI Listing
June 2022

The latent period of coronavirus disease 2019 with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant of concern in the postvaccination era.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2022 Jul;10(7):e664

Department of Acute Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have resulted in new challenges for epidemic prevention and control worldwide. However, little is known about the latent period of coronavirus disease by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of concern (VOC) in the postvaccination era.

Methods: The epidemiology and clinical data of cases with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC infection were retrospective collected. Dates of the first positive PCR test were collected to estimate the distribution of latent period.

Results: Of the 40 patients, 16 were male (40%). The median age of patients was 47.5 years. The median latent period of patients was 6.0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4.0-9.0 days) and the longest latent period was 13.0 days after exposure. The latent periods were longer in male patients compared to female patients (median, 8.5 days vs. 5.0 days, p = .041). The median latent period was comparable among fully vaccinated cases (6.5 days), no vaccinated cases (7.5 days), and partially vaccinated cases (5.5 days).

Conclusions: The median latent period of SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC infection was 6.0 days. The latent period between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients was not significantly different. The 14-day quarantine program is sufficient to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 by Delta VOC in the postvaccination era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.664DOI Listing
July 2022

Tenofovir is superior to entecavir in reducing HCC for patients with HBV-related compensated cirrhosis at high HCC risk scores.

Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2022 21;13:20406223221102791. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

Background: Both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are known to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to compare the difference in HCC risk reduction between TDF and ETV in treatment-naïve patients with CHB-related compensated cirrhosis.

Methods: Patients with compensated cirrhosis initially treated with TDF or ETV at nine Chinese hospitals between June 2014 and March 2021 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The cumulative HCC incidence rates for the two drugs were compared for the entire cohort, and a subgroup analysis was performed according to the HCC risk scores. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control confounding biases.

Results: The analysis included 1453 patients (TDF group,  = 188; ETV group,  = 1265). Ninety-five patients developed HCC, with a median follow-up period of 26.1 months. The 3-year HCC incidence was 2.0% in the TDF group and 7.5% in the ETV group (log-rank  = 0.005). TDF treatment was associated with a lower risk of HCC than ETV treatment [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.222, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.070-0.702,  = 0.010] but was similar after PSM (HR = 0.483, 95% CI, 0.144-1.626,  = 0.240; log-rank  = 0.230). However, subgroup analysis showed that the cumulative HCC incidence was lower in the TDF group than in the ETV group among patients with a modified PAGE-B score (mPAGE-B) ⩾9, either before or after PSM (log-rank  = 0.048 and  = 0.023, respectively).

Conclusion: Among patients with an mPAGE-B score ⩾9, TDF is associated with a lower HCC incidence than ETV in patients with CHB-related compensated cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20406223221102791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218453PMC
June 2022

Identification of key astringent compounds in aronia berry juice.

Food Chem 2022 Nov 7;393:133431. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

The Food Processing Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA. Electronic address:

Aronia berry has extremely strong and unpleasant astringent mouthfeel. However, detailed information on the key astringent compounds is still limited. To fill this gap, astringent compounds were firstly separated from aronia juice. Following sensory evaluation, phenolic profile determination, validation by in-vitro models, and thiolytic degradation, key astringent compounds were identified. Results showed when most proanthocyanidins (PAs) were removed while other phenolic compounds remained, the astringency intensity of aronia juice was significantly decreased. In-vitro models, including saliva precipitation index and mucin turbidity, validated PAs rather than anthocyanins as the key astringent compounds. The protein-precipitated PAs from aronia juice were identified as polymers, linked by B-type bonds, with (-)-epicatechin as the extension unit and predominantly as the terminal unit, having a 69.56 mean degree of polymerization (mDP), far higher than the 35.38 mDP of PAs separated directly from juice. These findings would be valuable to the development of targeted astringency mitigation approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133431DOI Listing
November 2022

Smart Peptide Defense Web In Situ Connects for Continuous Interception of IgE against Allergic Rhinitis.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory reaction by immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediators after individual contact with allergens. It affects 10-40% of the world's population and reduces the quality of life. Long-term symptoms of rhinitis can cause inflammation to spread and trigger asthma, which can harm human health. Herein, we develop a mart eptde defese (SPIN) web technique, which in situ constructs a peptide web, trapping IgE against AR. Two candidate SPINs, SPIN-1 and SPIN-2, are designed with different IgE-binding sequences. The SPIN-1 or SPIN-2 is able to bind to IgE and transform from nanoparticles into entangled nanofibers. In turn, the web of SPIN-1 or SPIN-2 acts as a long-term trap of IgE to prevent the IgE from binding to mast cells. SPIN-1 or SPIN-2 (10 mg/kg) is able to treat AR model Balb/c mice with high efficiency and reduced symptoms of rhinitis and inflammatory factors, even better than a first-line clinical drug, cetirizine (10 mg/kg). For example, the amount of IL-4 released in the AR group (185.5 ± 6.8 pg/mL) is significantly reduced after the treatment with SPIN-1 (70.4 ± 14.1 pg/mL), SPIN-2 (86.0 ± 9.3 pg/mL), or cetirizine (112.8 ± 19.3 pg/mL). More importantly, compared with the cetirizine group (1 day), the SPIN-1 or SPIN-2 group shows long-term therapeutic effects (1 week). The SPIN web technique shows the great potential for blocking IgE binding to mast cells in vivo, attenuating AR or other allergic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c07092DOI Listing
June 2022

Tunable Emission and Color Temperature of Yb/Er/Tm-Tridoped YO-ZnO Ceramic Nano-Phosphors Using Er Concentration and Excitation Pump Power.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

In this study, a series of well-crystallized Yb/Er/Tm-tridoped YO-ZnO ceramic nano-phosphors were prepared using sol-gel synthesis, and the phosphor structures were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The phosphors were well crystallized and exhibited a sharp-edged angular crystal structure and mesoporous structure consisting of 270 nm nano-particles. All phosphors generated blue, green, and red emission bands attributed to Tm: G→H, Er: H (S)→I, and Er: F→I radiative transitions, respectively. Increasing in luminescent centers, weakening of lattice symmetry, and releasing of dormant rare earth ions can enhance all emissions. Er can obtain energy from Tm to enhance green and red emission. These colors can be tuned by optimizing the doping concentrations of the Er ion. The color coordinates were adjusted by tuning both the Er concentration and excitation laser pump power to shift the color coordinates and correlated color temperature. The findings of this study will broaden the potential practical applications of phosphors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12122107DOI Listing
June 2022

Trajectory Modulation for Impact Reducing of Lower-Limb Exoskeletons.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 May 24;13(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Buffalo Robot Tech Co., Ltd., No. 888 Tianfu Ave, Chengdu 610213, China.

Lower-limb exoskeletons have received considerable attention because of their effectiveness in walking assistance and rehabilitation for paraplegic patients. Excessive foot-ground impacts during walking make patients uncomfortable and even lead to injury. In this paper, we propose an optimized knee trajectory modulation (OKTM) for foot-ground impact reduction. The OKTM can reduce the peak of ground reaction force (PGRF) by knee-joint trajectory modulation based on a parameters-optimizing spring-damping system. In addition, a hip trajectory modulation (HTM) is presented to compensate for torso pitch deflections due to the OKTM. Unlike traditional mechanical-device-based methods, the proposed OKTM and HTM require no bulky mechanical structures, and can adaptively adjust parameters to adapt to different impacts. We demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach in both simulations and experiments for engineering verifications. Results show that the approach can effectively reduce PGRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13060816DOI Listing
May 2022

Amplifying Molecular Scale Rotary Motion: The Marriage of Overcrowded Alkene Molecular Motor with Liquid Crystals.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 22:e2109800. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.

Design and fabrication of macroscopic functional devices by molecular engineering is an emerging and effective strategy in exploration of advanced materials. Photo-responsive overcrowded alkene-based molecular motor (OAMM) has been considered as one of the most promising molecular machines due to the unique rotary motion driven by light with high temporal and spatial precision. Amplifying the molecular rotary motions into macroscopic behaviors of photo-directed systems links the molecular dynamics with macroscopic motions of materials, providing new opportunities to design novel materials and devices with a bottom-up strategy. In this review, we will summarize recent developments of the light-responsive liquid crystal system triggered by OAMM. The mechanism of amplification effect of liquid crystal matrix will be introduced firstly. Then progress of the OAMM-driven liquid crystal materials will be described including light-controlled photonic crystals, texture-tunable liquid crystal coating and micro-spheres, photo-actuated soft robots and dynamic optical devices. We hope that this review provides inspirations in design and exploration of light-driven soft matters and novel functional materials from molecular engineering to structural modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202109800DOI Listing
June 2022

Allicin attenuated hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice by regulating PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signal pathway.

Food Funct 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the liver is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following liver surgery, trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. It was reported that allicin, a type of garlic compound, had a protective effect against other hepatic diseases. Allicin's ability to protect against liver injury caused by ischemic reperfusion remains unknown. As a result, we conducted this study to determine allicin's effects and mechanism of action in hepatic I/R injury. : The liver I/R injury model was established by clamping the blood supply to the left and middle liver lobes. Three days prior to the hepatic I/R injury, different concentrations of allicin were gavaged. Then, hepatic function, histological changes, apoptosis markers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and the molecular mechanisms were evaluated using western blot. Another separation experiment used IRAK-M knockout mice and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor to deduce the molecular mechanisms. : Pretreatment with allicin prior to hepatic I/R injury reduced liver damage by inhibiting aminotransferase activity and alleviating liver injury. It significantly decreased cell apoptosis, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, and hepatic oxidative stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that GW9662 (inhibitor of PPARγ) abrogated allicin's positive effect by inhibiting PPARγ expression while suppressing IRAK-M expression. Thus, the depletion of IRAK-M cannot influence the expression of PPARγ. The down-regulation of PPARγ-IRAK-M disabled the protection of allicin in I/R injury. : Allicin protects against hepatic I/R injury dose-dependent regulation of the PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signaling pathway, and it may be a potential drug in future clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fo00751gDOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of Chemoradiotherapy on the Survival of Resectable Gastric Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University; Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors (China Medical University), Ministry of Education, No.155 Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of China.

Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after surgery are necessary to reduce the risk of metastasis and recurrence for resectable gastric cancer (GC) patients. Adjuvant CT and CRT have been proven to significantly improve the prognosis for GC patients, when compared with surgery only. However, it is still unclear whether radiotherapy offers additional survival benefits to advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients.

Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were systematically searched for eligible studies that compared survival benefits between CRT and CT. The endpoints of this meta-analysis were measured as HR for OS or DFS and 95% CI using fixed- or random-effect models. Additionally, side effects, completed rate, and metastatic risk, were calculated as OR. Subgroup analyses according to clinicopathological factors were presented.

Results: A total of 28 eligible studies involving 20,220 patients were included in our study. Of these, 17 studies evaluated the survival benefits of additional radiotherapy on overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer patients, ten reported the impact of CRT on disease-free survival (DFS), and 26 studies showed long-term survival rate. The pooled results were significant (HR for OS 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99; HR for DFS 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.89). The subgroup analysis showed that adjuvant CRT increased OS for patients without preoperative treatment; showed similar nausea/vomiting, but an increased risk of neutropenia; reduced the risk of locoregional recurrence; failed to improve OS for lymph node (LN)-positive GC patients; and significantly improved prognosis for R1-treated patients. Of note, DFS was improved in all the subgroups via decreasing the locoregional recurrence.

Conclusion: Compared with CT, adjuvant CRT can improve survival for advanced gastric cancer patients, with similar nausea/vomiting, but increased risk of neutropenia. Patients without preoperative treatment or with positive surgical margins should be strongly recommended to undergo CRT. Treatment regimens should be carefully decided by doctors based on patients' tolerance, physical status, and reaction to treatment. Moreover, CRT improves the DFS for patients regardless of subgroups, because it significantly reduced the risk of locoregional recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-022-12005-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating fibrosis regression in chronic hepatitis C patients after direct-acting antiviral.

World J Gastroenterol 2022 May;28(20):2214-2226

Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hepatitis C and Immunotherapy for Liver Diseases, Beijing International Cooperation Base for Science and Technology on NAFLD Diagnosis, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044,

Background: Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has enabled hepatitis C virus infection to become curable, while histological changes remain uncontained. Few valid non-invasive methods can be confirmed for use in surveillance. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast, related to liver function in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP). Whether Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can be used in the diagnosis and follow up of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has not been investigated.

Aim: To investigate the diagnostic and follow-up values of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for hepatic histology in patients with CHC.

Methods: Patients with CHC were invited to undergo Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver biopsy before treatment, and those with paired qualified MRI and liver biopsy specimens were included. Transient elastography (TE) and blood tests were also arranged. Patients treated with DAAs who achieved 24-wk sustained virological response (SVR) underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver biopsy again. The signal intensity (SI) of the liver and muscle were measured in the unenhanced phase (UEP) (SI, SI) and HBP (SI, SI) MRI. The contrast enhancement index (CEI) was calculated as [(SI/SI)]/[(SI/SI)]. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was confirmed with TE. Serologic markers, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), were also calculated according to blood tests. The grade of inflammation and stage of fibrosis were evaluated with the modified histology activity index (mHAI) and Ishak fibrosis score, respectively. Fibrosis regression was defined as a ≥ 1-point decrease in the Ishak fibrosis score. The correlation between the CEI and liver pathology was evaluated. The diagnostic and follow-up values of the CEI, LSM, and serologic markers were compared.

Results: Thirty-nine patients with CHC were enrolled [average age, 42.3 ± 14.4 years; 20/39 (51.3%) male]. Twenty-one enrolled patients had eligible paired Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and liver tissues after achieving SVR. The mHAI median significantly decreased after SVR [baseline 6.0 (4.5-13.5) SVR 2.0 (1.5-5.5), = 3.322, = 0.017], but the median stage of fibrosis did not notably change ( > 0.05). Sixty pairs of qualified MRI and liver tissue samples were available for use to analyze the relationship between the CEI and hepatic pathology. The CEI was negatively correlated with the mHAI ( = -0.56, < 0.001) and Ishak score ( = -0.69, < 0.001). Further stratified analysis showed that the value of the CEI decreased with the progression of the stage of fibrosis rather than with the grade of necroinflammation. For patients with Ishak score ≥ 5, the areas under receiver operating characteristics curve of the CEI, LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 were approximately at baseline, 0.87-0.93, and after achieving SVR, 0.83-0.91. The CEI cut-off value was stable (baseline 1.58 and SVR 1.59), but those of the APRI (from 1.05 to 0.24), FIB-4 (from 1.78 to 1.28), and LSM (from 10.8 kpa to 7.1 kpa) decreased dramatically. The APRI and FIB-4 cannot be used as diagnostic means for SVR in patients with Ishak score ≥ 3 ( > 0.05). Seven patients achieved fibrosis regression after achieving SVR. In these patients, the CEI median increased (from 1.71 to 1.83, = -1.981, = 0.048) and those of the APRI (from 1.71 to 1.83, = -2.878, = 0.004) and LSM (from 6.6 to 4.8, = -2.366, = 0.018) decreased. However, in patients without fibrosis regression, the medians of the APRI, FIB-4, and LSM also changed significantly ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI has good diagnostic value for staging fibrosis in patients with CHC. It can be used for fibrotic-change monitoring post SVR in patients with CHC treated with DAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v28.i20.2214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157620PMC
May 2022

Dysregulated YAP1/Hippo pathway contributes to doxorubicin (ADM)-resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Hematology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150000, China.

Background: Dysregulated Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is closely associated with cancer progression and chemo-resistance. We aim to explore the role of YAP1/Hippo pathway in regulating doxorubicin (ADM)-resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Methods: In this study, we established two ADM-resistant cell lines (THP-1/ ADM and K562/ ADM). Then cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT assay and FCM assay, respectively. Real time PCR were performed to examine the expression of genes in the AML/ADM cells and the clinic BM samples. The levels of all related proteins were examined by Western blot.

Results: We found that the YAP1 and its downstream target genes, including EGFR, SOX2, and OCT4, were associated with ADM-resistance, evidenced by the increased expression in ADM-resistant AML/ADM cells and clinical BM specimens. Additionally, YAP1 ablation enhanced the promoting effects of ADM treatment on cell death in AML/ADM cells. Conversely, YAP1 increased ADM-a resistance in the original ADM-sensitive AML cells. These results may provide important new insights into understanding this role of YAP1 regulates AML resistance by affecting CSCs characteristics.

Conclusion: In summary, we evidenced that the dysregulated YAP1/Hippo pathway influenced ADM-resistance in AML. YAP1 might be novel biomarkers for treatment of drug-resistance in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201023666220617150346DOI Listing
June 2022

Tracing the sources of phosphorus in lake at watershed scale using phosphate oxygen isotope (δO).

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 16;305:135382. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China.

Phosphorus (P) is normally considered as the limited nutrient for shallow freshwater lakes and can potentially trigger eutrophication on account of high concentrations. Due to the various transportation and transformation processes, P source apportionment and management in lake ecosystems have become more and more difficult. Combining with sequential extraction of P fractions and mineralogical analysis, the isotopic compositions of oxygen in phosphate (δO) of resin-extractable P from the different samples including soil, estuary sediments, pond sediments, and lake sediments in the Shijiuhu Lake catchment, China, were investigated. The results showed that δO values ranged from +15.23 to +21.92‰ in agricultural soil, +16.53 to +24.10‰ in estuary sediments, +18.90 to +20.90‰ in pond sediments, and +17.42 to +19.70‰ in lake sediments. Isotopic signatures indicated that chemical fertilizers with heavier δO values (+20.70 to +26.50‰) were the predominant contributors of P in the soil. The river transportation together with Fe/Al-P desorption on anaerobic condition simultaneously stimulated the enrichment of P in the lake sediments, even though the biotic activity regulated the isotope values moving toward the equilibrium. Eroded soil was the important source of P in lake and pond sediments via drainage and runoff, and conserved the source isotope signal in the samples. Stronger biotic activity in the aquatic environments dragged δO values toward the equilibrium. However, conspicuous off-equilibrium isotope signature suggested the terrestrial sources in the aquatic ecosystems. The calculation of two end-member linear mixing models suggested that soils also predominantly controlled the P occurrence in the lake sediments with contribution higher than 80%, indicating that decreasing inputs from the agricultural activities is important in P reduction on catchment scale. Generally, δO from different sources can provide indirect and important evidences for the identification and management of P sources in the lake catchment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135382DOI Listing
June 2022

Potential valorisation of baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds as a coffee substitute: Insights and comparisons on the effect of roasting on quality, sensory profiles, and characterisation of volatile aroma compounds by HS-SPME/GC-MS.

Food Chem 2022 Jun 14;394:133475. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; Fuli Institute of Food Science, Ningbo Research Institute, Zhejiang University, China. Electronic address:

The seeds of Africa's majestic baobab are often discarded or poorly utilized. Few studies explored its potential as a coffee substitute, while the key volatile compounds are still unknown. These compounds were hypothesized to be responsible for baobab's sensory acceptance. In this study, the physicochemical, sensory, and key volatile composition of brews from coffee beans and baobab seeds subjected to different roasting conditions were reported. Roasting increases pH while reducing acidity, total soluble solids, lightness (L*), redness/greenness (a*), and yellowness/blueness (b*) in coffee and baobab brews. Phenolic contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased roasting intensity in baobab while degrading in coffee. Significant variability of volatile composition existed among coffee and baobab matrices and the roasting conditions. Nevertheless, the presence of several key coffee odorants in baobab from pyrazines, phenols, and furans chemical families, owing to their odour active value ≥ 1, likely contributed to its sensory acceptance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133475DOI Listing
June 2022

The Impact of China's Paired Assistance Policy on the COVID-19 Crisis-An Empirical Case Study of Hubei Province.

Front Public Health 2022 30;10:885852. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Applied Economics, School of Applied Economics, Renmin University of China, Beijing, China.

To control the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), China implemented the Paired Assistance Policy (PAP). Local responders in 16 cities in Hubei Province were paired with expert teams from 19 provinces and municipalities. Fully supported by the country's top-down political system, PAP played a significant role in alleviating the COVID-19 pandemic in Hubei Province and China as a whole. In this study, we examined PAP using a two-way fixed effects model with the cumulative number of medical support personnel and cumulative duration as measurements. The results show personnel and material support played an active role in the nation's response to the COVID-19 public health crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.885852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9196880PMC
June 2022

Clinical features and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome: A multicenter, retrospective study.

Med Clin (Engl Ed) 2022 May 9;158(10):458-465. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Background: Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge.

Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years,  = 0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%,  < 0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%,  = 0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062-19.201,  < 0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306-8.411,  = 0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia.

Conclusions: 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcle.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9181760PMC
May 2022

Association of Coexistent Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Antibody With Severe Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Treatment-Naive Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2216485. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Importance: Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) constitutes an atypical serological profile in chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and the association between coexistent HBsAg and anti-HBs with severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear.

Objective: To investigate the association of coexistent HBsAg and anti-HBs with severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with CHB.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Consecutive treatment-naive patients with CHB from 2 medical institutions in China were enrolled between January 10, 2015, and March 31, 2021. Severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were identified using the aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), the fibrosis index based on 4 factors (FIB-4; factors comprise age, AST level, alanine aminotransferase [ALT] level, and platelet count), transient elastography, or ultrasonography. Data were analyzed from August 1, 2021, to April 15, 2022.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were rates of severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis among patients with vs patients without coexistant HBsAg and anti-HBs. Severe liver fibrosis was defined as an APRI score of 1.5 or higher, a FIB-4 score of 3.25 or higher, or a liver stiffness measurement of 8 kPa or higher; cirrhosis was defined as an APRI score of 2.0 or higher, a FIB-4 score of 6.5 or higher, a liver stiffness measurement of 11 kPa or higher, or ultrasonographic findings suggestive of cirrhosis.

Results: Of 6534 enrolled patients, 4033 patients (61.7%) were male, and the median (IQR) age was 41.0 (33.0-52.0) years. A total of 277 patients (4.2%) had coexistent HBsAg and anti-HBs. Patients with vs without anti-HBs were older (median [IQR], 46.0 [33.0-55.5] years vs 41.0 [33.0-52.0] years) and had a higher proportion of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity (123 of 277 patients [44.4%] vs 2115 of 6257 patients [33.8%]; P < .001), higher ALT levels (median [IQR], 45.1 [24.6-119.0] U/L vs 36.7 [22.0-77.0] U/L; P = .001) and AST levels (median [IQR], 35.0 [23.5-68.4] U/L vs 28.3 [21.6-51.0] U/L; P < .001), and lower platelet counts (median [IQR], 173.0 × 103/μL [129.0-212.5 × 103/μL] vs 185.0 × 103/μL [141.0-224.0 × 103/μL]; P = .004), albumin levels (median [IQR], 4.37 [4.11-4.56] g/dL vs 4.43 [4.17-4.61] g/dL; P = .02), and HBsAg levels (median [IQR], 2.8 log10 [1.6-3.4 log10] IU/mL vs 3.3 log10 [2.6-3.9 log10] IU/mL; P < .001). Compared with patients without anti-HBs, those with anti-HBs had higher APRI scores (median [IQR], 0.5 [0.3-1.4] vs 0.4 [0.3-0.9]; P < .001), FIB-4 scores (median [IQR], 1.4 [0.9-2.6] vs 1.1 [0.7-2.1]; P < .001), and liver stiffness values (median [IQR], 7.5 [6.2-9.8] kPa vs 6.3 [5.2-8.1] kPa; P = .003). Patients with anti-HBs also had higher proportions of severe liver fibrosis (102 of 277 patients [36.8%] vs 1397 of 6207 patients [22.5%]; P < .001) and cirrhosis (87 of 277 patients [31.4%] vs 1194 of 6213 patients [19.2%]; P < .001) compared with patients without anti-HBs. The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs was independently associated with severe liver fibrosis (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% CI, 1.56-3.38; P < .001) and cirrhosis (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.12-2.68; P = .01) in the multivariate analysis. However, the association of coexistent HBsAg and anti-HBs with cirrhosis was only observed in patients with HBeAg negativity (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.05-2.62; P = .03) and not in patients with HBeAg positivity (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.87-2.43; P = .16).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs was unusual in hepatitis B virus infection and was associated with more advanced liver diseases, such as severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, especially among patients with HBeAg negativity. These results suggest that close monitoring for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is warranted in patients with CHB who have this serological profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16485DOI Listing
June 2022

ASO Author Reflections: Chemoradiotherapy Versus Chemotherapy, Which One Is Better for Resectable Gastric Cancer Patients?

Ann Surg Oncol 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University; Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors (China Medical University), Ministry of Education, Heping District, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-022-12023-zDOI Listing
June 2022

Calcium-intercalated birnessite MnO anchored on carbon nanotubes as high-performance cathodes for aqueous zinc-ion batteries.

Dalton Trans 2022 Jun 21;51(24):9477-9485. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, P. R. China.

Aqueous Zn-ion batteries (ZIBs) show great potential in energy storage systems because of their high theoretical capacities, high safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. The lack of suitable cathode materials for sustaining the Zn intercalation/deintercalation severely restricts their further application. Herein, calcium-intercalated birnessite MnO anchored on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was designed as a cathode for ZIBs. The cathode material can be facilely produced by a simple one-pot reaction process. The external calcium-intercalated MnO with large layer spacing affords a fast ionic migration rate and the internal CNTs serving as a structural framework endow the electrode with better electrical conductivity. Benefiting from the larger interlayer spacing and the enhanced electrical conductivity, the CNT-CaMO cathode shows a high specific capacity of 351.8 mA h g at 200 mA g and a long cycle life over 6000 cycles. Besides, the H and Zn co-intercalation storage mechanism was confirmed by XRD, SEM, and XPS analyses. This work opens up a new way to develop aqueous ZIB cathode materials with a high reversible capacity and long cycle life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt00989gDOI Listing
June 2022

MiR-132-3p inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells via down-regulating FOXP2 expression.

Acta Biochim Pol 2022 Jun;69(2):371-377

Department of Surgery, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer with high mortality. This study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-132-3p on proliferation, invasion and migration of CRC cells.

Materials And Methods: qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine the expression of miR-132-3p and forking box (FOX) protein 2 (FOXP2) in CRC cell line CACO-2. The expression of miR-132-3p and FOX was regulated using miR inhibitor and siRNA, and the viability and migration ability of the transfected cells were assessed. Cell cycle dependent kinase (CDK) 1, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were detected using Western blots. The dual luciferase reporter gene assays were used to verify the targeting of miR-132-3p to FOXP2.

Results: Compared with control cells, FOXP2 and miR-132-3p expressions were decreased or increased significantly (P<0.05), respectively in CACO-2 cells. Up-regulation of miR-132-3p effectively inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CACO-2 cells, and suppressed the expression of FORX2, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Luciferase reporter gene assays reveled that FOXP2 expression was negatively regulated by miR-132-3p. Knockdown of FOXP2 using siRNA significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of CACO-2 cells, down-regulated the expression FOXP2 as well as CDK1, cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Since FOXP2 is targeted by miR-132-3p, it is likely that miR-132-3p-mediated reduction of proliferation and migration of CACO-2 cells was achieved via reduced translation of FOXP2 mRNA.

Conclusions: miR-132-3p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of CRC cells. This is likely achieved via negative regulation of the targeted FOXP2 expression. This role may be further explored for therapeutic applications in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5813DOI Listing
June 2022

Pyroptosis is related to immune infiltration and predictive for survival of colon adenocarcinoma patients.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 2;12(1):9233. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors (China Medical University), Ministry of Education, No.155 Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of China.

Pyroptosis is a novel type of programmed cell death, initiated by inflammasome. Pyroptosis inhibits the development and metastasis of colon cancer and is associated with patients' prognosis. However, how the pyroptosis-related genes predict the survival of patients is still unclear. In the study, colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) patients were divided into two groups according to the expression of pyroptosis-related regulators through consensus clustering. DEGs between two clusters were analyzed by using COX and Lasso regression. Then, regression coefficients in Lasso were used to calculate the risk score for every patient. Patients were classified into two types: low- and high-risk group according to their risk score. The difference of immune microenvironment infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics between subgroups was performed. Moreover, the nomogram model was built on the bases of risk model and clinicopathological factors. The TCGA-COAD cohort and GEO cohort were used as training and validating set respectively. 398 COAD patients in TCGA training set were identified as two regulation patterns via unsupervised clustering method. Patients in cluster 2 showed better prognosis (P = 0.002). Through differentiated expression analysis, COX and Lasso regression, a 5-gene prognostic risk model was constructed. This risk model was significantly associated with OS (HR: 2.088, 95% CI: 1.183-3.688, P = 0.011), validated in GEO set (HR:1.344, 95%CI: 1.061-1.704, P = 0.014), and patients with low risk had better prognosis (P < 0.001 in TCGA; P = 0.038 in GEO). Through ROC analysis, it can be found that this model presented better predictive accuracy for long-term survival. Clinical analyses demonstrated that high-risk group had more advanced N stage, higher risk of metastasis and later pathological stage. Immune-related analysis illustrated that low-risk group had more immune cell infiltration and more activated immune pathways. The pyroptosis-related risk model can be predictive for the survival of COAD patients. That patients with higher risk had poorer prognosis was associated with more advanced tumor stage and higher risk of metastasis, and resulted from highly activated pro-tumor pathways and inhibited immune system and poorer integrity of intestinal epithelial. This study proved the relationship between pyroptosis and immune, which offered basis for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13212-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Nanostructured block copolymer muscles.

Nat Nanotechnol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

High-performance actuating materials are necessary for advances in robotics, prosthetics and smart clothing. Here we report a class of fibre actuators that combine solution-phase block copolymer self-assembly and strain-programmed crystallization. The actuators consist of highly aligned nanoscale structures with alternating crystalline and amorphous domains, resembling the ordered and striated pattern of mammalian skeletal muscle. The reported nanostructured block copolymer muscles excel in several aspects compared with current actuators, including efficiency (75.5%), actuation strain (80%) and mechanical properties (for example, strain-at-break of up to 900% and toughness of up to 121.2 MJ m). The fibres exhibit on/off rotary actuation with a peak rotational speed of 450 r.p.m. Furthermore, the reported fibres demonstrate multi-trigger actuation (heat and hydration), offering switchable mechanical properties and various operating modes. The versatility and recyclability of the polymer fibres, combined with the facile fabrication method, opens new avenues for creating multifunctional and recyclable actuators using block copolymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01133-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of the revised ISTH overt DIC score (2018) for predicting 90-day mortality in critically ill adult patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Artif Organs 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background And Objective: Coagulopathy is a common and serious problem in patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and this study evaluated whether the 2018 diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC) score established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) is associated with 90-day mortality in adult ECMO patients.

Methods: A retrospective study analyzed data from adult patients receiving ECMO in our hospital from September 2018 to April 2021. Pre-ECMO DIC score and other variables were assessed and compared to predict 90-day mortality.

Results: Among 103 eligible patients, 55.3% received V-V ECMO and 44.7% received V-A ECMO. The overall 90-day mortality for study patients was 54.4%, including 45.6% in the V-V group and 65.2% in the V-A group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for sex, sepsis, and APACHE II score, pre-ECMO DIC scores in the total and V-V group predicted 90-day mortality (odds ratio(OR): 1.419, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.101-1.828; OR: 2.562; 95% CI: 1.452-4.520). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves displayed that pre-ECMO DIC score of 4 in the total and V-V group was a good predictor of 90-day mortality (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.706, 95% CI: 0.606-0.806; AUC = 0.737, 95% CI: 0.604-0.870). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated the 90-day mortality of patients with pre-ECMO DIC score ≥ 4 in the total and V-V group was higher than that of patients with DIC score < 4 (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.821, 95% CI: 1.632-4.879; HR: 3.864, 95% CI: 1.660-8.992).

Conclusion: The pre-ECMO ISTH DIC score was associated with 90-day mortality in adult patients undergoing ECMO, particularly in the V-V ECMO group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.14324DOI Listing
May 2022

Adsorption-Catalysis-Conversion of Polysulfides in Sandwiched Ultrathin Ni(OH) -PANI for Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Small 2022 Jun 24;18(25):e2201822. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Strong adsorption and catalysis for lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) are critical toward the electrochemical stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, a hollow sandwiched nanoparticle is put forward to enhance the adsorption-catalysis-conversion dynamic of sulfur species. The outer ultrathin Ni(OH) nanosheets not only confine LiPSs via both physical encapsulation and chemical adsorption, but also promote redox kinetics and accelerate the conversion of sulfur species, which is revealed by experiments and theoretical calculations. Meanwhile, the inner hollow polyaniline soft core provides a strong chemical bonding to LiPSs after vulcanization, which can chemically adsorpt LiPSs, and synergistically confine the shuttle effect. Moreover, the Ni(OH) nanosheets with a large specific area can enhance the wettability of electrolyte, and the flexible hollow sandwiched structure can accommodate the volume expansion, promoting sulfur utilization and structural stability. The obtained cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with an initial discharge capacity of 1173 mAh g and a small capacity decay of 0.08% per cycle even after 500 cycles at 0.2 C, among the best results of Ni(OH) -based materials for Li-S batteries. It is believed that the combination of adsorption-catalysis-conversion will shed a light on the development of cathode materials for stable Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201822DOI Listing
June 2022

The Third dose of CoronVac vaccination induces broad and potent adaptive immune responses that recognize SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1524-1536

Institute of Viruses and Infectious Diseases, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

The waning humoral immunity and emerging contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants resulted in the necessity of the booster vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The inactivated vaccine, CoronaVac, is the most widely supplied COVID-19 vaccine globally. Whether the CoronaVac booster elicited adaptive responses that cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) among 77 healthy subjects receiving the third dose of CoronaVac were explored. After the boost, remarkable elevated spike-specific IgG and IgA responses, as well as boosted neutralization activities, were observed, despite 3.0-fold and 5.9-fold reduced neutralization activities against Delta and Omicron strains compared to that of the ancestral strain. Furthermore, the booster dose induced potent B cells and memory B cells that cross-bound receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins derived from VoCs, while Delta and Omicron RBD-specific memory B cell recognitions were reduced by 2.7-fold and 4.2-fold compared to that of ancestral strain, respectively. Consistently, spike-specific circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh) significantly increased and remained stable after the boost, with a predominant expansion towards cTfh17 subpopulations. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells peaked and sustained after the booster. Notably, CD4 and CD8 T cell recognition of VoC spike was largely preserved compared to the ancestral strain. Individuals without generating Delta or Omicron neutralization activities had comparable levels of CD4 and CD8 T cells responses as those with detectable neutralizing activities. Our study demonstrated that the CoronaVac booster induced broad and potent adaptive immune responses that could be effective in controlling SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2081614DOI Listing
December 2022

Study of the volatilization rules of volatile oil and the sustained-release effect of volatile oil solidified by porous starch.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8153. Epub 2022 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Innovation Drug and Efficient Energy-Saving Pharmaceutical Equipment, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 330004, China.

Volatile oil from traditional Chinese medicine has various biological activities and has pharmacological activities in the central nervous system, digestive system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, etc. These oils are widely used in clinical practice. However, the development of their clinical applications is restricted due to the disadvantages of volatile oils, such as high stimulation, high volatility and poor stability. To improve the stability of a volatile oil in the preparation process, its volatilization and stable release must be controlled. In this paper, porous starch was used as a solid carrier material, and liquid volatile oil was solidified by physical adsorption. GC-MS was used to determine the chemical constituents of the volatile oil, solidified powder and tablets, and the volatilization rules of 34 chemical constituents were analysed statistically. The solidified volatile oil/porous starch powder was characterized by XRD, TGA and DSC, and the VOCs of the volatile oil before and after solidification were analysed by portable GC-MS. Finally, the stable release of the volatile oil could be optimized by changing the porous starch ratio in the formulation. Volatilization was shown to be closely related to the peak retention time and chemical composition, which was consistent with the theory of flavour. The physical properties and chemical composition of the volatile oil did not change after curing, indicating that the adsorption of the volatile oil by porous starch was physical adsorption. In this paper, the porous starch-solidified volatile oil had a slow-release effect, and the production process is simple, easy to operate, and has high application value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11692-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114342PMC
May 2022

Birth weight influences differently on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents aged 8-15.

BMC Pediatr 2022 May 13;22(1):278. Epub 2022 May 13.

Cardiovascular Disease Center, Central Hospital of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Enshi Clinical College of Wuhan University, No.158 Wuyang Avenue, Hubei Province, 445000, Enshi City, China.

Aim: Globally, hypertension is one of the main threats to public health and a significant risk factor predisposing individuals to various cardiovascular conditions. Hypertension in the young is particularly complex and challenging. Accumulating evidence has implicated that low birth weight is vital for elevated blood pressure, and birth weight was negatively correlated with blood pressure. However, fewer studies with conflicting results have addressed the associations between birth weight and blood pressure in children and adolescents, and there is no relevant research conducted in the NHANES population. The principal objective of this project was to investigate the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children and adolescents in NHANES.

Methods: A total of 7600 subjects aged 8 to15 were enrolled in the present study from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2018. Outcome variables were systolic blood pressure(SBP) and diastolic blood pressure(DBP). Birth weight was regarded as an independent variable. EmpowerStats software and R (version 3.4.3) were performed to examine the association between birth weight and SBP or DBP.

Results: Birth weight was negatively correlated with SBP in the fully-adjusted model(β = -0.02, 95%CI: -0.04 to -0.04, p = 0.0013), especially in non-Hispanic White (β = -0.03, 95%CI: -0.06 to -0.00,p = 0.0446), aged between 13 to 15(β = -0.03, 95%CI: -0.04 to -0.01, p = 0.0027), and male individuals(β = -0.03, 95%CI: -0.05 to -0.01, p = 0.0027). However, there was no unidirectional association between birth weight and DBP in the fully adjusted model(β = -0.01, 95%CI: -0.03 to 0.02, p = 0.5668) and in sub-analysis. An inverted U-shaped and J-shaped relationship was uncovered between birth weight and DBP in those aged 13 or above and Mexican Americans, respectively. The inflection point calculated by a recursive algorithm of birth weight in these groups was all 105 oz.

Conclusions: The current study identified that birth weight was negatively related to SBP but not significantly related to DBP in children and adolescents aged 8 to 15, highlighting different potential mechanisms behind high SBP and high DBP in the young. However, an inverted U-shaped and J-shaped relationship between birth weight and DBP was observed, suggesting that targeted intervention measures should be taken for different groups of people rather than generalizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03346-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9103067PMC
May 2022
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