Publications by authors named "Rui Feng"

609 Publications

Gradient-cell-structured high-entropy alloy with exceptional strength and ductility.

Science 2021 Sep 23:eabj8114. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, P.R. China.

Most multicomponent high-entropy alloys (HEAs) lose ductility with increasing strength, similar to conventional materials. We controllably introduced novel gradient nano-scaled dislocation-cell structures in one stable single-phase face-centered-cubic HEA, which result in enhanced strength without apparently losing ductility. The sample-level structural-gradient induces the progressive formation of a high density of tiny stacking-faults (SFs) and twins upon early straining, nucleating from abundant low-angle dislocation cells. Furthermore, the SF-induced plasticity and the resultant refined structures, coupled with intensively accumulated dislocations, contribute to the plasticity, extra strengthening and work hardening. Our findings offer a promising paradigm for tailoring properties with gradient-dislocation cells at the nanoscale and advance our fundamental understanding of the intrinsic deformation behavior of HEAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abj8114DOI Listing
September 2021

HMGA2 contributes to vascular development and sprouting angiogenesis by promoting IGFBP2 production.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Sep 18:112831. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Institute for Developmental and Regenerative Cardiovascular Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200092, China; Department of Pediatric Cardiovascular, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels form from preexisting vessels and regulates the processes of embryonic development, wound healing and tumorigenesis. HMGA2 is involved in the occurrence of several cancers, but its biological role and the exact downstream genes involved in vascular development and sprouting angiogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we first found that HMGA2 knockdown in zebrafish embryos resulted in defects of central artery formation. RNA sequencing revealed that IGFBP2 was significantly downregulated by interference with HMGA2, and IGFBP2 overexpression reversed the inhibition of brain vascular development caused by HMGA2 deficiency. In vitro, we further found that HMGA2 knockdown blocked the migration, tube formation and branching of HUVECs. Similarly, IGFBP2 protein overexpression attenuated the impairments induced by HMGA2 deficiency. Moreover, the promotion of angiogenesis by HMGA2 overexpression was verified in a Matrigel plug assay. We next found that HMGA2 bound directly to a region in the IGFBP2 promoter and positively regulated IGFBP2 expression. Interestingly, the mRNA expression levels of HMGA2 and IGFBP2 were increased significantly in the peripheral blood of hemangioma patients, indicating that overexpression of HMGA2 and IGFBP2 results in vessel formation, consistent with the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments. In summary, our findings demonstrate that HMGA2 promotes central artery formation by modulating angiogenesis via IGFBP2 induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112831DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparative responsiveness of cutaneous lupus erythematosus patients to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil: a cohort study.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Dermatology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VAMC, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.09.017DOI Listing
September 2021

Strength can be controlled by edge dislocations in refractory high-entropy alloys.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 16;12(1):5474. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Laboratory for Multiscale Mechanics Modeling, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Energy efficiency is motivating the search for new high-temperature (high-T) metals. Some new body-centered-cubic (BCC) random multicomponent "high-entropy alloys (HEAs)" based on refractory elements (Cr-Mo-Nb-Ta-V-W-Hf-Ti-Zr) possess exceptional strengths at high temperatures but the physical origins of this outstanding behavior are not known. Here we show, using integrated in-situ neutron-diffraction (ND), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and recent theory, that the high strength and strength retention of a NbTaTiV alloy and a high-strength/low-density CrMoNbV alloy are attributable to edge dislocations. This finding is surprising because plastic flows in BCC elemental metals and dilute alloys are generally controlled by screw dislocations. We use the insight and theory to perform a computationally-guided search over 10 BCC HEAs and identify over 10 possible ultra-strong high-T alloy compositions for future exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25807-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Oxidative stress induced by realgar in neurons: p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 perturb autophagy and induce the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 feedback loop to activate the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 4;282:114582. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Health Laboratory Technology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China; The Key Laboratory of Liaoning Province on Toxic and Biological Effects of Arsenic, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Due to the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the influence of traditional medication habits (TCM has no toxicity or side effects), arsenic poisoning incidents caused by the abuse of realgar and realgar-containing Chinese patent medicines have occurred occasionally. However, the potential mechanism of central nervous system toxicity of realgar remains unclear.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to clarify the specific mechanism of realgar-induced neurotoxicity.

Materials And Methods: In this study, the roles of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in realgar-induced neuronal autophagy and overactivation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2-related factor (Nrf2) signalling pathways was investigated in vivo and in vitro.

Results: The arsenic in realgar passed through the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain, resulting in damage to neurons, synapses and myelin sheaths in the cerebral cortex and a decrease in the total antioxidant capacity. The specific mechanism is that the excessive activation of Nrf2 is regulated by the upstream signalling molecules ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. At the same time, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 interfere with autophagy, thereby promoting autophagy initiation but causing subsequent dysfunctional autophagic degradation and inducing the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 feedback loop to promote Nrf2 signalling pathway activation and nerve cell apoptosis.

Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of the signalling molecules p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in perturbing autophagy and inducing the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 feedback loop to activate the Nrf2 signalling pathway in realgar-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114582DOI Listing
September 2021

Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing renin-angiotensin system.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Spine Disease Research Institute, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200032, China.

The nutritional level of vitamin D may affect musculoskeletal health. We have reported that vitamin D is a pivotal protector against tissue injuries by suppressing local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This study aimed to explore the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the protection against muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanism. A cross-sectional study on participants (n = 1034) in Shanghai (China) was performed to analyze the association between vitamin D level and the risk of low muscle strength as well as to detect the circulating level of angiotensin II (Ang II). In animal studies, dexamethasone (Dex) was applied to induce muscle atrophy in wild-type (WT) and VDR-null mice, and the mice with the induction of muscle atrophy were treated with calcitriol for 10 days. The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 and the muscle satellite cells were applied in in vitro studies. The increased risk of low muscle strength was correlated to a lower level of vitamin D (adjusted OR, 0.58) accompanied by an elevation in serum Ang II level. Ang II impaired the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts as illustrated by the decrease in the area of myotubes and the down-regulation of myogenic factors (MHC & MyoD). The phenotype of muscle atrophy induced by Dex and Ang II was aggravated by VDR ablation in mice and in muscle satellite cells, respectively, and mediated by RAS and its downstream PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Calcitriol treatment exhibited beneficial effects on muscle function as demonstrated by the increased weight-loaded swimming time, grip strength and fiber area, and improved fiber type composition via regulating ubiquitin ligases and their substrates MHC and MyoD through suppressing renin/Ang II axis. Taken together, VDR protects against skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing RAS. Vitamin D could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4441DOI Listing
September 2021

A Rapid Screening Method for Sibutramine Hydrochloride in Natural Herbal Medicines and Dietary Supplements.

Int J Anal Chem 2021 25;2021:8889423. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Resource from Lingnan, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Herbal weight loss drugs are becoming more widely used in the fight against obesity, but ineffective regulation of these products have resulted in harmful additives. These products may contain adulterants such as sibutramine hydrochloride that may result in serious adverse health events including death. This work established a color precipitation reaction-based rapid screening method for illegal adulteration of sibutramine hydrochloride in natural herbal medicines (NHM) and dietary supplements (DS). While a variety of chromatography- and electrophoresis-based systems have been reported to measure this analyte, they generally suffer from high costs, complicated sample preparation, and a costly analytical infrastructure. In contrast, we present a simple, handheld kit to assay for sibutramine. The performance metrics of this tool include an average detection time of approximately 3 minutes, which is markedly shorter than conventional methods (HPLC or HPLC-MS, etc.), a detection limit of 0.1 mg per aliquot, and an accuracy of 99.02% ( = 820). More strikingly, the sensitivity is 100% ( = 278), and the specificity is 98.52% ( = 542). The rapid test kit developed from this screening method was evaluated by FDA. In summary, this screening method is a rapid, simple, and low-cost tool for the detection of sibutramine in NHM and DS with superior selectivity and sensitivity. For these reasons, this method is especially suitable for underdeveloped settings because it can be employed onsite without any instrumentation. In addition, this approach could rapidly exclude most of the negative samples to boost efficiency in large-scale samples assay. If necessary, positive samples can undergo further alternate testing methods to confirm the positive results of sibutramine hydrochloride content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8889423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413021PMC
August 2021

Preliminary definition of flare in cutaneous lupus erythematosus using the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Dermatology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.036DOI Listing
August 2021

Cutaneous lupus concerns from the patient perspective: a qualitative study.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 08;8(1)

Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Objective: There is a need to identify concerns unique to patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), which may not be captured by current common-practice dermatological quality-of-life tools. This study formally characterises what bothers patients with CLE about their disease by conducting semistructured, qualitative interviews.

Methods: Sixteen patients with CLE were interviewed about how their cutaneous findings impact their daily life. Each interview was transcribed, coded and categorised for recurrent themes. Current CLE activity and damage were also assessed by the Cutaneous Lupus Activity and Severity Index tool.

Results: Responses were categorised into six themes, including Fear of Disease Progression, Unwanted Attention, Self-Consciousness, Physical Signs/Symptoms, Emotional Symptoms and Functional Decline. The most commonly reported themes were Self-Consciousness, mentioned by 13 of 16 (81.3%) patients, Physical Symptoms, mentioned by 12 of 16 (75%), and then Fear of Disease Progression, by 11 of 16 (68.8%). Frequently mentioned physical signs/symptoms included erythema, itch, dyspigmentation, scar and alopecia. The physical signs/symptoms were categorised as activity signs/symptoms, damage signs and other. For activity signs, erythema was mentioned most frequently (5 of 16), then scale (2 of 16). For activity symptoms, itch was mentioned most frequently (6 of 16), then pain (5 of 16). For damage signs, dyspigmentation was mentioned most frequently (4 of 16), followed by scarring (3 of 16). Patients less than 60 years old were more likely to report emotional symptoms than older patients (p<0.05), but there was no significant variation in frequency of reported themes between race, sex or subtype of CLE.

Conclusions: These patient experiences and resultant themes elucidated by this study are worth noting in future standardised estimations of the quality of life of patients with CLE. Additionally, the concerns shown by these interviews are important topics for providers to discuss when evaluating patient disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/lupus-2020-000444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404455PMC
August 2021

Triclosan-induced glycolysis drives inflammatory activation in microglia via the Akt/mTOR/HIF 1α signaling pathway.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 17;224:112664. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Health Laboratory Technology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110122, PR China. Electronic address:

Exposure to triclosan (TCS) has been implicated in neurotoxicity including autism spectrum disorders in vivo and oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in vitro. Thus, the molecular mechanisms underlying TCS-induced neurotoxicity warrants further research. In this study, we try to address the mode of action that TCS induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines by shifting metabolism to glycolysis. BV-2 cells were treated with 20 μM TCS for 24 h, and the conditional medium from TCS-induced activated microglia reduced the viability of the murine hippocampal neurons cell line HT22. Protein expression levels in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway were measured through Western blotting, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokine were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that exposure to TCS enhanced NF-κB activation, increased inflammatory cytokine expression including interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in the BV-2 cells. The glucose consumption and lactate production in BV2 cell increased sharply after exposure to TCS for 24 h. Based on our qPCR and Western blotting results, the expression of the key glycolysis enzymes-namely hexokinase 1, pyruvate kinase M2, and lactate dehydrogenase A-increased after treatment with 20 μM TCS. Furthermore, inhibiting glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduced the activation of NF-κB and the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines in the TCS-activated BV-2 microglia. The expression of the proteins of the Akt/mTOR/HIF1α pathway examined through Western blotting, which regulates glycolysis, also increased in the BV2 cells exposed to TCS. Moreover, Akt and mTOR inhibition by using LY294002 and rapamycin, respectively, blocked inflammatory cytokine overexpression induced by TCS. In conclusion, TCS can induce glycolysis and directly drive inflammatory activation in microglia; with the mediation of the Akt/mTOR/HIF1α pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112664DOI Listing
August 2021

Canagliflozin is a potential cardioprotective drug but exerts no significant effects on pirarubicin‑induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Mol Med Rep 2021 10 9;24(4). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuanjiagang, Yuzhong, Chongqing 400042, P.R. China.

Pirarubicin (THP), one of the anthracycline anticancer drugs, is widely used in the treatment of various types of cancer, but its cardiotoxicity cannot be ignored. Canagliflozin, the first sodium‑glucose co‑transporter‑2 inhibitor approved by the USA FDA, has been shown to have a significant effect on cardiovascular damage caused by diabetes. However, it has not been reported whether it can resist THP‑induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of canagliflozin on THP‑induced cardiotoxicity and its mechanism. A rat model of cardiotoxicity induced by THP was established and canagliflozin treatment was performed at the same time. The changes of electrocardiography, cardiac coefficient and echocardiogram were observed. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase, brain natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase MB, cardiac troponin T, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde were detected. The expression of SOD2, NADPH oxidase 2, pro/cleaved‑caspase‑ and Bcl‑2/Bax were evaluated by western blotting. The primary culture of cardiomyocytes was prepared to explore the effect . After eight weeks, a series of cardiotoxicity manifestations were observed in THP rats. However, canagliflozin treatment had no significant effect on the above adverse reactions. Similarly, further studies showed that canagliflozin had no significant effect on THP‑induced cardiomyocyte injury . The present study showed that there was no significant protective effect of canagliflozin on THP‑induced cardiotoxicity and cardiomyocyte injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12342DOI Listing
October 2021

Efficient removal of organic pollutants by a Co/N/S-doped yolk-shell carbon catalyst via peroxymonosulfate activation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 23;421:126726. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, PR China.

Carbon-based catalysts with heteroatom doping and hollow structures are desired for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Herein, dual-shelled Co, N, and S codoped hollow carbon nanocages were developed by wrapping zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) with trithiocyanuric acid (TCA) and performing subsequent carbonization. The optimal composite catalyst (Co-NC-CoS) exhibited excellent catalytic performance toward different organic pollutants. Almost complete removal of 4-NP (60 mg/L) was achieved within 20 min by 10 mg of catalyst and 0.2 g/L peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Moreover, the catalyst showed good stability and reusability. The effects of catalyst and PMS dose, pollutant concentration, pH and common anions were investigated, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied by scavenger experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tests. The results show that multidoped atoms S, Co and N all contributed to the degradation system. Several lines of evidence suggested that S could change the catalytic process from Co/Co to Co/Co/Co reduction due to its low redox potential. Degradation was achieved through both radical and nonradical pathways, where sulfate radicals (SO, hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (O) were primary reactive species. Overall, this work may suggest that the novel multi heteroatom-doped catalysts with complex structures can be developed for environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126726DOI Listing
July 2021

High-throughput design of high-performance lightweight high-entropy alloys.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 15;12(1):4329. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Developing affordable and light high-temperature materials alternative to Ni-base superalloys has significantly increased the efforts in designing advanced ferritic superalloys. However, currently developed ferritic superalloys still exhibit low high-temperature strengths, which limits their usage. Here we use a CALPHAD-based high-throughput computational method to design light, strong, and low-cost high-entropy alloys for elevated-temperature applications. Through the high-throughput screening, precipitation-strengthened lightweight high-entropy alloys are discovered from thousands of initial compositions, which exhibit enhanced strengths compared to other counterparts at room and elevated temperatures. The experimental and theoretical understanding of both successful and failed cases in their strengthening mechanisms and order-disorder transitions further improves the accuracy of the thermodynamic database of the discovered alloy system. This study shows that integrating high-throughput screening, multiscale modeling, and experimental validation proves to be efficient and useful in accelerating the discovery of advanced precipitation-strengthened structural materials tuned by the high-entropy alloy concept.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24523-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282813PMC
July 2021

Elevated Plasma Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 and Tissue-Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1 Associate with Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Division of Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Division of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

Background: Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) respond to tissue damage during sepsis. Higher plasma concentrations of MMPs and the tissue-inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) have been reported in sepsis compared to healthy controls. The objective of this study was to examine if plasma levels of MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 associate with mortality and organ dysfunction during sepsis.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with sepsis adjudicated per Sepsis-3 criteria at a tertiary academic medical center. We measured plasma concentrations of MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 on ICU admission. We phenotyped the subjects for shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury (AKI), and mortality at 30 days. We used logistic regression to test the associations between the MMPs and TIMP-1 with shock, ARDS, AKI, and mortality.

Results: Higher plasma TIMP-1 levels were associated with shock (odds ratio (OR) 1.51 per log increase [95%CI 1.25, 1.83]), ARDS (OR 1.24 [95%CI 1.05, 1.46]); AKI (OR 1.18 [95%CI 1.01, 1.38]), and mortality (OR 1.20 [95%CI 1.05, 1.46]. Higher plasma MMP-3 concentrations were associated with shock (OR 1.40 [95%CI 1.12, 1.75]) and mortality (OR 1.24 [95%CI 1.03, 1.48]) whereas MMP-9 levels were not associated with outcomes. Higher plasma TIMP-1 to MMP-3 ratios were associated with shock (OR 1.41 95%CI 1.15, 1.72], p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Elevated plasma concentrations of TIMP-1 associate with organ dysfunction and mortality in sepsis. Higher plasma levels of MMP-3 associate with shock and mortality. Plasma MMP and TIMP-1 may warrant further investigation as emerging sepsis theragnostic biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001833DOI Listing
July 2021

Physiological and transcriptional analysis of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) in response to acute nitrite stress.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Aug 13;237:105899. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

School of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding 071000, China. Electronic address:

Nitrite is a harmful substance in aquaculture, and has a serious impact on the survival of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis. However, the cellular responses of P. sinensis to nitrite stress have not yet been investigated. The present study showed that nitrite led to a decrease in hemoglobin content and an increase in methemoglobin content in the blood, thus reducing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in P. sinensis. Nitrite also affects the antioxidant system of the liver and leads to lipid peroxidation. In addition, nitrite caused immune responses, including a decrease in lysozyme content and an increase in total complement activity, interleukin-6, and heme oxygenase concentrations in the serum. Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that apoptosis occurred in liver cells. Finally, a comparative transcriptome analysis was conducted. A total of 573 differentially expressed genes and 15 significantly enriched KEGG pathways were identified. Among them, the glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) gene may relieve nitrite-induced oxidative damage in P. sinensis by participating in a variety of redox-related pathways, while the PPAR signaling pathway has been proposed to play an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism and immune responses. The present study comprehensively explored the cellular responses of P. sinensis to nitrite stress and provided guidance for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105899DOI Listing
August 2021

Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor (Nf)-kb Ligand Promotes T Helper 17 Cell Differentiation through Fas.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jul 8:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China.

T helper 17 (Th17) cells play important role in the defense against pathogens and autoimmune diseases. Many cytokines can induce Th17 cell differentiation. However, the mechanism of Th17 cell differentiation is not well clarified. RankL, a member of the TNF superfamily, binds with Rank and then participates in the proliferation and differentiation of many kinds of cells. Recent studies showed that RankL-Rank signaling is closely related to Th17 differentiation and function. The detail of the Rank-RankL pathway in Th17 cell differentiation is still unclear. To illustrate the role of Rank-RankL in Th17 differentiation, naive CD4 + T cells were differentiated into Th17 cells with or without RankL stimulation. During Th17 differentiation, the expression of Rank obviously increased. The RankL stimulation significantly increased Th17 cell differentiation indicated by increased IL-17-positive cell number, highly expressed IL-17 and IL-22 and elevated IL-17 secretion. These effects were canceled by Rank-Fc addition. In further study, RankL treatment during Th17 differentiation up-regulated Fas expression. Fas knockdown inhibited the Th17 differentiation promoted by RankL. In this study, it was confirmed that Rank-RankL signaling could promote Th17 cell differentiation through Fas induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1948050DOI Listing
July 2021

Performance Evaluation of Nasal Prong Interface for CPAP Delivery on a Critical Care Ventilator: A Bench Experiment.

Respir Care 2021 Oct 6;66(10):1514-1520. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Division of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The RAM cannula (Neotech, Valencia, CA) has become a commonly used interface for CPAP in neonatal intensive care. Performance characteristics of this interface used with a critical care ventilator are not well described.

Methods: This was a bench study utilizing a lung simulator configured as an actively breathing infant (weights of 800 g, 1.5 kg, and 3 kg) with moderate lung disease and a critical care ventilator in CPAP mode with leak compensation on. Three sizes of the RAM cannulae (preemie, newborn, and infant) were compared to 3 BabyFlow nasal prongs (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) (medium, large, and extra-large). Fabricated nasal models produced a 70% occlusive fit for the RAM cannula and an occlusive fit with the Dräger prongs. Delivered flow and pressure levels were recorded at 9 CPAP levels between 5 and 20 cm HO.

Results: The Dräger prongs produced a mean airway pressure ([Formula: see text]) within 0.20 cm HO (range -0.10 to 0.35) of the set CPAP across all evaluated prong sizes and CPAP levels. In contrast, the RAM cannula produced [Formula: see text] values that averaged 8.5 cm HO (range -15 to -3.5) below the set CPAP levels. The deficit in delivered versus target CPAP level for the RAM cannula increased with greater set CPAP. Set CPAP of 5 cm HO delivered [Formula: see text] values that ranged from 0.6 to 1.5 cm HO (difference of 3.5-4.4 cm HO). Set CPAP of 20 cm HO delivered [Formula: see text] values that ranged from 5.0 to 8.4 cm HO (difference of 11.7-15 cm HO). Inspiratory flow required to achieve set CPAP levels did not differ between interfaces, suggesting high resistance in the RAM cannula device masks the delivered CPAP levels.

Conclusions: Use of the RAM cannula with a 30% leak on a critical care ventilator delivered [Formula: see text] values lower than set CPAP. This may be clinically meaningful and should be considered when choosing a nasal interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.09018DOI Listing
October 2021

[Determination of nine ginsenosides in health foods by solid extraction phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2021 May;39(5):526-533

Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808, China.

Ginsenosides are the main active compounds of ginseng, American ginseng and Panax notoginseng. They have certain pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular, immune and central nervous systems. Most ginsenosides are naturally classified as protopanaxatriol (PPT), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and oleanolic acid (OA) according to their aglycone skeletons. The nine main ginsenosides are Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1 and Rg2. Accurate quantification of ginsenosides is imperative because they are the characteristic components and quality evaluation indicators of health foods. A new method based on solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of the nine ginsenosides in health foods. First, the pretreatment conditions were optimized. With the aim of purifying the samples and removing impurities, SPE cartridges with different packing materials, such as Alumina-N/XAD-2 SPE Cartridge, C18 and HLB were investigated. Based on the purification efficiencies, recoveries and other factors, the Alumina-N/XAD-2 SPE cartridge composite SPE column was selected as the pretreatment purification column. The eluents were then optimized. When water was used as the eluent, the ginsenosides could remain adsorbed on the SPE column, and could not be eluted down with other water-soluble substances. By increasing the proportion of ethanol in the eluent, the ginsenoside adsorbed on the filler of the SPE column could be gradually eluted. When the proportion of ethanol in the eluent reached 70%, the ginsenosides could be completely eluted. The effects of different volumes of 70% ethanol elution solvent (5-30 mL) on the extraction efficiencies of ginsenosides were also investigated. The results showed that when the volume of the elution solvent reached 20 mL, the ginsenosides were completely eluted. Then, the chromatographic conditions and MS parameters were optimized. By examining the ionization cracking of ginsenosides, the quasi-molecular ions and corresponding fragment ions in ginsenoside primary MS were determined. After optimizing the chromatographic conditions and MS parameters, not only the sensitivity of the method was improved, but also the isomers Rb2, Rb3 and Rc with the same quasi-molecular ions and the corresponding fragment ions were completely separated. Good separation was achieved for the nine ginsenosides, thus meeting the requirements for accurate quantification. Finally, chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil Gold C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) under linear gradient elution using a 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (with 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile as the mobile phases. The nine ginsenosides were detected using a triple quadrupole MS detector under ESI and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, and quantified by the external standard method. The nine ginsenosides showed a strong positive linear correlation ( >0.9950) in the range of 0.005-0.5 μg/mL. The sample recoveries and the corresponding relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 81.1%-114.2% and 0.4%-8.0% (=6), respectively. Eleven batches of health foods on the market, among which six batches contained ginseng, American ginseng or Panax notoginseng ingredients, were analyzed by the developed method, and the ginsenosides were detected. The total ginsenosides contents were close to those mentioned on the label. However, the nine ginsenosides were detected in one batch of health food, whose label did not indicated ginseng, American ginseng or Panax notoginseng. The nine ginsenosides were not detected in the remaining batches of health foods.The health food extract was directly loaded and purified without any complex pretreatment. The UPLC⁃MS/MS method, not only helped shorten the analysis time, but also accurate quantification of low ginsenoside contents in complex matrix samples. The developed method is simple and rapid, with high throughput, thus being suitable for the quantitative analysis of the nine ginsenosides in health foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.04028DOI Listing
May 2021

Index-Based Dietary Patterns and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

Adv Nutr 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Diet is one of the most critical factors for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A whole dietary pattern should be considered when doing nutrient-based research to preserve the potential for synergism between nutrients. Dietary indices are important tools to evaluate diet quality, and we investigated the associations of it with IBD. Fourteen studies on the relation between index-based dietary patterns and IBD were included. 6 studies showed the relation between index-based dietary patterns and IBD risk, 7 studies explored the dietary indices and progression of IBD, and 1 study investigated the relationship between index and all-cause mortality in IBD patients. These results implied that a high score on the Mediterranean diet was negatively associated with risk and progression of IBD. However, a diet with high inflammatory potential could increase risk and aggravate disease activity in IBD. Dietary scores have the potential to evaluate the association between overall diet quality and risk and progression of IBD. Future randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the effect of the change in dietary score. This review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ as CRD42020220926.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab069DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhancing fatigue life by ductile-transformable multicomponent B2 precipitates in a high-entropy alloy.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3588. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA.

Catastrophic accidents caused by fatigue failures often occur in engineering structures. Thus, a fundamental understanding of cyclic-deformation and fatigue-failure mechanisms is critical for the development of fatigue-resistant structural materials. Here we report a high-entropy alloy with enhanced fatigue life by ductile-transformable multicomponent B2 precipitates. Its cyclic-deformation mechanisms are revealed by real-time in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission-electron microscopy, crystal-plasticity modeling, and Monte-Carlo simulations. Multiple cyclic-deformation mechanisms, including dislocation slips, precipitation strengthening, deformation twinning, and reversible martensitic phase transformation, are observed in the studied high-entropy alloy. Its improved fatigue performance at low strain amplitudes, i.e., the high fatigue-crack-initiation resistance, is attributed to the high elasticity, plastic deformability, and martensitic transformation of the B2-strengthening phase. This study shows that fatigue-resistant alloys can be developed by incorporating strengthening ductile-transformable multicomponent intermetallic phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23689-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196174PMC
June 2021

Simultaneous transcatheter treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation: an in vitro study.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Aug;33(3):474-482

Department of Vascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Heart Valvular Diseases, and Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Aortic Dissection, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, China.

:

Objectives: We sought to explore the efficacy of the endovascular repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation by 2 novel valved stents.

Methods: We established models of ascending aortic aneurysms combined with aortic and mitral regurgitation in 10 pig hearts, then implanted self-expanding aortic fenestrated and mitral valved stents via the transapical approach. We applied a fluoroscopy-guided in vitro setting to test the approach, then analysed continuous circulating flushing at 37°C. Finally, we determined operating times, echocardiography and changes of coronary flow as well as fenestration alignment with the coronary ostia.

Results: This approach resulted in a 100% overall technical success rate, excellent handling properties and precise positioning. The time taken to implant the 2 valved stents was 59 ± 12 min. Flow of the left and right coronary arteries did not significantly decrease after the stents were implanted (330.4 ± 12.06 ml/min vs 289.4 ± 5.29 ml/min, P < 0.001; 376.8 ± 10.5 ml/min vs 350.0 ± 14.5 ml/min; P < 0.001). We found no obvious regurgitation and perivalvular leakage; nor did the gradients of the aortic and mitral valves as well as of the left ventricular outflow tract increase significantly. The final angiographic examination and profile of the coronary opening confirmed the good position of the valved stents, the exclusion of the aneurysm and the patency of both coronary arteries.

Conclusions: These findings indicate the potential for combined transcatheter aortic root and mitral valve replacement in treating aortic root pathologies. In future, in vivo studies are expected to validate this approach and ascertain its durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivab101DOI Listing
August 2021

Unknown Disease Outbreaks Detection: A Pilot Study on Feature-Based Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Model.

Front Public Health 2021;9:683855. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019 has rapidly swept the world, causing irreparable loss to human beings. The pandemic has shown that there is still a delay in the early response to disease outbreaks and needs a method for unknown disease outbreak detection. The study's objective is to establish a new medical knowledge representation and reasoning model, and use the model to explore the feasibility of unknown disease outbreak detection. The study defined abnormal values with diagnostic significances from clinical data as the Features, and defined the Features as the antecedents of inference rules to match with knowledge bases, achieved in detecting known or emerging infectious disease outbreaks. Meanwhile, the study built a syndromic surveillance base to capture the target cases' Features to improve the reliability and fault-tolerant ability of the system. The study combined the method with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and early COVID-19 outbreaks as empirical studies. The results showed that with suitable surveillance guidelines, the method proposed in this study was capable to detect outbreaks of SARS, MERS, and early COVID-19 pandemics. The quick matching accuracies of confirmed infection cases were 89.1, 26.3-98%, and 82%, and the syndromic surveillance base would capture the Features of the remaining cases to ensure the overall detection accuracies. Based on the early COVID-19 data in Wuhan, this study estimated that the median time of the early COVID-19 cases from illness onset to local authorities' responses could be reduced to 7.0-10.0 days. This study offers a new solution to transfer traditional medical knowledge into structured data and form diagnosis rules, enables the representation of doctors' logistic thinking and the knowledge transmission among different users. The results of empirical studies demonstrate that by constantly inputting medical knowledge into the system, the proposed method will be capable to detect unknown diseases from existing ones and perform an early response to the initial outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.683855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155365PMC
June 2021

Peel Learning for Pathway-Related Outcome Prediction.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Motivation: Traditional regression models are limited in outcome prediction due to their parametric nature. Current deep learning methods allow for various effects and interactions and have shown improved performance, but they typically need to be trained on a large amount of data to obtain reliable results. Gene expression studies often have small sample sizes but high dimensional correlated predictors so that traditional deep learning methods are not readily applicable.

Results: In this paper, we proposed peel learning, a novel neural network that incorporates the prior relationship among genes. In each layer of learning, overall structure is peeled into multiple local substructures. Within the substructure, dependency among variables is reduced through linear projections. The overall structure is gradually simplified over layers and weight parameters are optimized through a revised backpropagation. We applied PL to a small lung transplantation study to predict recipients' post-surgery primary graft dysfunction using donors' gene expressions within several immunology pathways, where PL showed improved prediction accuracy compared to conventional penalized regression, classification trees, feed-forward neural network, and a neural network assuming prior network structure. Through simulation studies, we also demonstrated the advantage of adding specific structure among predictor variables in neural network, over no or uniform group structure, which is more favorable in smaller studies. The empirical evidence is consistent with our theoretical proof of improved upper bound of PL's complexity over ordinary neural networks.

Availability And Implementation: PL algorithm was implemented in Python and the open-source code and instruction will be available at https://github.com/Likelyt/Peel-Learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab402DOI Listing
May 2021

Structural basis for neutralization of an anicteric hepatitis associated echovirus by a potent neutralizing antibody.

Cell Discov 2021 May 25;7(1):35. Epub 2021 May 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00264-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149713PMC
May 2021

Identification and characteristics of combined agrometeorological disasters caused by low temperature in a rice growing region in Liaoning Province, China.

Sci Rep 2021 05 11;11(1):9968. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang, 110166, China.

Owing to climate change, agrometeorological disasters are becoming increasingly complex. Here, we analysed the characteristics of combined agrometeorological disaster (CAD) caused by low temperature in annual rice crops in Liaoning Province, China, from 1961 to 2017. We assessed the repeat occurrence of natural disasters on rice production. The results showed that (1) there were six possible CAD scenarios in a rice growing season. These included two scenarios with one disaster in two periods (OD-1, OD-2), three scenarios with two different disasters (TD-1, TD-2, TD-3) and one with multiple disasters (MD-1). Since 1961, the overall occurrence of the six CAD scenarios showed a downward trend. Among the six scenarios, TD-1 had the greatest distribution and occurred most frequently; (2) three possible single agrometeorological disaster (SAD) scenarios may occur during a rice growing season, delayed cold damage (SAD-d), frost damage at only one stage (SAD-f), sterile-type cold damage at one stage (SAD-s). Since 1961, the SAD-d frequency decreased, whereas, since the mid-1980s, the SAD-f frequency increased; (3) SAD and CAD frequencies showed downward trends, with CAD declining more than SAD. The CAD geographical range and frequency were smaller than those of SAD. Rice damage in SAD-f and OD-1 scenarios showed no significant trend, but appeared to have slightly increased. The main agrometeorological disasters affecting rice production in Liaoning Province were delayed cold damage, frost damage or both; (4) a comparison of the rice yield reduction rates of years in which CAD or SAD occurred in more than 50% of stations in Liaoning Province revealed that the yield reduction rates associated with the former were greater than those associated with the latter. CAD had more types, and the occurrences and impacts were more complicated, than for SAD. Compared with SAD, the effects of CAD may be magnified in rice crops, leading to reduced yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89227-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113550PMC
May 2021

Periphery-aware COVID-19 diagnosis with contrastive representation enhancement.

Pattern Recognit 2021 Oct 6;118:108005. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Computer Science, Shanghai Key Lab of Intelligent Information Processing, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Computer-aided diagnosis has been extensively investigated for more rapid and accurate screening during the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic. However, the challenge remains to distinguish COVID-19 in the complex scenario of multi-type pneumonia classification and improve the overall diagnostic performance. In this paper, we propose a novel periphery-aware COVID-19 diagnosis approach with contrastive representation enhancement to identify COVID-19 from influenza-A (H1N1) viral pneumonia, community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and healthy subjects using chest CT images. Our key contributions include: 1) an unsupervised Periphery-aware Spatial Prediction (PSP) task which is designed to introduce important spatial patterns into deep networks; 2) an adaptive Contrastive Representation Enhancement (CRE) mechanism which can effectively capture the intra-class similarity and inter-class difference of various types of pneumonia. We integrate PSP and CRE to obtain the representations which are highly discriminative in COVID-19 screening. We evaluate our approach comprehensively on our constructed large-scale dataset and two public datasets. Extensive experiments on both volume-level and slice-level CT images demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach with PSP and CRE for COVID-19 diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2021.108005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099585PMC
October 2021

Giant chondrosarcoma of the falx in an adolescent: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 8;12:137. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, United States.

Background: Intracranial chondrosarcomas are slowly growing malignant cartilaginous tumors that are especially rare in adolescents.

Case Description: A 19-year-old woman with no medical history presented with symptoms of intermittent facial twitching and progressive generalized weakness for 6 months. The patient's physical examination was unremarkable. Imaging revealed a large bifrontal mass arising from the falx cerebri, with significant compression of both cerebral hemispheres and downward displacement of the corpus callosum. The patient underwent a bifrontal craniotomy for gross total resection of tumor. Neuropathologic examination revealed a bland cartilaginous lesion most consistent with low-grade chondrosarcoma. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged to home on postoperative day 3.

Conclusion: This is an unusual case of an extra-axial, non-skull base, low-grade chondrosarcoma presenting as facial spasm in an adolescent patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_898_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088535PMC
April 2021

Combined Transcatheter Replacement of Aortic Root and Mitral Valve in an Acute Preclinical Study.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

The study aimed to evaluate the early feasibility of endovascular replacement of ascending aorta, aortic root (including aortic valve, AV), and mitral valve (MV) in one procedure with two self-expandable prostheses. Aortic valved-fenestrated-bifurcated (AVFB) and MV endografts of 10 healthy pigs (60-65kg) were customized and delivered through transapical and transseptal approach, respectively. Both endografts were successfully deployed in nine pigs (90%). Eight survived over 24 h, and the acute success rate was 80%. There was no significant increase in the mean trans-aortic, trans-mitral, and trans-LVOT pressure gradients after the operation. No coronary artery or LVOT obstruction and other electrocardiographic abnormality occurred. The transvalvular and paravalvular leak rates were low for both valves. Endovascular replacement of ascending aorta, AV, and MV in one procedure might be feasible. Combined transcatheter replacement of aortic root and mitral valve in one procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-021-10129-5DOI Listing
May 2021

High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification with RmRMR-Enhanced Bag of Visual Words.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 15;2021:7589481. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CICAEET, School of Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

A ReliefF improved mRMR (RmRMR) criterion-based bag of visual words (BoVW) algorithm is proposed to filter the visual words that are generated with high information redundancy for remote sensing image classification. First, the contribution degree of each word to the classification is represented by its weighting parameter, which is assigned using the ReliefF algorithm. Next, the relevance and redundancy of each word are calculated according to the mRMR criterion with the addition of a dictionary balance coefficient. Finally, a novel dictionary discriminant function is established, and the globally discriminative small-scale dictionary subsets are filtered and obtained. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces the amount of redundant information in the dictionary and better balances the relevance and redundancy of words to improve the feature descriptive power of dictionary subsets and markedly increase the classification precision on a high-resolution remote sensing image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7589481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062175PMC
July 2021

Individual-based morphological brain network organization and its association with autistic symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 2;42(10):3282-3294. Epub 2021 May 2.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Individual-based morphological brain networks built from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflect synchronous maturation intensities between anatomical regions at the individual level. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a socio-cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorder with high neuroanatomical heterogeneity, but the specific patterns of morphological networks in ASD remain largely unexplored at the individual level. In this study, individual-based morphological networks were constructed by using high-resolution structural MRI data from 40 young children with ASD (age range: 2-8 years) and 38 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched typically developing children (TDC). Measurements were recorded as threefold. Results showed that compared with TDC, young children with ASD exhibited lower values of small-worldness (i.e., σ) of individual-level morphological brain networks, increased morphological connectivity in cortico-striatum-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuitry, and decreased morphological connectivity in the cortico-cortical network. In addition, morphological connectivity abnormalities can predict the severity of social communication deficits in young children with ASD, thus confirming an associational impact at the behavioral level. These findings suggest that the morphological brain network in the autistic developmental brain is inefficient in segregating and distributing information. The results also highlight the crucial role of abnormal morphological connectivity patterns in the socio-cognitive deficits of ASD and support the possible use of the aberrant developmental patterns of morphological brain networks in revealing new clinically-relevant biomarkers for ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193534PMC
July 2021
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