Publications by authors named "Rui Hai Liu"

147 Publications

extract promotes longevity and stress resistance of DAF-16 and SKN-1.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

The effects of Rhodiola extract (RE) on longevity and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and the underlying molecular mechanisms were explored in the present study. Results showed that the lifespan of C. elegans was remarkably prolonged by 37.1% after treated with high-dose RE (480 μg mL-1). Intervention with RE alleviated aging-related declines in the C. elegans model, and enhanced the stress resistance against heat shock, ultraviolet radiation and paraquat. Moreover, RE reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). RE also upregulated the gene expression of sod-3, gst-4, daf-16, skn-1 in C. elegans, downregulated the gene expression of daf-2 and age-1, and accelerated the translocation of DAF-16 and SKN-1 into the nucleus. Furthermore, the daf-16(mu86) and skn-1(zu169) mutants reversed the extension of lifespan triggered by RE, indicating that these genes were involved in RE-regulated longevity. These results demonstrated that RE could enhance lifespan extension, healthspan and stress resistance of C. elegans via insulin/IGF signaling and SKN-1 pathways. Therefore, the present findings suggested Rhodiola as a potential candidate to ameliorate the symptoms of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02974bDOI Listing
April 2021

Methionine restriction alleviates age-associated cognitive decline via fibroblast growth factor 21.

Redox Biol 2021 May 11;41:101940. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Methionine restriction (MR) extends lifespan and delays the onset of aging-associated pathologies. However, the effect of MR on age-related cognitive decline remains unclear. Here, we find that a 3-month MR ameliorates working memory, short-term memory, and spatial memory in 15-month-old and 18-month-old mice by preserving synaptic ultrastructure, increasing mitochondrial biogenesis, and reducing the brain MDA level in aged mice hippocampi. Transcriptome data suggest that the receptor of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-related gene expressions were altered in the hippocampi of MR-treated aged mice. MR increased FGF21 expression in serum, liver, and brain. Integrative modelling reveals strong correlations among behavioral performance, MR altered nervous structure-related genes, and circulating FGF21 levels. Recombinant FGF21 treatment balanced the cellular redox status, prevented mitochondrial structure damages, and upregulated antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 expression by transcriptional activation of Nrf2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, knockdown of Fgf21 by i.v. injection of adeno-associated virus abolished the neuroprotective effects of MR in aged mice. In conclusion, the MR exhibited the protective effects against age-related behavioral disorders, which could be partly explained by activating circulating FGF21 and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, and consequently suppressing the neuroinflammation and oxidative damages. These results demonstrate that FGF21 can be used as a potential nutritional factor in dietary restriction-based strategies for improving cognition associated with neurodegeneration disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022247PMC
May 2021

High-fiber diet mitigates maternal obesity-induced cognitive and social dysfunction in the offspring via gut-brain axis.

Cell Metab 2021 May 1;33(5):923-938.e6. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Maternal obesity has been reported to be related to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms and effective interventions remain unclear. This cross-sectional study with 778 children aged 7-14 years in China indicated that maternal obesity is strongly associated with children's lower cognition and sociality. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that maternal obesity in mice disrupted the behavior and gut microbiome in offspring, both of which were restored by a high-fiber diet in either dams or offspring via alleviating synaptic impairments and microglial maturation defects. Co-housing and feces microbiota transplantation experiments revealed a causal relationship between microbiota and behavioral changes. Moreover, treatment with the microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids also alleviated the behavioral deficits in the offspring of obese dams. Together, our study indicated that the microbiota-metabolites-brain axis may underlie maternal obesity-induced cognitive and social dysfunctions and that high dietary fiber intake could be a promising intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.02.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and thermal processing on anthocyanin content, polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase activities, color, and antioxidant activities of blueberry (Vaccinium Spp.) puree.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 5;342:128564. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

College of Food Science, Key Laboratory of Healthy Food Nutrition and Innovative Manufacturing of Liaoning Province, National R&D Professional Center for Berry Processing, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China; Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-7201, United States. Electronic address:

Thermal processing (TP) and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are two important puree processing methods. In this study, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and β-glucosidase activities, chromatic values, peroxide radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs), and anthocyanin profiles were evaluated in blueberry puree following TP and HHP treatments. Nine anthocyanins were identified and cyanidin glycosides were the most abundant compounds in the blueberry puree sample. Petunidin-3-O-arabinoside, malvidin-3-O-galactoside, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside concentrations increased at temperatures of 70-90 °C (TP) and a pressure of 300 MPa (HHP). The highest total anthocyanin concentration (503.5 μg/mL) and PSC (13.45 µg VE/mL) were observed following the TP (90 °C) treatment. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between the anthocyanin content and PSC (R = 0.655, P < 0.05). Finally, HHP treatment resulted in better puree color retention than TP treatment. The results of this study could provide valuable information for optimizing the processing methods for anthocyanin-rich products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128564DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of ethyl acetate fractional extract from Portulaca oleracea L. (PO-EA) on lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Food Sci 2020 Dec 30;85(12):4367-4376. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853, USA.

Portulaca oleracea L. (PO), with abundant natural bioactive phytochemicals, exhibits potential bioactivities and pharmacological activities. However, the mechanisms of action of PO on anti-aging effect remain unclear. In this study, the ethyl acetate fractional extract from PO (PO-EA) was obtained by fractionation of solvent extractions, and its effect on lifespan was assessed using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Results showed that PO-EA could significantly increase the lifespan of C. elegans by 5.31, 12.67, and 16.47% at the doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, PO-EA significantly promoted the mobility of C. elegans without obvious side effects such as changing body length or decreasing fecundity of the nematodes. Further study demonstrated that PO-EA could enhance the stress resistance in C. elegans via improving the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and diminishing the contents of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. The gene expression of daf-12, daf-16, sod-3, skn-1, cat-1, mev-1, akt-1, and sek-1 were upregulated in C. elegans after administrated by PO-EA. This study indicated that PO-EA plays a vital role in extending lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, and the underlying mechanism of action might be attributed to Insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathways. Therefore, PO-EA could be served as a potential candidate for anti-aging functional food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) is an edible vegetable that could be used as functional food to exert health benefits for humans such as neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-aging effects. Therefore, our findings would provide a strategy to promote the comprehensive utilization of ethyl acetate extract from PO with additional health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15507DOI Listing
December 2020

IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway and miRNAs are involved in whole grain highland barley ( L.) ameliorating hyperglycemia of db/db mice.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):9535-9546

Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.

The effects of whole grain highland barley (WGH) with rich phenolics on glucose metabolism, the insulin pathway, and microRNA (miRNA) expression in db/db mice were explored in the present study. Supplementation with WGH decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated serum protein (GSP), insulin, and inflammatory cytokines in db/db mice. Furthermore, WGH administration triggered a remarkable amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) activities and the G6PC, PEPCK, and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) mRNA levels in the WGH-treated group were also reduced. Moreover, WGH promoted the glycogen storage in the liver via up-regulating the activities of hexokinase (HK) and glycogen synthase (GS) and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) protein, while down-regulating the GSK3β mRNA level. The protein expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), and the mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), PI3K and Akt were also up-regulated by WGH treatment. Moreover, WGH significantly augmented the expression of miRNA-26a and miRNA-451, but reduced those of miRNA-126a and miRNA-29a. These results demonstrated that WGH exhibits a hypoglycemic effect through regulating the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway and related miRNAs, further modulating the expression of G6PC, PEPCK, and FOXO1 mRNAs and p-GSK3β protein, thus inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, improving glycogen synthesis and alleviating insulin resistance. Therefore, this study suggested WGH as an effective candidate to ameliorate the hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01990aDOI Listing
November 2020

Highland Barley Whole Grain () Ameliorates Hyperlipidemia by Modulating Cecal Microbiota, miRNAs, and AMPK Pathways in Leptin Receptor-Deficient db/db Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 7;68(42):11735-11746. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

The mechanisms of highland barley whole grain (BWG) with rich phenolics on obese db/db mice were investigated in this study. Oral consumption of BWG reduced food intake, body weight, organ/body weight indexes of liver and fat, levels of serum and hepatic lipids, liver injury, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, BWG recovered the disorder of cecal microbiota by augmenting the / ratio and abundance and decreasing the abundances of and to modulate lipid metabolism-related genes. BWG inhibited fatty acid biosynthesis via upregulating the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α, while downregulating sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 levels. BWG also significantly downregulated miRNA-122, miRNA-33, miRNA-34a, and miRNA-206 levels. Accordingly, BWG exhibited hypolipidemic potential through modulating cecal microbiota, AMPK/SREBP-1c/FAS pathway, and related miRNAs, triggering the alleviation of dyslipidemia. These findings suggested BWG as an effective candidate to ameliorate the symptoms of hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c04780DOI Listing
October 2020

Phenolic profiles, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and hypoglycemic activities of Ehretia macrophyla Wall. (EMW) fruit.

J Food Sci 2020 Jul 11;85(7):2177-2185. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Dept. of Food Science, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York, 14853, U.S.A.

Phenolic profiles, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and hypoglycemic activities of the whole Ehretia macrophylla Wall. (EMW) fruit were investigated in the present study. Catechin (CE), o-methoxy benzoic acid (o-MBA), and rosmarinic acid (RA) were the predominant phenolics in free extract, while CE, vanillic acid (VA), and o-MBA were for bound extract. These extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacity measured by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. This fruit also possessed dose-dependently antiproliferative activity, and this may be due to the synergistic and additive effects of individual phenolics. Furthermore, EMW fruit showed favorable hypoglycemic activity via inhibition of activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, enhancement of glucose consumption, glycogen accumulation, and glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2) activity, and downregulation of activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Therefore, EMW fruit has the potential as an ingredient of functional foods to improve human health and shows promising applications with additional health and economical benefits. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: EMW fruit is a plant-based food rich in natural phenolic compounds, which suggesting its potential bioactivities for humans such as antioxidant, antiproliferative, and hypoglycemic activities. Our findings would provide a logical strategy to promote the comprehensive utilization of phenolics in EMW fruit with both health and economical benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15185DOI Listing
July 2020

Ficus carica polysaccharide attenuates DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice.

Food Funct 2020 Jul 13;11(7):6666-6679. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCPS) components of the common fig fruit have been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant and immunity-enhancing activities. However, it is unclear whether it could prevent the ulcerative colitis development. Here, we reported that 5 week orally administered FCPS (150-300 mg per kg bw) significantly prevented DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice by improving the colon length and suppressing the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the gut. FCPS treatment protected the goblet cells, elevated the expression of tight junction protein claudin-1, and suppressed the formation of cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β. FCPS supplementation significantly reformed the gut microbiome by enhancing the abundance of S24-7, Bacteroides, and Coprococus, and suppressing the abundance of Escherichia and Clostridium at the genus level. Consistently, the formation of beneficial microbial metabolites, short chain fatty acids, especially acetate and butyrate, were improved in FCPS-treated colitis mice. The correlation analysis indicated that the protective effects of FCPS on ulcerative colitis might be highly correlated with the microbiota composition changes and the formation of SCFAs. In conclusion, these results indicated that FCPS supplementation could be a promising nutritional strategy for reducing inflammatory bowel disease and the gut microbes play essential roles in providing these beneficial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01162bDOI Listing
July 2020

Combination of apple peel and blueberry extracts synergistically induced lifespan extension via DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Food Funct 2020 Jul;11(7):6170-6185

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of age-related functional decline and chronic diseases, which is primarily attributed to their phytochemicals. Apples and blueberries are rich in phytochemicals with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine whether the combination of apple peel extracts (APE) and blueberry extracts (BE) had synergistic effects in promoting lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and to explore the underlying mechanisms of action. The results showed that the lifespan of C. elegans treated with APE plus BE was increased by 31.4%, which is significantly more than with APE or BE alone, and extended the health span of animals, including improving motility and enhancing resistance to heat stress and UV-B radiation in C. elegans. Meanwhile, treatment with APE plus BE could regulate the expression of anti-aging related genes, and promote the migration of DAF-16 into the nucleus. In addition, administration with APE plus BE eradicated the extension of the lifespan of mutants, and inhibited the expression of the daf-16 downstream gene. In conclusion, the combination of APE and BE could synergistically promote the lifespan via the insulin signaling pathway and DAF-16 in C. elegans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00718hDOI Listing
July 2020

Antiproliferative Activity of Ursolic Acid in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Nrf2 Pathway Regulation.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jul 2;68(28):7404-7415. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 245 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201, United States.

The potential mechanisms of action of ursolic acid (UA) in regulating cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells through Nrf2 pathway were investigated. UA significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells at a dose ≥10 μM in a dose-dependent manner, and no cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations below 29.87 ± 2.60 μM. The expressions of Nrf2 and -Nrf2, in whole cell and nucleus, and NQO1 were inhibited by UA treatment, whereas the Keap1 expression was upregulated. No significant difference was observed in the Nrf2 mRNA levels, indicating that UA reduced Nrf2 expression not through mRNA but through a post-translational mechanism. Additionally, EGF-induced -Nrf2 and its downstream NQO1 and SOD1 enzymes were abolished by UA. However, EGF or -EGFR had no effect on the expressions of Keap1. These results suggested that the proliferative inhibitory effect of UA might be partially through downregulating Nrf2 via the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and EGFR/Nrf2 pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03202DOI Listing
July 2020

Biosynthesis and accumulation of multi-vitamins in black sweet corn (Zea mays L.) during kernel development.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Nov 11;100(14):5230-5238. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Background: Black sweet corn as an edible fruit has various nutritional qualities. This study discusses changes in the vitamin C and E, folate, and carotenoid content during black sweet corn maturation, and also the effects of preharvest weather conditions and of related genes in multi-vitamin biosynthesis pathways.

Results: Most vitamin levels improved, especially vitamin C and carotenoid levels, while the folate content dropped rapidly. Transcript levels of most genes in folate biosynthesis showed trends that were similar to the content changes. VTC2 and GLDH, which are regulated by light, had high expression levels leading to an increase in ascorbate content during maturation. γ-Tocotrienol is the main vitamin E component, and HGGT, the key gene controlling the synthesis of tocotrienols, had a much higher expression level than other genes. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the dominant carotenoid components. A rapid reduction in the transcription level of LCYε could result in a lower lutein production rate .

Conclusion: Black sweet corn has a high nutritional value and is rich in vitamins, including zeaxanthin, γ-tocotrienols, and ascorbic acid. The best harvest time is between 20-25 days after pollination (DAPs) when kernels had a good taste as well as relatively high vitamin levels. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10573DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of phenolics, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of two Hypsizygus marmoreus varieties.

J Food Sci 2020 Jul 2;85(7):2227-2235. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA.

Phenolics, antioxidant activities, and antiproliferative properties of brown Hypsizygus marmoreus (brown HM) and white Hypsizygus marmoreus (white HM) were compared. The results showed that the contents of (+)-catechin, gallic acid, and protocatechuic acid of brown HM were higher than those of white HM. Moreover, brown HM had greater cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values than white HM, which demonstrated that brown HM presented a stronger antioxidant capacity. Both of brown HM and white HM showed remarkable antiproliferative activities against HepG2 cells and brown HM was proven to be the more effective. The flow cytometry results revealed that both of brown HM and white HM could induce G1 arrest and cell apoptotics in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CyclinD1, CDK4, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were downregulated with the treatment of brown HM or white HM. Taken together, our study revealed that brown HM afforded better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities than white HM and laid the foundation for potential application of Hypsizygus marmoreus as source of nutraceuticals and functional food products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A systematic assessment of the potential differences of phenolics, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities between different Hypsizygus marmoreus varieties was carried out in the present study. Furthermore, our findings would present possible antiproliferative mechanism of extracts of different Hypsizygus marmoreus varieties, which may provide theoretical basis for further development and utilization of Hypsizygus marmoreus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15173DOI Listing
July 2020

SKN-1 is involved in combination of apple peels and blueberry extracts synergistically protecting against oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Food Funct 2020 Jun;11(6):5409-5419

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of age-related functional declines and chronic diseases, primarily attributed to their bioactive phytochemicals. Apples and blueberries are rich in phytochemicals with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. Our previous research has shown the combination of apple peel extracts (APE) and blueberry extracts (BE) can synergistically promote the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the extension of lifespan was involved in regulation of oxidative stress, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of action. The results showed that the combination of APE and BE could synergistically ameliorate oxidative stress by improving antioxidant enzyme activities and enhancing resistance to paraquat. Meanwhile, treatment with APE plus BE could down-regulate the overexpression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affect the expression of antioxidant related genes, including sod-3, cat-1, ctl-1, skn-1, mev-1 and isp-1. However, administration with APE plus BE abolished the extension of the lifespan of skn-1(zu135) mutants, and inhibited the expression of skn-1 downstream genes, including gcs-1, gst-4 and gst-7. In addition, supplementation with APE plus BE could promote the migration of SKN-1 into the nucleus, which eliminated improvement to ROS and paraquat. In conclusion, the combination of APE and BE could synergistically protect against oxidative stress in C. elegans via the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway. This study provided the theoretical basis to explore the combination of phytochemicals in the prevention of aging regulated by oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo00891eDOI Listing
June 2020

Raspberry extract promoted longevity and stress tolerance via the insulin/IGF signaling pathway and DAF-16 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Food Funct 2020 Apr;11(4):3598-3609

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of age-related functional decline and chronic diseases, which is primarily attributed to phytochemicals. Raspberries are rich in phytochemicals with a wide range of biological activities and health benefits. However, little is known about their effects on aging. The objective of this study was to determine whether raspberry extract (RE) could promote lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and to explore the underlying mechanisms of action. The results showed that the mean lifespan of C. elegans treated with RE at 20, 40 and 80 mg mL-1 was significantly increased by 13.6%, 22.9% and 29.7%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Supplementation with RE decreased the accumulation of lipofuscin and extended the healthspan of animals by improving motility and enhancing resistance to heat stress and UV-B radiation in C. elegans. Meanwhile, treatment with RE could regulate the expression of anti-aging related genes, including daf-2, age-1, akt-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, skn-1, jnk-1 and hsp-16.2, and promote the migration of DAF-16 into the nucleus. In addition, administration with RE abolished the extension of the lifespan of daf-2(e1370) mutants and RNAi (daf-16) C. elegans, and inhibited the expression of daf-16 downstream genes, including sod-3, ctl-2, dod17 and clk-1. In conclusion, RE could prolong the lifespan, improve the healthspan and enhance stress resistance in C. elegans by the insulin/IGF signaling pathway and DAF-16, providing a theoretical basis to fully exploit raspberry in the prevention of aging and healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02845eDOI Listing
April 2020

Phytochemical profiles of rice and their cellular antioxidant activity against ABAP induced oxidative stress in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

Food Chem 2020 Jul 25;318:126484. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-7201, United States. Electronic address:

The phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs) and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free and bound fractions of rice were reported. Black rice had the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in free and bound fractions, followed by red rice, brown rice, and polished rice. Black rice contained much more free phenolic compounds than other rice samples, such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, and vanillic acid. Tocopherols and tocotrienols contents were highest in red rice, then in black rice, brown rice, and polished rice. PSCs and CAAs of free and bound fractions were in the order: black rice > red rice > brown rice > polished rice, except that bound CAA of red rice was higher than that of black rice. The cellular uptake rate of free phenolics was highest in red rice, while cellular uptake rates of bound phenolics were highest in brown rice and polished rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126484DOI Listing
July 2020

Integrated Transcriptomic and Metabolic Framework for Carbon Metabolism and Plant Hormones Regulation in Vigna radiata during Post-Germination Seedling Growth.

Sci Rep 2020 02 28;10(1):3745. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Agro-biological Gene Research Center, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

During mung bean post-germination seedling growth, various metabolic and physiological changes occurred, leading to the improvement of its nutritional values. Here, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of mung bean samples from 6-hour, 3-day and 6-day after imbibition (6-HAI, 3-DAI, and 6-DAI) were performed to characterize the regulatory mechanism of the primary metabolites during the post-germination seedling growth. From 6-HAI to 3-DAI, rapid changes in transcript level occurred, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acids synthesis, and plant hormones regulation. Later changes in the metabolites, including carbohydrates and amino acids, appeared to be driven by increases in transcript levels. During this process, most amino acids and monosaccharides kept increasing, and accumulated in 6-day germinated sprouts. These processes were also accompanied with changes in hormones including abscisic acid, gibberellin, jasmonic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, etc. Overall, these results will provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the primary metabolic regulation in mung bean during post-germination seedling growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60771-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048927PMC
February 2020

A study on the FeO@Fructus mori L. polysaccharide particles with enhanced antioxidant activity and bioavailability.

Food Funct 2020 Mar;11(3):2268-2278

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Molecular conformation is closely related to the functional properties of macromolecules. In order to prove that the bioactivity of mulberry fruit polysaccharides (MFPs) is greatly affected by the conformation, and to improve adsorption properties, we have designed Fe3O4@MFPNPs core-shell nanoparticles. The spherical Fe3O4@MFPNPs have been successfully synthesized with particle size distribution in the ranges of 3-10 nm and 68-164 nm, which are smaller than their previously prepared original polysaccharides and MFP-Fe(iii). The Fe3O4@MFPNPs showed better antioxidant activity in comparison to MFP and MFP-Fe(iii). The difference in the antioxidant activity between Fe3O4@MFPNPs and MFP-Fe(iii), both of which were modified based on elemental iron, may be attributed to their different conformations: MFP-Fe(iii) were rod-shaped, while Fe3O4@MFPNPs were spherical. Furthermore, Fe3O4@MFPNPs also exhibited greater absorption in the small intestine, which can promote its application in human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo03047fDOI Listing
March 2020

Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of whey protein isolate-inulin conjugates obtained by Maillard reaction.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 10;150:326-335. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640, China; Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The functional properties and physiological functions of whey protein isolate (WPI) decreased near its isoelectric point (PI). The Maillard reaction covalently binding polysaccharides to proteins is an effective method to improve the functional activities of proteins. WPI-inulin conjugates were prepared by wet-heating method at 70 °C for 2 h, 4 h and 6 h, respectively. New bonds at higher molecular zone appearing at SDS-PAGE, decreased free amino acid content and new formed CN bonds in FT-IR of conjugates compared with WPI confirmed the formation of the covalent bonds between WPI and inulin. As the increase of the reaction time, both the brown intensity and fluorescence intensity of WPI-inulin conjugates became higher. Amino acid contents, Circular dichroism analysis and SEM analysis presented the primary structure, secondary structure and surface structure change of protein after covalent with inulin. Emulsion properties of emulsion activity (EAI) and emulsion stability (ES) of WPI-inulin conjugates were assessed and both showed significantly enhanced compared with WPI at range of pH 3 to pH 7. AAPH scavenging test and ORAC measurement also revealed that covalent binding with inulin enhanced the antioxidant activities of WPI. This work presented the conjugation with inulin successfully enhanced the functional properties of WPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.086DOI Listing
May 2020

Assessment of the Phenolic Profiles, Hypoglycemic Activity, and Molecular Mechanism of Different Highland Barley ( L.) Varieties.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 11;21(4). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The phenolic profiles, hypoglycemic activity, and molecular mechanism of the effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of four highland barley varieties were investigated in the present study. The fundamental phenolics in highland barley were ferulic acid, naringin, and catechin, which mainly existed in bound form. These varieties showed favorable hypoglycemic activity via inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, enhancement of glucose consumption, glycogen accumulation and glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2) activity, and down-regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities. Specifically, ZQ320 variety exhibited the strongest hypoglycemic activity compared to the other varieties. Highland barley phenolics could inhibit gluconeogenesis and motivate glycogen synthesis via down-regulating the gene expression of G6Pase, PEPCK, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), while activating the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (Akt), GYS2, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). Therefore, phenolics from highland barley could be served as suitable candidates for therapeutic agent in T2DM to improve human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072826PMC
February 2020

Effect of Fructus Mori. bioactive polysaccharide conjugation on improving functional and antioxidant activity of whey protein.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Apr 21;148:761-767. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Whey protein with high biological and technological values is an excellent source of nutrition. However, the limited functional properties prevent its widespread applications in food industry. In this study, the whey protein functionality was improved via glycation with mulberry fruit polysaccharide by Maillard reaction. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile and free amino groups determination confirmed the glycation occurred between whey protein and mulberry fruit polysaccharide. The emulsion capacity and stability of the conjugates were 1.40-fold and 1.52-fold higher than that of whey protein. The conjugates also exhibited remarkably improved antioxidant activity. The fish oil emulsion coated by conjugates demonstrated smaller droplet size, better storage and oxidative stability than that stabilized by whey protein. The findings would be of vital importance for updated understanding of the modification in emulsifying properties of proteins by glycation with natural bioactive polysaccharides as well as for the development of healthy foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.01.195DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of Orange Extracts on Longevity, Healthspan, and Stress Resistance in .

Molecules 2020 Jan 15;25(2). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Orange, with various bioactive phytochemicals, exerts various beneficial health effects, including anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-aging effects remain unclear. In this study, the () model was used to evaluate the effects of orange extracts on lifespan and stress resistance. The results indicated that orange extracts dose-dependently increased the mean lifespan of by 10.5%, 18.0%, and 26.2% at the concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, orange extracts promoted the healthspan by improving motility, and decreasing the accumulation of age pigment and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels without damaging fertility. The survival rates of orange extract-fed worms were obviously higher than those of untreated worms against thermal and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) stress. Moreover, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly enhanced while malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were diminished. Further investigation revealed that worms supplemented with orange extracts resulted in upregulated levels of genes, including , , , , and , and the downregulation of expression. These findings revealed that orange extracts have potential anti-aging effects through extending the lifespan, enhancing stress resistance, and promoting the healthspan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024185PMC
January 2020

Nobiletin Delays Aging and Enhances Stress Resistance of .

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 4;21(1). Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Nobiletin (NOB), one of polymethoxyflavone existing in citrus fruits, has been reported to exhibit a multitude of biological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-atherosclerosis, neuroprotection, and anti-tumor activity. However, little is known about the anti-aging effect of NOB. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NOB on lifespan, stress resistance, and its associated gene expression. Using , an in vivo nematode model, we found that NOB remarkably extended the lifespan; slowed aging-related functional declines; and increased the resistance against various stressors, including heat shock and ultraviolet radiation. Also, NOB reduced the effects of paraquat stressor on nematodes and scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, gene expression revealed that NOB upregulated the expression of , , , , , and , which was suggested that anti-aging activity of NOB was mediated most likely by activation of the target genes of the transcription factors including dauer formation (DAF)-16, heat-shock transcription factor (HSF)-1, and skinhead (SKN)-1. In summary, NOB has potential application in extension of lifespan, and its associated healthspan and stress resistances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981590PMC
January 2020

Whole Grain Brown Rice Extrudate Ameliorates the Symptoms of Diabetes by Activating the IRS1/PI3K/AKT Insulin Pathway in db/db Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Oct 9;67(42):11657-11664. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall , Cornell University , Ithaca , New York 14853 , United States.

The therapeutic benefits of whole grains on diabetes mellitus have been continuously confirmed by in-depth research. To date, limited studies have investigated the effect of extruded products of whole grains on the insulin signaling pathway in vivo. This study investigated the effects of oral consumption of whole grain extrudate, including 97% brown rice and 3% defatted rice bran (w/w, BRD), on glucose metabolism and the hepatic insulin signaling pathway in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. BRD treatment induced a remarkable reduction in blood glucose. Moreover, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were ameliorated in the BRD-treated group compared with those in the db/db control group. BRD also increased the hepatic glycogen content by reducing the expression and increasing the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and their respective mRNA expression levels in the liver were simultaneously decreased in the BRD-treated group. BRD also significantly upregulated the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and protein kinase B (AKT). These results indicate that BRD exhibits antidiabetic potential by activating the IRS1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, further regulating the expression of the gene and p-GSK3β protein, thus inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, increasing hepatic glycogen storage, and improving insulin resistance. Therefore, BRD could be used as a functional ingredient to alleviate the symptoms of hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04684DOI Listing
October 2019

Red-jambo peel extract shows antiproliferative activity against HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

Food Res Int 2019 10 20;124:93-100. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY ZIP 14850-2824, USA.

The peel of the red-jambo concentrates the majority of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of the fruit. Minor phenolic compounds in this part of the fruit are still unknown, as well as the effect of its extracts in in vitro and in vivo studies. In an ethanolic extract of red-jambo, a wider range of phenolic compounds was investigated and the antioxidant cellular antioxidant activity and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation were evaluated for the first time. Using HPLC-FLD/DAD for phenolic compounds determination, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate were found for the first time in the peel of the red-jambo fruit. The anthocyanins found (cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside) were the flavonoid class strongly correlated with the antioxidant capacity methods used in this study (cellular antioxidant activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity). The ethanolic extract of the peel showed significant effect on reducing the tumoral cell growth and proliferation. Antiproliferative activity of phytochemicals showed no significant correlative relations with total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins, demonstrating which the antiproliferative effect of the extract could be due to the synergic action among the compounds in red-jambo peel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.08.040DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparative assessment of phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cultivars.

J Food Biochem 2019 11 28;43(11):e13025. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

The present study was designed to analyze and compare phytochemical activities of four different cultivars of kiwifruit. Among all investigated varieties, Hua You (HY) and Cui Xiang (CUX) displayed the maximum concentration of phytochemical content, and the highest total phenolic results were observed in HY and CUX cultivars with 220.20 ± 1.12 mg GAE/100 g and 218.04 ± 1.11 mg GAE/100 g FW, respectively. Likewise, the richest total flavonoids results were estimated in red kiwifruit (RKF) and CUX varieties with 49.082 ± 0.14 mg CE/100 g FW and 48.327 ± 0.14 mg CE/100 g FW, respectively. Moreover, tests for oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) were observed maximum in RKF cultivar showing 131.229 ± 5.91 μM Trolox equivalent/g FW and 85.957 ± 11.75 μM vitamin C equivalent/g FW, respectively. Furthermore, the highest cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) with No PBS wash protocol was depicted in RKF 237.544 ± 4.12 μM QE equivalent/g FW with the lowest EC 0.0128 mg/ml. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the presence of ferulic acid, naringin, gallic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, and catechin in kiwifruit. Catechin as one main content in our study is consistent with the recent reports. The result suggested that the phytochemical profile and bioactivities were significantly affected by the type of cultivars. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Kiwifruit is widely consumed over the world for its rich nutritious and medicinal values. Currently, phytochemicals are considered as one of the main bioactive components of kiwifruits, which are responsible for lots of bioactivities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities. There are varieties of kiwifruits, and the bioactive components and bioactivities are greatly affected by the cultivars. But there have been no comparative studies on the phytochemicals from different varieties. This study aimed to make a comprehensive assessments of the free, bound, and total phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the chemical-based and cell-based antioxidant activities of four different subspecies of kiwifruit. This work would be beneficial to elucidate the function differences of different kiwifruit phytochemicals, promote its further research, as well as provide a basis for selecting cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13025DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of In Vitro Digestion on Phytochemical Profiles and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Whole Grains.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Jun 13;67(25):7016-7024. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Food Science , Cornell University , Ithaca , New York 14853-7201 , United States.

Most of the previous in vitro digestion treatments were conducted directly to whole grains without extraction of free phenolics, thus the bioaccessible phenolics contained both free phenolics that survived the digestion and digested phenolics released by digestion. However, the profiles of digested phenolics released by digestion remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free, digested, and bound fractions of whole grains. Total phenolic contents of whole grains were highest in digested fraction, followed by free and bound fractions. The predominant phenolics were 12 phenolic acids and one flavonoid, which mostly existed in bound forms, then in digested and free forms. The digested phenolics bound to proteins were in conjugated form. The bound fractions had the highest PSCs, followed by free and digested fractions. CAAs were highest in bound fractions, followed by digested and free fractions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b02245DOI Listing
June 2019

A comparison study on polysaccharides extracted from Fructus Mori using different methods: structural characterization and glucose entrapment.

Food Funct 2019 Jun;10(6):3684-3695

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640, China.

In this study, the structure characteristics and the hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit polysaccharides obtained by the commonly used hot water (MFPh)-, ultrasonic (MFPu)-, acid (MFPc)- and alkali (MFPa)-assisted extraction methods were investigated. NMR analysis indicated that the four polysaccharides had similar glycosidic linkage patterns. Scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that the surface morphology of the polysaccharides was greatly affected by the extraction methods. The results of the bioactivity assays indicated that MFPh exhibited stronger antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities than the other polysaccharides. Moreover, all the polysaccharides showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activities except for MFPu with the lowest molecular weight. These results suggested that acid, alkali, and ultrasonic-assisted extractions have different effects on the degradation of polysaccharides without changing the main structure compared with hot water extraction. In addition, the molecular weight of polysaccharides plays a key role in the bioactivity of the mulberry fruit polysaccharides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00026gDOI Listing
June 2019

Structure and in vitro hypoglycemic activity of a homogenous polysaccharide purified from Sargassum pallidum.

Food Funct 2019 May;10(5):2828-2838

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

This study aimed at investigating the structure, hypoglycemic activity and the underlying mechanism of a homogeneous polysaccharide (PSP-2) purified from Sargassum pallidum. Structural characterization revealed that PSP-2 with a molecular weight of 144.8 kDa was composed of fucose (21.6%), arabinose (2.5%), galactose (22.4%), glucose (2.2%), xylose (18.8%), mannose (1.2%), glucuronic acid (7.7%) and galacturonic acid (23.6%). The backbone chain of PSP-2 was composed of →1)-β-d-Xylp-(3→, →1,3)-β-l-Fucp-(4→, →1)-α-d-Galp-(6→, and →1)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(2→, and the side chains were composed of →1,3,6)-α-d-Galp-(2→, →3)-β-l-Fucp-(1,4→, β-d-GalpNAc-(1→, and α-d-Manp-(1→. In vitro hypoglycemic assays indicated that PSP-2 could significantly enhance glucose consumption, glycogen synthesis, and pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) activities of insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the underlying mechanistic studies revealed that PSP-2 could ameliorate insulin resistance by up-regulating the expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), glycogen synthase (GS), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4). These results suggested that PSP-2 may be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02525hDOI Listing
May 2019

Comparative Study of Phenolic Profiles, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities in Different Vegetative Parts of Ramie ( L.).

Molecules 2019 Apr 19;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Food Science, Stocking Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Ramie ( L.) is usually cultivated as a fiber crop, but it is also well known for its potential use in animal feeding with viable commercial applications. In this study, the phenolics profile as well as cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities were investigated in free and bound fractions of six different vegetative parts from L. The highest total phenolic content was observed in bud (4585 ± 320 mg GAE/100 g DW), whereas root and petiole had the lowest total phenolic contents, 442.8 ± 9.8 and 630.9 ± 27.0 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. Likewise, phloem had the most abundant total flavonoids (2755 ± 184 mg CE/100 g DW), whereas the lowest flavonoid contents was found in root and petiole, 636.9 ± 44.2 and 797.4 ± 87.6 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. Xylem and bud depicted remarkable antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, which could be explained by their diverse phenolic composition, especially chlorogenic acid and epicatechin. The L. plant might be a valuable resource for high value-added phenolic compounds used in food and non-food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514799PMC
April 2019